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Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

National Institute of Soils.  Ir...
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C urrini ary

Introduction

1. The status of soil resources in Algeria

1.1. Overview of the geography of Algeria
...
Introduction

 

Knowledge of soil resources is critical for decision maker. 

Classification (type) G°V31'nment
Distributi...
Introduction

 

How much do we know about soil resources in Algeria ? 
National land cover map (IN SID,  2011)

Agricultu...
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The available data is mostly old and does not cover

the entire territory of the country. 

The heteroge...
Introduction

 

Challenges & priorities for sustainable soil management

Natural factors
Erosion,  Desertification,  Salin...
The status of soil
resources in Algeria
1.1. Overview of the geography of Algeria

Localization in North Africa
Surrounded by 7 countries
1200 km of seafront
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Soil resources and sustainable soil management in Algeria, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - Atef Amriche

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This presentation was made during the NENA soil partnerhip Conference that took place in Amman, Jordan 17-19 June 2014. This presentation was made by Atef Amriche, and it presents the soil resources and sustainable soil management in Algeria.

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Soil resources and sustainable soil management in Algeria, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - Atef Amriche

  1. 1. Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development National Institute of Soils. Irrigation and Drainage Soil resources and sustainable soil management in Algeria
  2. 2. l l l C urrini ary Introduction 1. The status of soil resources in Algeria 1.1. Overview of the geography of Algeria 1.2. Agricultural land resources and statistics 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria 2. Needs and priorities to promote sustainable soil management 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management in Algeria 2.2. Actions to improve natural resources management Conclusion l ‘l . ll l i I 1 ld ,1 ‘i I . ., [4 / ,;A-‘ / in ‘H
  3. 3. Introduction Knowledge of soil resources is critical for decision maker. Classification (type) G°V31'nment Distribution (localization) Resnanfner 5 Fertility (physico-chemical properties) Insntnnons Potential, Aptitude (to specific crops) Tecnninians Land cover etc. Fannerss managers It helps - improve natural resources management; - better plan agricultural development actions; - intervene where appropriate to improve productivity, preserve natural resources and estimate yields etc - Cadastral applications. "1 l i‘ -llll | l l / - l ; lll ‘ H l ‘ ii ‘‘ ldx . -« | i ' 1 ill. » i . “ . ll « _ 1 ll / /r, 'l mi‘ ‘N l ll / I,ll ll lnrlll ‘- / ‘”l i ‘ll ll) / ,~‘»‘li. l.. l ii
  4. 4. Introduction How much do we know about soil resources in Algeria ? National land cover map (IN SID, 2011) Agricultural land classification initiative (INSID, ongoing) Covers about 660 000 ha using a scale of 1/ 20 000 Other Soil Studies (ANRH, 1963-2004) Scale 1/100 000 ~ 5.3m ha Scale 1/50 000 ~ 1.7m ha Scale 1/20 000 ~ 0.8m ha Scale 1/ 10 000 ~ 70 000 ha Land zoning map North Algeria (INSID, 2002) Soil map North Algeria (Durant, 1954) ,3 l ‘I ; ,‘| t‘, ./ L l ’| l.‘ _ " l lll / ,»; ,-‘‘l‘l/ illll ii” ll‘) ll / l,ll "i, l‘/ ,.‘, .ll ’-ll‘ ll il ’ J“ i‘ l lill ll
  5. 5. l Introduction l The available data is mostly old and does not cover the entire territory of the country. The heterogeneity of the available data in terms of classification system and scale or resolution poses a huge problem when integrating it into a national GIS. mm
  6. 6. Introduction Challenges & priorities for sustainable soil management Natural factors Erosion, Desertification, Salinity, Loss of soil fertility etc. Human factor Urbanization, pollution, bad agricultural practices etc. The main priority of the government is to reach food security. i In l l ll l I _ l , ‘MN ‘‘ I m: l| ‘m l‘ | / _, H ‘ l , lI H‘ p . U / ,4‘- ml in l / ~ ~ I l l
  7. 7. The status of soil resources in Algeria
  8. 8. 1.1. Overview of the geography of Algeria Localization in North Africa Surrounded by 7 countries 1200 km of seafront Area 2.38m km’ Three classes or types of climate - Mediterranean climate (Coastal zones and northern mountains) - Semiarid climate (Highlands) - Arid climate (Sahara Desert) mu
  9. 9. Institul National dc: Sol: dc Plrrigplion ct III Drainage (INSID) Dépurtcnnell d‘Agro| ue'téoro| ogi¢ U Precipitation Map 1986-2005 l. II(3I-‘. Nl)I'I | ’luuomt‘lnr lnfennlrr at 50 mm | '|u ammo: cmipmc arm 50 ct llxi mm I'| unum¢1nc culnpmc cntrr Illl cl 200 mm '”‘«. , l’| u mmclnc ml-npn‘~c cum lulu cl Run mm l'lu lolnclnc uunpmc cmrr ill! :1 Jill mm I'Iu Inmt1m‘ mlnpm: cnlrc Mill ct ‘ill mm | ’|uuomclrl: conlpnv: mm 500 on 000 mm Plus mnlémc rnnlpmc cum mu fl mu mm Plus uumt-inc rumpus: cnlrc mu :1 Illa) mm Plusiumclnc supcncurc 1 I000 mm llmm: walla); Llmilc fronnétc EclInIl:1I24MllI) .4. u nan
  10. 10. oI_I-arr OJ. ... ... f’-U. * I ‘ .7 r‘. IlIi''I| _‘l‘. Iulll| I , ‘ ’4 ‘ x l 2 .1." ram V) » u u , Mums ulnln '. 4 . ,,_, ,, T 3 mm. -.u: ‘ ' ‘ ' " IIIJVD W I u. .. urunmovun ‘“ '~ " I mu“ / ‘ V. ‘ ~< 2-0 -. I-o / W. tutu-1 ‘ '. / E u-. ..— -_ /4: my 9-no __~_: u:_o-_. / — ____ I: .‘ 3;: -4:01 _ / I . .._ / — -4-. —— ‘:2 : ‘ -. » ‘so. .. / W. -7'. 9.. . . :v-/ ‘ 4! ‘-V T V I V ‘2.2.. . ,'__ __ , _._ 3‘~_“”‘ : _ anon Gary E‘ * i--~ V; :: :-" :7. 2:. -it---— ' “'1 --. -/ . -~° " "‘ _— gnu. -u-gq has has l . .—a: —_-‘ , ___‘ ---on >/ o| :- : T. .. 3- cl. .. . 5 ~‘. ~ / . . . ~.. .. ~-—-. ..__ l_l l . . , . ._ . . - ’--—- -* gnu-ufi 4 3 ‘K J I . >_. _ : - . ».. y 4.. / J f _ n-III-V’ ' ‘I 1-0-- 1 I I L ’ I’ 1 I -. ..n. ... — I
  11. 11. 3. O. 3. 6. Q. o ClK"Li Au . .o T. .. iv. .. luv aovusf K63‘ on TV. I K(ll H. av Li-l 13ol. :.so. .'n l . ‘v= 1 . - 7» ; P . .‘. . A’ U P ll! .| Boudocaan. °v"’§‘, ‘§“f 7 '_~‘ j_*—: , ANNABA "LQER ‘ V ‘ 4 I . V G :7. I.: . U "W ‘ . , Lrgn; ' ’ ‘ Fl Kw-lr l *— ‘ o < , » ~"‘R"V‘3 . l mum: l’ ll ll‘3“"""‘ oGuvrro1.rr V-" , l ‘ ‘. ~ bot-M-: -ma E. °”5“‘. "l 3 ' ': " i " ogr, ; _ ”‘ " NJ‘-”’>7. ' ‘ ‘ ‘ '4" '» V . Fa g. -V-l_'H Mm an NT. 5 ‘Vii Kurllcl ‘ ‘Kouc :2 3-4‘ Arm g ll '01‘ 3 , .'. ‘ (vi S»: -6'3 CV l-9'-ll: ?‘<* ilk-" . " * . 0ul, _.. _n u . . Rr~uc. ..'1 1 L A 1‘ _‘_Lfifig(‘umv°. ')(I L. ‘lf'7li Flknry _ ( r “_"J_; l ‘ - _ _. , i . . ll lam on/ ‘N . gg Ob , Slat Soul in “T ‘ a ‘N / ‘ ° . . A pr . ‘ 'a(x""'l"3l ’ ’ C 7: I “ . ‘ . v / ' "‘ W" MFA)’ IJI . Ll >l. m'r. : 1‘ ~ ~ - ‘I “mm”. Mm , ,:_~_N, jR 3.«rn_, l . TWq: . . }: + H 7 ‘ / . F‘ g ’ ' ‘ i "-. _Y' ‘ t‘_‘)/ "f5‘>tf"‘"*"‘ )- . C. M7""° A. -inn-con TE1l’LL1LA ' l’ ‘ll’. l Ll0U'. .x/ .1 n I _, - Am . __ V , 1 R5,‘. -CE“ i- I ‘A 0 S ¢D, mI_~. / . . _, A>. .—-1 , “‘I‘ N‘ ll/7 ’ I ‘ ~4 / %: ' 2 oh! M»: ~;"’1-, «' 4 7 ‘ / C A'r1I'-ElGk. o"‘1‘l= '5‘ X Z V) X K Go . / . _ . . - / / ‘V )> / Han H'rn-3' . . / ‘ , / I-—* “"' */ C-‘| Nii"»1A V’ -- __—-Z ‘ "Lr V ‘ ' . 7/‘ A 2* N‘ ‘ F-. I’ lbi SHAH _ . l‘Ii‘. ‘f'$iV'. ll1 on. ’-locum! , v. .,_, .- . ‘ I l i l i in l l l l ) | / l | l I H ‘ l V ‘
  12. 12. liltlk - - 1 . ~: 1 *1 ~. . . . o . v 7 -. 0‘-n-‘fW*‘*‘ 3,-vr-¢t‘ r~-- r -1°C n~—--non r--- r Q-xn-, ,---~t-, « no . i / 1 , _ 1 , r , I l V 7.4 ——~. ..—-~. z.. _-_. .., .-. . . -~. «.. ._. .~. ... .». .— -~/ L/sl -. «—~-r~/ L/ ~a. —-. .v—- Au)-vvvv. -ya v. .aLa L) ‘i- I%TTT”7” ’ " ’ ’ " Land distribution Surface 21 4 452 185 Percenta e ’ Pcrcenta e 2 104% Occu ation Herbaceous crops 3 044 388 865 146 73 430 26 626 8 461 775 32 969 435 1 458 095 42 889 305 2 498 085 4 273 670 188513040 238174100 7,1 % 2,0 °/ o 0 2 ‘Va 0,1 % 19,7 °/ o 76,9 "/0 3,4 "/0 100,0 “- o Fallow land Orchards Vineyards 7 . 1-’ , l‘t: l.. :.. _i. . . Natural prairies Used . ~"gl'icllltl1l'al Total Used Agricultural Area Pasturage (U 2:‘ <: E § ‘.3 .2 3-4 on <2 3 '5 r~ Non-productive Agricultural Land Total Agricultural Area Steppe Forests 18,0 ‘lb 1,0 % 1,8 °/ n 79,1 °/ o Other Non Agricultural Land Source Stats | . l MADR 2013
  13. 13. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria The soil classification map covers North Algeria and has been a reference for many other studies. The study was conducted by J. H. Durand and published in 1954. The author used a scale of 1/2 500 000. Suitable for regional management but not as much if we need detailed information. The soils were classified according to the French system CPCS. l l . l ‘ , “ V i ll’ ‘ I "1'. J’
  14. 14. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria Soil classes map of North Algeria "omu~nJ. u.. ws4" '4" kilometres I_[G[‘n': [I IIIJLLII Illll ITS. : Id 901 I. lII'I'[ hl'l. - you nun us sou mun an m IIfl. Ii3s - , ,,, m,. , "_ - , ,m_, M “(B - ‘°‘-“ ‘" "‘” 2 “‘L“ ‘" “"~‘ '" ‘"7"’-‘ - lllll III: who - cm was in nuns n uu | .u 90'3" *l“'’' L‘ - rm-mucus - was A unto: I[. I(. 'I - An sou. canon Ls n souunnto. - “W-‘ "-'-' ‘“"‘ 2 “°‘-‘ “ ‘°""'”-‘ sou-touns nut ruuiurim - uuou-1' nu «Ian :1 sountn - “"5 "'“ ‘ ml‘ “"“ - ‘"5 ‘"1" - Mus tour“ I'Il. tII - um sou (’AI. l‘Afll3 n uuouulut - ’°'-" “-""““ "“""‘ '3 - ""“"‘ " ‘“n 2 non omuux - nu. » ovum u I nun
  15. 15. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria - The agricultural land zoning map of North Algeria was realized by the National institute of soils, irrigation and drainage (IN SID) at a scale of 1/1 000 000. It combines three layers of data: - soil map of North Algeria (Durant, 1954); - climate data (ONM), and - land occupation data. V‘ i la ‘ l ‘ I “ I, i
  16. 16. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria
  17. 17. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria - The National Agency of water resources (ANRI-I) conducted many soil studies between 1963 and 2004 to support agricultural land development using irrigation. There are approximately 220 soil studies that combine soil physico-chemical properties, geomorphologic features and climatic parameters. The soils are then classified in five categories depending on their ability for irrigation.
  18. 18. 1.3- Current knowledge of soil rests 1f. ‘C€S in Algeria 7 , mm 2|XE! H12?! P£2Z. I€‘llflfllillrfllllilllllll IIIDIIUIEIIIE um mu f_ -‘—. ~.: ~.. rv-v-— . __ 4 ’ 7 ‘_ x ' TE-3:93": " ~ I’ ‘ . ~.'. '/" _ --T / . _ J‘- ; ~ — V A/ .. . . _ -7 « . - / f < L ‘J? _; _~ ‘ ( - . .5 ' w~ A ‘ ‘- I / ‘— I 7 ; % ’ , ' ’ 1 ‘( “‘ , I / ' r ’ '~. I / ‘- 2 -. _ ) f » .1. ;7«; '.: /// ‘.9. 1/ . '. ~;: ? _ V " ’ T” * / ’ I J-- "'"”""""'. '- ix»; -—-—--— i~—~———— . I ' ‘W-"' V , "‘”‘ pl ‘III ‘l. .‘v ‘ l [~11-----a]. ._. ______, . ‘___, I. H ‘ | .‘ * : ~ I V » ‘ . .. ... ... r.. ..; ... -‘‘ M’ ‘ 1 . ‘ : / /i, |l| ihlx i [H-. _: _h __‘_S_‘_. (_, _ l» l, !,“Il’: “l‘ “ ,
  19. 19. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria The agricultural land classification initiative was implemented to categorize soils according to their agricultural potential (or suitability). This project aims to cover over 8m ha, which corresponds to the used agricultural area in Algeria. A total area of 660 000ha has already been mapped and integrated into a GIS. The methodology used in this project is inspired from the mixed approach of the FAO to determine land suitability. Land value determination combines soil properties, environmental conditions as well as its socioeconomic value. The scale of study is 1/ 20 000 A T 3 ‘‘rl ‘,3 ll’
  20. 20. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria u 3&3! jfijflfilliml -4- -ocsluutrn-nun: n noun-u-o-«Inna ~| 'l'U? IIlj11Iflk‘jfIVCX€ 1. "‘~—‘ cluuunut dutuvuslgflcolos CI-vcduduliugiluunl Vl#C'BT'l buunh l. A:II|01.CVd¢nlflIr,
  21. 21. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria . onalouqahnaduannanallt-canon -$4 uh¢! —uuan: uMII-tvnauuuoaunn jI'WHlf$&KX. IUA‘jfI| ‘QC%
  22. 22. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria . 3-nlolcltbonu; -nuautunuu -$4 uha! Ilun¢KuhtlI--auapustwan V ! t ‘ MIIy¢¢’fi‘l’I-O exist ucharmafimnldnr. Iu0u.8$. l¢ir (W. 1'01)
  23. 23. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria - The Land Cover Map of Algeria, a precious tool for decision makers. - It filled a gap of information and covered urgent needs to implement the MADR program “revitalization of the agricultural and rural sector” (2009) - This is the first study that provides a synoptic View of the entire country. - All the information are integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) -) compatibility with other data. A if C" A‘ I)’
  24. 24. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria - The methodology is based on remote sensing data and Ground Control Points (GCPs) for verification. Satellite image (Digital Number) - Metadata file - Satellite image treatment software (ENVI, ERDAS imagine) Prc—trcatmcnt Satellite image (Reflectance / Radiance) — Identify spectral signatures - Classify different land cover Treatment types
  25. 25. 1.3. Current knowledge of soil resources in Algeria
  26. 26. I‘: Q. ) 1 fl I (W . .-. .- . .-. -- -- ‘I *”““"»°"‘5‘_'1?= “"I, Tl. °f_gg M 0.011 _~°g'‘~I ‘"00 A Ilggrw. at —. ... r. ... .. ... _./ .- . .—srv . /.- L/ ~.l. ~._ xi». -.. . &aau . ... .; . ._. . wu. m on mm Orchards Market gardening Bare soil/ rocks Forests Annual crops (dry F. ) Urban zone I» IIORIH | l»Dl' AIUIIZIUIIJ , _ Olive growing Pasturage Water bodies Mixed farming “ILA! III nlA G“ix»io M‘, II VH| .A A [M i‘I| .
  27. 27. = 1) Land cover Area (ha) Percentage r——r~L: AgI"l‘C'll/ fill‘? Ia Olive growing 18 161 2.72 Orchards 2 225 0.33 Mixed fanning 6 763 1.01 Market gardening 9 377 1.41 Annual crops (dry farming) 356 842 53.49 Used Agricultural Area 393 368 58.96 Pasturage 135 706 20.34 Forests 113 265 16.98 Total Agricultural Area 642 339 96.29 Bare soil/ Rocks 636 0.1 Water bodies 10 983 1.65 1 Urban zone 13 194 1.98 ‘II’ «I I. I I II / « r "'? TotalArea ofthe State 667150 100 11*
  28. 28. Needs and priorities to promote sustainable soil management
  29. 29. The durability of the agricultural production; the maintenance of soil fertility and the protection of land against degradation all depend on land use systems. 1 1
  30. 30. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management Soil erosion caused over time important agricultural land degradation and rendered useless vast areas of the most fertile soils in Algeria In fact, 45% of the Tellian zones (~l2m ha) are affected by erosion (Chebbani et al. , 1999) Erosion amounts and frequencies in Algeria are among the highest in the world. Demmak (1982) estimates soil erosion between 2000 and 4000 Tons/ km2/ year. mm
  31. 31. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management
  32. 32. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management It is either caused by drastic changes in climatic conditions for a relatively long period of time, or due to the action of man and his cattle (intensive grazing). The steppe is affected the most by man induced desertification. Vegetation cover is reduced to a critical limit in these dry areas. mM
  33. 33. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management Soil salinity is a common problem in the westem and southem regions of Algeria. Using groundwater for irrigation had its consequences on the degradation of soil quality in these regions. Irrigated agricultural areas have shown an increase of salinity and/ or sodicity at various rates. MM
  34. 34. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management E & Total Area 30 000 ha Evolution of salinity in 1990 - the “Bas Chelif” area 2006
  35. 35. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management Intensive agriculture and monoculture regime provoke long term losses of soil fertility. Important surfaces in Algeria are affected to cereal production and are cultivated under a monoculture regime and a 2 year rotation consisting of Cerea1/ Fallow (usually mechanical) mm
  36. 36. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management Industrial pollution 5 ' as J p " North Algeria (Oued '>', -1 ‘ E1Harrach) ‘T :1 ti ; :. _
  37. 37. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management Urbanization in the Mitidja plain, North . , ‘f Algeria it‘ _'u
  38. 38. 2.1. Main problems facing sustainable soil management
  39. 39. 2.2. Actions to improve natural resources management Solutions to soil erosion Biologic solutions (Tree plantations)
  40. 40. 2.2. Actions to improve natural resources management _ Mechanical solutions (Rock barrier)
  41. 41. 2.2. Actions to improve natural resources management Considerable efforts have been made by the Algerian government to expand irrigated areas. However, additional efforts must be made to master irrigation techniques and improve their efficiency. ulation 1990 1995 1999 2003 Mark t ard nin 172 820 189 200 194 280 239 111 rchards 151 180 157 420 182 530 248 504 Industrial cro s 9 730 19 480 26 500 20 483 ereals 25 750 48 250 73 310 120 396 Vine ards 5 610 Z 250 Z 640 4 789 Total 365 090 416 600 479 260 7 MM
  42. 42. 2-2- Actions to i1n'_3;:3ve xazficmal resources manageinent l. _ ,7 _ _ _ __ _ __ M! iv‘ . l I: DI TII A’ :1 A NF L Alger HJIHI . _ ul Khrndlrh tih(‘n. | ‘ c -0 u v, _ ‘Oun--urn. .. - -__ '. .. n. ‘ a “ _ ’ L‘ “ "nuunau ‘in. _ . - / . . ‘-. . a 7-. ~:rrfla'. i. .1 " " u ‘u '- . ~' Z. ['11-mini P. ‘ , 55 . l’. nu»-_. l1 "-u. ... .,, ,.. . . . . _. ». 3.'€f; ‘ __( '». «r1.'.1."'n v ("In ‘Y1 rd: (‘W-1_. j‘_-Lu/ /J . ‘-‘$ V‘ . " _, .~‘' ~ I _-', -Q", V ? ‘' . __. -~-" ‘Q. -Iidnm - ix; H U“ ‘'‘_I. -'‘. .‘ ‘, v' ‘u. ’ Lxgfna .1 1! fl ‘ H‘ ‘ . ‘ _ 35 ' / n n ; .'. u pnfnrr , )« . 7: :1’ J1 f'rL-. -.. r iY]‘. ‘): _,v _. u Ab «.11. __. -' In‘ -. -1- pm. » -.11‘ -4‘ nu“ . ('. .e. L-. ,1,. n.u¢ H z- - '. ~ -. .M. .m 10,! L. . . ... ... - Ian . f. :tn'v-‘- -r1 I- | !' Hm
  43. 43. 2.2. Actions to improve natural resources management The ministry of agriculture and rural development (MADR) has dedicated an entire program for “Capacity development” . Technical and research institutes are all involved in this program. Activities include but are not limited to national and regional events (seminars, workshops . ..); farmer advisory groups, technical assistance, field trials, farmer field schools etc. MM
  44. 44. Conclusion Today, The agricultural sector does not have a base document that contains accurate information on soil potential in Algeria. However, the government is investing heavily to fill this gap of information. The “Revitalization of the agricultural and rural sector” is a massive program of the MADR that focuses on many fields. | A/ ‘NH l ’| |.‘ ‘ " / ‘‘’‘ ‘I "ll/ II. /All ! ,| 1, M. I ” / ‘ ‘V
  45. 45. Conclusion - Intensification of cereal production (to cover at least 70% National needs) - Supplement irrigation for cereals (to help stabilize cereal production and reduce the effects of aridity) - Development of market gardening products (mainly Potato) - Development of dry legumes - Economic water management program (to identify the best management plan for water resources) -- l ‘ | || ' l l“ c l i 1 i - l | / - . , g on ) u I l “ H11 ', um. ) ‘Ix ' l I)‘ .1 t . “ . ’ ( i _ ( . ll / n,'‘ / .l‘ H H / Ill)“ ll ‘/ «'1'‘‘' ‘I "‘ ) l l Ill "»“I. l.. ‘ H
  46. 46. ‘I It . ,. ,.‘ Conclusion I " ' ’ ’ ’ ” C’ ’”""" - To modernize our agriculture, increase yields; - To preserve our agricultural land against all forms of degradation; - To better plan agricultural land development actions and find opportunities to expand the used agricultural area. The Algerian government has also invested in international cooperation and promoted the agricultural investments through a multitude of formulas for financial aids for farmers. m ' 4 v w I . /‘'‘i‘‘l: “/«'‘. /'‘I / ‘H. ‘ ”lI| ;/i'i‘'‘I/ Il. H H
  47. 47. », .-. '.l . s-_ -~ : .-. .*. .'n. «. ; -.I «z-: .-. *— L'~: ~:, ' . l . I 1 J I . : I I T. ‘ . +_'f-"-L'4'7" .5.T'. .'A‘«E_’i-/ ‘ : fi,T1QFX'1‘I; '_. “"‘_. ..

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