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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM.pptx

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM.pptx

  1. 1. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM NAME:-FIZA NAAZ USN NO:-1AN19AT008 SUBJECT:-ELECTIVE 4
  2. 2. WHAT IS GIS • The acronym GIS most commonly refers to Geographic Information Systems, the interconnected hardware, software, users, data, and procedures that together form a system for geospatial analysis. GIS can be used to study, analyse, and visualize any phenomenon that has a spatial component. • A GIS is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation, analysis, modelling, representation and display of georeferenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources. • Geographic information systems have emerged in the last decade as an essential tool for urban and resource planning and management. Their capacity to store, retrieve, analyse, model and map large areas with huge volumes of spatial data has led to an extraordinary proliferation of applications. • Geographic information systems are now used for land use planning, utilities management, ecosystems modelling, landscape assessment and planning, transportation and infrastructure planning, market analysis, visual impact analysis, facilities management, tax assessment, real estate analysis and many other applications.
  3. 3. GIS APPLICATIONS • MAPPING LOCATIONS: GIS can be used to map locations. GIS allows the creation of maps through automated mapping, data capture, and surveying analysis tools. • MAPPING QUANTITIES: People map quantities, like where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria and take action, or to see the relationships between places. This gives an additional level of information beyond simply mapping the locations of features. • MAPPING DENSITIES: While you can see concentrations by simply mapping the locations of features, in areas with many features it may be difficult to see which areas have a higher concentration than others. A density map lets you measure the number of features using a uniform areal unit, such as acres or square miles, so you can clearly see the distribution. • FINDING DISTANCES: GIS can be used to find out what's occurring within a set distance of a feature. • MAPPING AND MONITORING CHANGE: GIS can be used to map the change in an area to anticipate future conditions, decide on a course of action, or to evaluate the results of an action or policy.
  4. 4. GEOSPATIAL DATA • Geospatial data has both spatial and thematic components. Conceptually, geographic data can be broken up in two elements: observation or entity and attribute or variable. • GIS have to be able to manage both elements. Spatial component: The observations have two aspects in its localization: absolute localization based in a coordinates system and topological relationship referred to other observations. • Example: The Department of Geomatics is located at the particular coordinate X,Y, or, The Department is located between Grattan Street and Old Engineering Building. • A GIS is able to manage both while computer assisted cartography packages only manage the absolute one. • Thematic component: The variables or attributes can be studied considering the thematic aspect (statistics), the locational aspect (spatial analysis) or both (GIS). DATA FOR GIS APPLICATIONS INCLUDES: • Digitized and scanned data • Databases • GPS field sampling of attributes • Remote sensing and aerial photography
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF GIS IN ARCHITECTURE • A curriculum that joins CAAD and GIS will have the positive effects on bridging the two worlds towards inventive solutions to our real world problems. • Working for a place-making architecture requires a consideration of local conditions in terms of buildings materials, socio-economic and culture specificities of local societies and sensitivity of physical environment. • Imagination and creativity in the information age will inevitably not stop or be hindered by the consideration of local conditions. • Providing a continuum of choices on realism to CAAD users is a desirable goal in the teaching of architecture. • The hypothesis of this study is to show that a hybrid approach of CAAD and GIS would change the present trend in the automated architectural education towards a contextual architecture and a place-making process (Paar 2006). • The introduction of GIS in architectural design as a support tool in design studios will have a long- lasting impact on the raising of the students sensitivity towards the surrounding environment.
  6. 6. Application of GIS in Architecture 1. Line of Sight – Planning high-rise buildings so they don’t obstruct the view of the mountains in Portland using line of sight. GIS helps architects plan the line of sight perfectly so that the buildings do not obstruct important features in the horizon. APPLICATIONS OF GIS – 2. Exposure to Noise – Orchestrating urban mobility plans with special consideration for the impact of environmental noise using OrbisGIS. GIS helps urban high-rise buildings to be designed and positioned in areas that have little or no interference to the environment. 3. Development Planning – Making citizens happy through smart development planning and understanding the bigger picture. GIS helps in planning various development projects in urban areas and helping citizens understand the importance of urban development holistically. 4. Crowd Simulation – Mastering the collective dynamics of interacting objects in urban phenomena at the scale of individual households, people, and units of real estate and at time-scales approaching “real time”. 5. Solar Exposure – Harvesting light to assess the suitability of installing solar (photovoltaic) panels on roofs using 3D city models and geometric information such as the tilt, orientation and area of the roof. 6. City Engine – Assessing feasibility and plan implementation using Esri’s City Engine improving urban planning, architecture, and overall design. GIS helps to improve the overall urban plan by assessing the overall feasibility of any project yet to be implemented. 7. Pedestrian Behavior – Discerning the movements of pedestrians and urban behavior throughout the city. GIS can help discern the possible movement of pedestrians and vehicles and help in creating artistic impressions of cities. 8. Shadow Analysis – Diagnosing how much shadow will be casted in the pre-construction phase onto its surrounding using Bentley Map. GIS helps create exact impressions of shadows that would be cast during every preconstruction phase of a project. 9. Parking Availability – Orchestrating a parking available by collecting the percent of spaces occupied versus search time. GIS can also be used to determine the number of parking spaces that would be available and the amount of time that would be required to locate one. 10. Integration of GIS and BIM – Operating a facility with BIM (building information modeling) because of its ability to analyze information and integrate data from different systems. 11. Tangible Landscape – Experimenting with the potential impact of different building configurations with an easy-to-use 3D sketching tool. GIS can also be used to create life-size sketches of buildings and create proper models of the actual buildings that need to be constructed. 12. Geodesign – Conceptualizing building plans with focus on stakeholder participation and collaboration to closely follow natural systems. 13. Propagation of Noise in Urban Environments – Modelling 3D data to answer how urban citizens are harmed by noise pollution, and how to mitigate it with noise barriers. GIS can give a proper picture of the actual area where noise pollution is likely to affect the citizens and suggest measures to avoid such.
  7. 7. VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF DATA In the vector based model ,geospatial data is represented in the form of co-ordinates. In vector data, the basic units of spatial information are points, lines (arcs) and polygons. Each of these units is composed simply as a series of one or more co-ordinate points, for example, a line is a collection of related points, and a polygon is a collection of related lines. • co-ordinate Pairs of numbers expressing horizontal distances along orthogonal axes, or triplets of numbers measuring horizontal and vertical distances, or n-numbers along n-axes expressing a precise location in n-dimensional space. Co- ordinates generally represent locations on the earth's surface relative to other locations. • point A zero-dimensional abstraction of an object represented by a single X,Y co-ordinate. A point normally represents a geographic feature too small to be displayed as a line or area; for example, the location of a building location on a small-scale map, or the location of a service cover on a medium scale map. • line A set of ordered co-ordinates that represent the shape of geographic features too narrow to be displayed as an area at the given scale (contours, street centerlines, or streams), or linear features with no area (county boundary lines). A lines is synonymous with an arc. • arc An ARC/INFO term that is used synonymously with line. polygon A feature used to represent areas. • A polygon is defined by the lines that make up its boundary and a point inside its boundary for identification. Polygons have attributes that describe the geographic feature they represent.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO CITY • CITY:- KOLAR • Elevation: 849 m • Area: 46.56 km² • District: Kolar • Area code: 563101 • Kolar or Kolara is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of Kolar district. The city is known for its milk production and the gold mines. It is also known for Someshwara temple and the Kolaramma temple.
  9. 9. STEPS TO GENERATE CONTOUR - STEP 1 : BHUVAN NRSC STEP 2 : OPEN DATA ARCHIVE STEP 3 : SELECT SUBCATEGORY -CARTOSAL-1 STEP 4 : SELECT PRODUCT - CartoDEM VERSION -2 R1
  10. 10. STEP 5 :SEARCH LOACTION STEP 6 : SELECT AREA - TILES STEP 7 : START AND SELECT THE TILES AND STOP AND NEXT STEP 8 :SELECTION FOR BACKLOG AND DOWNLOAD REFRENCES:-https://geogra.uah.es/patxi/gisweb/GISModule/GISTheory.pdf https://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/home/index.php https://maps.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/india/
  11. 11. Digitizing in GIS is the process of converting geographic data either from a hardcopy or a scanned image into vector data by tracing the features. During the digitzing process, features from the traced map or image are captured as coordinates in either point, line, or polygon format. DIGITIZATION IN ARCGIS WHY DIGITIZATION IS IMPORTANT ? Digitization is a crucial technique for data and storage in GIS Development. It is used to capture the coordinates in point, line, or polygon format. The process of Digitization is expensive and time-consuming. Digitization is converting hardcopy / scanned copy or satellite/Aerial base maps into vector data. GIS FEATURES • POINTS • HEADS UP DIGITIZING • LINES-Starting and ending points with shape vertices as needed • POLYGONS- 3 or more lines joined to form closed area DIGITIZING FEATURES 1. Created in ARC analog 2. Add spatial reference information 3. Add new fields 4. Feature class created
  12. 12. CREATING FEATURE LAYERS Within Arc Map: • Locate an existing data layer that is similar to the layer that you wish to create. • Start editing the existing layer, then digitize the new feature • Select the new feature Export the selection to a shape file. • the shape file- fields already present and map projection is already defined ` DIGITIZING 1. CREATE BASE MAP –VECTOR FACTORS OR IMAGES 3. ADD EDITOR TOOLBAR 2. ADD NEW FEATURE CLASS 4. START EDITING 5. BEGIN DIGITIZING 6. CLICK POINT (TREE) LOCATION 7 STOP EDITING 8. START EDITING AND POPULATE FIELDS IN TABLE
  13. 13. ` ADVANCED DIGITIZING TOOLS 1. Specify angle and length • Lines and polygons • Straight segment tool • Type length and angle 2. Snapping tool 3. trace tool 4. Generalise tool 5. Smooth tool 6. cut tool
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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