WHAT IS GIS
• The acronym GIS most commonly refers
to Geographic Information Systems, the
interconnected hardware, software, users,
data, and procedures that together form a
system for geospatial analysis. GIS can be
used to study, analyse, and visualize any
phenomenon that has a spatial component.
• A GIS is a system of hardware, software and
procedures to facilitate the management,
manipulation, analysis, modelling, representation
and display of georeferenced data to solve
complex problems regarding planning and
management of resources.
• Geographic information systems have emerged in
the last decade as an essential tool for urban and
resource planning and management. Their
capacity to store, retrieve, analyse, model and
map large areas with huge volumes of spatial data
has led to an extraordinary proliferation of
• Geographic information systems are now used for
land use planning, utilities management,
ecosystems modelling, landscape assessment and
planning, transportation and infrastructure
planning, market analysis, visual impact analysis,
facilities management, tax assessment, real estate
analysis and many other applications.
• MAPPING LOCATIONS: GIS can be used to map
locations. GIS allows the creation of maps
through automated mapping, data capture, and
surveying analysis tools.
• MAPPING QUANTITIES: People map quantities,
like where the most and least are, to find places
that meet their criteria and take action, or to
see the relationships between places. This gives
an additional level of information beyond simply
mapping the locations of features.
• MAPPING DENSITIES: While you can see
concentrations by simply mapping the locations
of features, in areas with many features it may
be difficult to see which areas have a higher
concentration than others. A density map lets
you measure the number of features using a
uniform areal unit, such as acres or square
miles, so you can clearly see the distribution.
• FINDING DISTANCES: GIS can be used to find out
what's occurring within a set distance of a
• MAPPING AND MONITORING CHANGE: GIS can
be used to map the change in an area to
anticipate future conditions, decide on a course
of action, or to evaluate the results of an action
• Geospatial data has both spatial and
thematic components. Conceptually,
geographic data can be broken up in
two elements: observation or entity
and attribute or variable.
• GIS have to be able to manage both
elements. Spatial component: The
observations have two aspects in its
localization: absolute localization
based in a coordinates system and
topological relationship referred to
• Example: The Department of
Geomatics is located at the particular
coordinate X,Y, or, The Department is
located between Grattan Street and
Old Engineering Building.
• A GIS is able to manage both while
computer assisted cartography
packages only manage the absolute
• Thematic component: The variables
or attributes can be studied
considering the thematic aspect
(statistics), the locational aspect
(spatial analysis) or both (GIS).
DATA FOR GIS APPLICATIONS INCLUDES:
• Digitized and scanned data
• GPS field sampling of attributes
• Remote sensing and aerial photography
IMPORTANCE OF GIS IN ARCHITECTURE
• A curriculum that joins CAAD and GIS will have
the positive effects on bridging the two worlds
towards inventive solutions to our real world
• Working for a place-making architecture
requires a consideration of local conditions in
terms of buildings materials, socio-economic and
culture specificities of local societies and
sensitivity of physical environment.
• Imagination and creativity in the information age
will inevitably not stop or be hindered by the
consideration of local conditions.
• Providing a continuum of choices on realism to
CAAD users is a desirable goal in the teaching of
• The hypothesis of this study is to show that a
hybrid approach of CAAD and GIS would change
the present trend in the automated architectural
education towards a contextual architecture and
a place-making process (Paar 2006).
• The introduction of GIS in architectural design as
a support tool in design studios will have a long-
lasting impact on the raising of the students
sensitivity towards the surrounding
Application of GIS in Architecture
1. Line of Sight – Planning high-rise buildings so they don’t obstruct the view of the mountains in Portland
using line of sight. GIS helps architects plan the line of sight perfectly so that the buildings do not obstruct
important features in the horizon. APPLICATIONS OF GIS –
2. Exposure to Noise – Orchestrating urban mobility plans with special consideration for the impact of
environmental noise using OrbisGIS. GIS helps urban high-rise buildings to be designed and positioned in
areas that have little or no interference to the environment.
3. Development Planning – Making citizens happy through smart development planning and understanding
the bigger picture. GIS helps in planning various development projects in urban areas and helping citizens
understand the importance of urban development holistically.
4. Crowd Simulation – Mastering the collective dynamics of interacting objects in urban phenomena at the
scale of individual households, people, and units of real estate and at time-scales approaching “real time”.
5. Solar Exposure – Harvesting light to assess the suitability of installing solar (photovoltaic) panels on roofs
using 3D city models and geometric information such as the tilt, orientation and area of the roof.
6. City Engine – Assessing feasibility and plan implementation using Esri’s City Engine improving urban
planning, architecture, and overall design. GIS helps to improve the overall urban plan by assessing the
overall feasibility of any project yet to be implemented.
7. Pedestrian Behavior – Discerning the movements of pedestrians and urban behavior throughout the city.
GIS can help discern the possible movement of pedestrians and vehicles and help in creating artistic
impressions of cities.
8. Shadow Analysis – Diagnosing how much shadow will be casted in the pre-construction phase onto its
surrounding using Bentley Map. GIS helps create exact impressions of shadows that would be cast during
every preconstruction phase of a project.
9. Parking Availability – Orchestrating a parking available by collecting the percent of spaces occupied
versus search time. GIS can also be used to determine the number of parking spaces that would be
available and the amount of time that would be required to locate one.
10. Integration of GIS and BIM – Operating a facility with BIM (building information modeling) because of its
ability to analyze information and integrate data from different systems.
11. Tangible Landscape – Experimenting with the potential impact of different building configurations with an
easy-to-use 3D sketching tool. GIS can also be used to create life-size sketches of buildings and create
proper models of the actual buildings that need to be constructed.
12. Geodesign – Conceptualizing building plans with focus on stakeholder participation and collaboration to
closely follow natural systems.
13. Propagation of Noise in Urban Environments – Modelling 3D data to answer how urban citizens are
harmed by noise pollution, and how to mitigate it with noise barriers. GIS can give a proper picture of the
actual area where noise pollution is likely to affect the citizens and suggest measures to avoid such.
VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF DATA
In the vector based model ,geospatial data is represented in the
form of co-ordinates. In vector data, the basic units of spatial
information are points, lines (arcs) and polygons. Each of these
units is composed simply as a series of one or more co-ordinate
points, for example, a line is a collection of related points, and a
polygon is a collection of related lines.
• co-ordinate Pairs of numbers expressing horizontal distances
along orthogonal axes, or triplets of numbers measuring
horizontal and vertical distances, or n-numbers along n-axes
expressing a precise location in n-dimensional space. Co-
ordinates generally represent locations on the earth's surface
relative to other locations.
• point A zero-dimensional abstraction of an object
represented by a single X,Y co-ordinate. A point normally
represents a geographic feature too small to be displayed as a
line or area; for example, the location of a building location
on a small-scale map, or the location of a service cover on a
medium scale map.
• line A set of ordered co-ordinates that represent the shape of
geographic features too narrow to be displayed as an area at
the given scale (contours, street centerlines, or streams), or
linear features with no area (county boundary lines). A lines is
synonymous with an arc.
• arc An ARC/INFO term that is used synonymously with line.
polygon A feature used to represent areas.
• A polygon is defined by the lines that make up its boundary
and a point inside its boundary for identification. Polygons
have attributes that describe the geographic feature they
INTRODUCTION TO CITY
• CITY:- KOLAR
• Elevation: 849 m
• Area: 46.56 km²
• District: Kolar
• Area code: 563101
• Kolar or Kolara is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the
headquarters of Kolar district. The city is known for its milk
production and the gold mines. It is also known for Someshwara
temple and the Kolaramma temple.
STEPS TO GENERATE CONTOUR -
STEP 1 : BHUVAN NRSC STEP 2 : OPEN DATA ARCHIVE
STEP 3 : SELECT SUBCATEGORY -CARTOSAL-1 STEP 4 : SELECT PRODUCT - CartoDEM VERSION -2 R1
STEP 5 :SEARCH LOACTION STEP 6 : SELECT AREA - TILES
STEP 7 : START AND SELECT THE TILES AND STOP AND NEXT STEP 8 :SELECTION FOR BACKLOG AND DOWNLOAD
Digitizing in GIS is the process of converting geographic data either from
a hardcopy or a scanned image into vector data by tracing the features.
During the digitzing process, features from the traced map or image are
captured as coordinates in either point, line, or polygon format.
DIGITIZATION IN ARCGIS
WHY DIGITIZATION IS IMPORTANT ?
Digitization is a crucial technique for data and storage in GIS Development. It
is used to capture the coordinates in point, line, or polygon format. The process
of Digitization is expensive and time-consuming. Digitization is converting
hardcopy / scanned copy or satellite/Aerial base maps into vector data.
• HEADS UP DIGITIZING
• LINES-Starting and ending points with shape vertices as needed
• POLYGONS- 3 or more lines joined to form closed area
1. Created in ARC analog 2. Add spatial reference information 3. Add new fields 4. Feature class created
CREATING FEATURE LAYERS
Within Arc Map:
• Locate an existing data layer that is similar to the layer that you wish to
• Start editing the existing layer, then digitize the new feature
• Select the new feature Export the selection to a shape file.
• the shape file- fields already present and map projection is already defined
1. CREATE BASE MAP –VECTOR FACTORS OR
3. ADD EDITOR TOOLBAR
2. ADD NEW FEATURE
4. START EDITING
5. BEGIN DIGITIZING
6. CLICK POINT (TREE) LOCATION
7 STOP EDITING
8. START EDITING AND POPULATE FIELDS IN
ADVANCED DIGITIZING TOOLS
1. Specify angle and length
• Lines and polygons
• Straight segment tool
• Type length and angle
2. Snapping tool 3. trace tool
4. Generalise tool 5. Smooth tool 6. cut tool
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