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MODULE 3 (Aesthetics - Study of Art and Beauty).pdf

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MODULE 3 (Aesthetics - Study of Art and Beauty).pdf

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  2. 2. Lesson 3.1. The Field of Aesthetics Lesson 3.2. Aesthetic Terms and Value Lesson 3.3. Hierarchy of Beauty Lesson 3.4. Western View of Beauty Lesson 3.5. The Eastern Art and Filipino Aesthetics Worldview MODULE 3 Aesthetics: Study of Art and Beauty 2
  3. 3. Readings Lumen Learning. Module 1: What is Art? Simple Book Production. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-sac-artappreciation/chapter/oer-1-11/ Silverman, R. (2008). Learning About Art: A Multicultural Approach. California State University. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/masteryart1/chapter/oer-1-11/ 1. Relate Arts and Aesthetics to the Field of Philosophy. REFERENCES Lesson 3.1. The Field of Aesthetics 3
  4. 4. Art and the Aesthetic Experience Beauty is something we perceive and respond to. It may be a response of awe and amazement, wonder and joy, or something else. It might resemble a “peak experience” or an epiphany. It might happen while watching a sunset or taking in the view from a mountaintop—the list goes on. Here we are referring to a kind of experience, an aesthetic response that is a response to the thing’s representational qualities, whether it is man-made or natural. The subfield of philosophy called aesthetics is devoted to the study and theory of this experience of the beautiful; in the field of psychology, aesthetics is studied in relation to the physiology and psychology of perception. Chapter Overview 4
  5. 5. Aesthetic analysis is a careful investigation of the qualities which belong to objects and events that evoke an aesthetic response. The aesthetic response is the thoughts and feelings initiated because of the character of these qualities and the particular ways they are organized and experienced perceptually. The aesthetic experience that we get from the world at large is different than the art- based aesthetic experience. It is important to recognize that we are not saying that the natural wonder experience is bad or lesser than the art world experience; we are saying it is different. What is different is the constructed nature of the art experience. The art experience is a type of aesthetic experience that also includes aspects, content, and context of our humanness. When something is made by a human– we know that there is some level of commonality and/or communal experience. 5
  6. 6. 1 2 4 3 6 5 What makes a piece of art beautiful? How important are personal tastes when judging the quality of art? 6
  7. 7. Why aesthetics is only the beginning in analysing an artwork We are also aware that beyond sensory and formal properties, all artwork is informed by its specific time and place or the specific historical and cultural milieu it was created. For this reason we analyse artwork through not only aesthetics, but also, historical and cultural contexts. How we engage in aesthetic analysis Often the feelings or thoughts evoked as a result of contemplating an artwork are initially based primarily upon what is actually seen in the work. The first aspects of the artwork we respond to are its sensory properties, its formal properties, and its technical properties. Color is an example of a sensory property. Color is considered a kind of form and how form is arranged is a formal property. What medium (e.g., painting, animation, etc.) the artwork is made of is an example of a technical property. What do we actually see? How is what is seen organized? And, what emotions and ideas are evoked as a result of what has been observed? 7
  8. 8. Etymology “AESTHETICS” GREEK aesthesis ENGLISH “sensory perception” Magritte, The False Mirror KEY CONCEPTS 8
  9. 9. ALEXANDER BAUMGARTEN (1714-1762) Aesthetics The word “aesthetics” was first employed by Baumgarten to mean “the science of sensory perception.” Particularly, he used it to denote a realm of concrete knowledge, as distinct from the abstract where content is communicated in sensory forms. 9
  10. 10. AESTHETICS Philosophy of beauty and art Theory about the ultimate reality of things Nature of Beauty: Why are beautiful things beautiful? Essence of Art: What makes something a work of art? 10
  11. 11. AESTHETIC DEFINITION is the creation and appreciation of BEAUTIFUL human-made objects. by the artists in their creativity by the art spectator with artistic taste anything with a value that delights art distinguished from nature 11
  12. 12. RELATIVE “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.” ABSOLUTE “Beauty is in the thing itself.” SUBJECT OBJECT TWO WAYS OF CONSIDERING BEAUTY 12
  13. 13. DIVISION OF AESTHETICS THEORY OF BEAUTY Nature of beautiful things THEORY OF ART Essence of art THEORY OF ART CRITICISM Evaluation of the merit or demerit of works of art 13
  14. 14. Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1482 THEORY OF ART: Is this art? Why? THEORY OF ART CRITICISM: Is this art great? Why? Zyphers Venus Nymph 14
  15. 15. Model: Simonetta Vespucci THEORY OF BEAUTY: Is she beautiful? Why? 15
  16. 16. 1 2 3 4 Which among the pictures do you consider an artwork that gives greater influence to Philippine art? Explain 5 Analysis 16
  17. 17. Videos: Pink Floyd, Brain Damage: The Dark Side of the Moon, Psychedelic Rock Music Video, 1972https://youtu.be/RC83q93PaqA Traveller Erol. (May 1, 2020) Colorfully Designed Jeepneys | Interview with Jeepney Drivers. https://youtu.be/oB-9ex-kK6M ABS-CBN News. (July 29, 2018). TV Patrol: 'Jeepney artists,' nais makahimok ng iba pang magtutuloy ng sining. https://youtu.be/3Y7d5MErJhQ Piliin Mo Ang Pilipinas - Angeline Quinto and Vince Bueno. (Feb. 7, 2018). https://youtu.be/Xxn9cNY3Wc4 Mission Impossible: Ghost Protocol BEHIND THE SCENES - Burj Khalifa Climb (2011) HD. https://youtu.be/16BFrEBZQS4 DD News. (Jun. 29, 2016). New way of life in Japan: Minimum possessions & maximum happiness. https://youtu.be/UY8C6ogEayI Ian Berwick. (Jan. 1, 2016). National Anthem: Japan - 君が代 *NEW VERSION* https://youtu.be/S2Vanclvh3Q MrExctbhj. (Aug. 22, 2017). (Rare) UNOFFICIAL anthem of Philippines (1943-1945, Under Japanese rule), https://youtu.be/hTJP84w-k78 New Michael Jackson. (August 2, 2019). Michael Jackson - Beat It (30th Anniversary Celebration) (Remastered Widescreen). https://youtu.be/SipbbUxO8FQ Felman Murillo. (Nov. 15, 2019). CONSTANT CHANGE BY JOSE MARI CHAN. https://youtu.be/L8Cus2CZURM TheCatLadyJ. (Sep/ 2, 2015)/ What A Wonderful World - Louis Armstrong - with Lyrics. https://youtu.be/p-T6aaRV9HY BLOUIN ARTINFO. (Oct. 23, 2013). Rene Magritte at MoMA. https://youtu.be/bpD0F9hpd68 1. Describe Aesthetics as a Branch of Philosophy concerned with Art. 2. Enumerate the Various Terms used in Aesthetics. REFERENCES Resources: Lumen Learning. Module 1: What is Art? Simple Book Production. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-sac-artappreciation/chapter/oer-1-11/ Lesson 3.2. Aesthetic Terms and Value 17
  18. 18. By using the scale (rate from 1-10) , which among the pictures gives you the most satisfying sensation? 0 5 10 Sight Touch Smell Sound Taste Ultimate Sensation Chart (example) Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 Picture 4 https://www.ted.co m/talks/jinsop_lee _design_for_all_5 _senses#t-270024 Design for all 5 Senses 1 2 4 3 18
  19. 19. The word art is often used to apply judgments of value, as in expressions like “that meal was a work of art” (implying that the cook is an artist) or “the art of deception” (the advanced, praiseworthy skill of deceiving). It is this use of the word as a measure of high value that gives the term its flavor of subjectivity. Those features of a work that contribute to its success and importance as a work of art: the features upon which its significance or beauty supervene. They include the form, content, integrity, harmony, purity, or fittingness of works. 19
  20. 20. Does It Have to Be Visually Pleasing or Not? Making judgments of value requires a basis for criticism. At the simplest level, deciding whether an object or experience is considered art is a matter of finding it to be either attractive or repulsive. Though perception is always coloured by experience, and is necessarily subjective, it is commonly understood that what is not somehow visually pleasing cannot be art. However, “good” art is not always or even regularly visually pleasing to a majority of viewers. In other words, an artist’s prime motivation need not be the pursuit of a pleasing arrangement of form. Also, art often depicts terrible images made for social, moral, or thought- provoking reasons. KEY CONCEPTS 20
  21. 21. Francisco de Goya, El Tres de Mayo, 1808 (The Third of May, 1808). Image is in the public domain. For example, the painting pictured above, by Francisco Goya, depicts the Spanish shootings on the third of May, 1808. It is a graphic depiction of a firing squad executing several pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific imagery demonstrates Goya’s keen artistic ability in composition and execution, and it produces fitting social and political outrage. Thus, the debate continues as to what mode of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define “art.” The revision of what is popularly conceived of as being visually pleasing allows for a re-invigoration of and a new appreciation for the standards of art itself. 21
  22. 22. Art is often intended to appeal to and connect with human emotion. It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. Art may be considered an exploration of the human condition or what it is to be human. Factors Involved in the Judgment of Art Seeing a rainbow often inspires an emotional reaction like delight or joy. Visceral responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is reflexively connected to facial expressions and to behaviors like the gag reflex. Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural response, too; seeing a smear of soup in a man’s beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting. Artistic judgments may be linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in our physical reactions. Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of awe, which might manifest physically as increased heart rate or widened eyes. These unconscious reactions may partly control, or at least reinforce, our judgment in the first place that the landscape is sublime. 22
  23. 23. Likewise, artistic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent. Victorians in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, those same audiences saw those sculptures as being beautiful. Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Thus, judgments of art can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or moral value. In a contemporary context, one might judge a Lamborghini to be beautiful partly because it is desirable as a status symbol, or we might judge it to be repulsive partly because it signifies for us over- consumption and offends our political or moral values. Judging the value of an artwork is often partly intellectual and interpretative. It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are judging. Assigning value to artwork is often a complex negotiation of our senses, emotions, intellectual opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious behavior, conscious decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, and other factors. 23
  24. 24. CATEGORIES OF VALUE LOGICAL ETHICAL AESTHETIC True and False Good and Bad Beautiful and Ugly 24
  25. 25. AESTHETICS VALUES BEAUTIFUL Delights UGLY Glooms Wow! Walastik! Hanep! Yak! Eww! Sus! 25
  26. 26. AESTHETIC VALUES ACCORDING TO THE SENSES SENSES SENSING: Sense-Data FORMS OF ART EYE SEEING: Color, Shape, Size, Motion VISUAL ART: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Dance, Drama EARS HEARING: Sound AUDITORY ART: Music, Drama NOSE SMELLING: Odor OLFACTORY ART: Perfume Making TONGUE TASTING: Taste CULINARY ART: Cooking SKIN TOUCHING: Texture, Shape, Size, Motion TACTILE ART: Sculpture, Lovemaking IMAGI- NATION IMAGINING: Images IMAGINATIVE ART: Literature, Drama 26
  27. 27. AESTHETIC VALUES ACCORDING TO THE SENSES SENSE-DATA BEAUTIFUL UGLY COLOR Picturesque Blur SHAPE Pretty Grotesque SIZE Cute Piquant MOTION Graceful Awkward SOUND Lovely Droll ODOR Fragrant Foul TASTE Delicious Pungent TOUCH Pleasant Harsh IMAGE Fantastic Ridiculous 27
  28. 28. PICTURESQUE Beautiful Color Pink Floyd, Brain Damage: The Dark Side of the Moon, Psychedelic Rock Music Video, 1972 https://youtu .be/RC83q93 PaqA 28
  29. 29. Kandinsky, Color Composition Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, 1924 PICTURESQUE Beautiful Color Malevich White on White 1924 BLUR Ugly Color 29
  30. 30. PICTURESQUE: Rainbow: Beautiful Color in Nature Amorsolo, Sunset ROMANTIC REALISM Van Gogh, Sunset in the Wheatfield EXPRESSIONISM Lichtenstein, Sinking Sun POP ART Monet, Venice at Twilight IMPRESSIONISM EMOTIONAL EFFECT OF COLOR Munch, “Scream” 1894 30
  31. 31. FILIPINO SENSE OF BEAUTY The colorful is beautiful. 31
  32. 32. HORROR VACUI AND THE PINOY INCLINATION FOR FILLING UP EVERY INCH OF SPACE By Gregg S. Lloren Horror Vacui – a Latin expression which means “fear of emptiness” ✓ is a design principle where a preference in design and arrangements (organization) tend to favor occupying every available spaces with objects and elements rather than leaving the spaces empty. • So to speak, it is the opposite of minimalism. The term has multiple applications across various disciplines and is purported to date back to the time of, and principles posited by, Aristotle. • Nonetheless,, it is applied principally to describe an art style and design that leaves little or no space. Further to this application, the principle is also oftentimes employed in a variation of commercial media, say, newspapers, comic books, and websites. 32
  33. 33. HORROR VACCUI: Fear of Empty Space 33
  34. 34. Horror Vacui Oil on Canvas Painting by Alfonso Ossorio 34
  36. 36. PICTURESQUE Beautiful Color in Philippine Art https://youtu. be/3Y7d5MEr JhQ https://yo utu.be/oB- 9ex-kK6M 36
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  40. 40. COLORFUL ART OF THE PAROL Lanterns made of capiz shells with twikling light design 40
  42. 42. Sarimanok Design Maranao Art 42
  43. 43. Tinalak, Tiboli Art Tiboli Woman Weaving Tinala’k, (Dreamweaver) Tinalak Clothes Nike Shoes with Tinala’k Design 43
  46. 46. PRETTY Beautiful Shape GROTESQUE Ugly Shape 46
  47. 47. THE BEAUTIFUL SHAPE OF A DOME St.Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City House of Congress, Washington D.C. Taj Mahal, Agra India Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Turkey Sydney Opera House, Australia 47
  48. 48. Ingres, The Grande Odalisque Sexy beautiful shape of the female body Ingres, The Odalisque with a Lute Player Juan Luna, The Odalisque Mucha Absinthe Robette 1901 STYLE Art Nouveau 48
  49. 49. GROTESQUE Ugly Shape Venus of Willendorf, 35,000 BC Grotesque Face Leonardo, Grotesque Faces, 1492 49
  50. 50. CUTE Beautiful Size PIQUANT Ugly Size 50
  51. 51. GREEK AND WESTERN SENSE OF BEAUTY The big is beautiful. Statue of Zeus 435 BC, 40 ft. high Colossus of Rhodes 280 BC, 100 ft. high Statue of Liberty, 1886 305 ft. high 51
  52. 52. THE TALLEST BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD Pyramid of Kufu Egypt, 420 ft. Empire State Building, New York 1,250 ft. Sears Tower, Chicago, 1,450 ft. Taipei 101, Taiwan, 1,666 ft Burj Khalifa, Dubai, 2,772 ft. 52
  53. 53. Burj Khalifa Dubai 2,772 feet high 163 Floors Scene from the Making of Mission Impossible: Ghost Protocol, 2011 https://you tu.be/16BF rEBZQS4 PBCom Tower Ayala Makati City 790 feet high 55 floors TALLEST BUILDING IN THE PHILIPPINES 53
  54. 54. BONSAI Miniature Tree in a Pot JAPANESE SENSE OF BEAUTY The small is beautiful. Folded from a piece of plastic film measuring 0.1 x 0.1 mm by Naito Akira in 2004 SMALLEST ORIGAMI 54
  55. 55. HAIKU Japanese short poem composed of 3 lines with 17 syllables An old, silent pond… A frog jumps into the pond, Splash! Silence again. (Basho Matsuo) I walk across sand And find myself blistering In the hot, hot sun. 55
  56. 56. JAPANESE SENSE OF BEAUTY The less is beautiful MINIMALISM Use of least number of elements ZEN PAINTING Landscape ZEN PAINTING Circle ZEN PAINTING Bamboo ZEN PAINTING River ZEN PAINTING Monk Meditating ZEN BUDDHISM AND MINIMALISM The cause of suffering in life is attachment to material things. The lesser the possessions, the lesser the suffering. So the secret to happiness is living a simple life. Video 3.2. https://yout u.be/UY8C6 ogEayI 56
  57. 57. 君が代は 千代に八千代に さざれ(細)石の いわお(巌)となりて こけ(苔)の生すまで KIMIGAYO Waka Poem 794 AD Kimigayo wa Chiyo ni yachiyo ni Sazare-ishi no Iwao to narite Koke no musu made May your reign Continue for a thousand, Eight thousand generations, Until the pebbles Grow into boulders Lush with moss https://yo utu.be/S2 Vanclvh3 Q National Anthem of Japan I NOTE: During Japanese rule, the official anthem was "Diwa ng Bayan" which was the same melody as "Lupang Hinirang" which was sung in Tagalog in public. This is an UNOFFICIAL anthem of the Japanese Philippines, proposed in December 1943. Audio remastered by me, Mrexctbhj. Title: "Song of Philippines' independence(" 菲 律 賓 独 立 の 歌”) The song has no English, nor Tagalog version. Only sung in Japanese. Philippine National Anthem 1943 WWII https://yo utu.be/hTJ P84w-k78 In the shining bright daylight Now the Philippines is rising To be good the majestic country built Rizal shed blood You can get it right Country's Flowers Sampagita Now is the time to be proud Country's Flowers Sampagita Now is the time to be proud Celebrate the day of founding People are reborn In the meantime thousands of blood tears Laurel will continue Become a dreamer Praise and the day of history Divergence I hope Praise and the day of history Divergence I hope 57
  58. 58. GRACEFUL Beautiful Motion Michael Jackson Beat It 1986 https://yo utu.be/Sip bbUxO8FQ 58
  59. 59. LOVELY Beautiful sound DROLL Ugly sound FLOWING EFFECT (Continuous Sound) Jose Mari Chan, Constant Change Louis Armstrong, It’s a Wonderful World TREMBLING EFFECT TREMOLO OR VIBRATO (Vibrating Sound) TIMBRE OF THE HUMAN VOICE https://you tu.be/L8Cu s2CZURM https://you tu.be/p- T6aaRV9HY 59
  60. 60. KAMA SUTRA Art of Pleasure PLEASANT Beautiful Touch 60
  61. 61. FANTASTIC Beautiful Image and RIDICULOUS Ugly Image Dali, The Dream Jacek Yerka, Quiet Balance Jacek Yerka, Brontosaurus Civitas 61
  62. 62. Magritte Fine Realities 1964 FANTASTIC OR RIDICULOUS IMAGES? Surrealist Rene Magritte, Documentary 2013 https://you tu.be/bpD0 F9hpd68 62
  63. 63. Videos KWolf93Garou. (May 2, 2009). Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp with benny hill theme. https://youtu.be/DJ4opMyIU-w Blanco, F. (Mar. 7, 2014). 10000 Japanese singing Beethoven's Ode to Joy in Osaka Japan - Oda a la alegria. https://youtu.be/Ayw4l58IWb8 Gemtracker. (Dec, 20, 2013). Ode of Joy - Robert Bennigton. https://youtu.be/s9JufoSaeHs 1. Measure the Arts Based on the Perception by the Senses. REFERENCES Resources Suojanen, M. (2016). Aesthetic experience of beautiful and ugly persons: a critique. Journal of Aesthetic and Culture. Vol 8, 2016, Issue 1. Taylor Francis Online.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/jac.v8.30529 Lesson 3.3. Hierarchy of Beauty 63
  64. 64. I. It was six men of Indostan To learning much inclined, Who went to see the Elephant (Though all of them were blind), That each by observation Might satisfy his mind. II. The First approached the Elephant, And happening to fall Against his broad and sturdy side, At once began to bawl: "God bless me!—but the Elephant Is very like a wall!" III. The Second, feeling of the tusk, Cried: "Ho!—what have we here So very round and smooth and sharp? To me 't is mighty clear This wonder of an Elephant Is very like a spear!" IV. The Third approached the animal, And happening to take The squirming trunk within his hands, Thus boldly up and spake: "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant Is very like a snake!" THE BLIND MEN AND THE ELEPHANT. A HINDOO FABLE. V. The Fourth reached out his eager hand, And felt about the knee. "What most this wondrous beast is like Is mighty plain," quoth he; "'T is clear enough the Elephant Is very like a tree!" VI. The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear, Said: "E'en the blindest man Can tell what this resembles most; Deny the fact who can, This marvel of an Elephant Is very like a fan!" 64
  65. 65. VII. The Sixth no sooner had begun About the beast to grope, Than, seizing on the swinging tail That fell within his scope, "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant Is very like a rope!" VIII. And so these men of Indostan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right, And all were in the wrong! MORAL. So, oft in theologic wars The disputants, I ween, Rail on in utter ignorance Of what each other mean, And prate about an Elephant Not one of them has seen! In your own opinion, which among your senses can describe beauty better? Why? What moral lesson can you relate from your answer? 65
  66. 66. The question of whether or not beauty exists in nature is a philosophical problem. In particular, there is the question of whether artworks, persons, or nature has aesthetic qualities. Most people say that they care about their own beauty. Moreover, they judge another person's appearance from an aesthetic point of view using aesthetic concepts. However, aesthetic judgements are not objective in the sense that the experience justifies their objectivity. If there are no aesthetic qualities in the world, nobody can judge someone beautiful or ugly without oppression. Aesthetic judgement is exercise of power. 66
  67. 67. Aesthetics examines the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. Non-Western cultures have also created their own unique aesthetics, which exists in many different forms and styles. However, it is not easy to say what is beautiful or ugly. People have different opinions and judgements about what is beautiful or ugly. You may think that Salvador Dalí's paintings are great. Nevertheless, it has been argued that aesthetic perception, or experience, is objective in the sense that aesthetic qualities belong to natural phenomena, human persons, and artworks. According to that argument, non-aesthetic and aesthetic qualities exist in an object, and they can be experienced. KEY CONCEPTS 67
  68. 68. The Earl of Shaftesbury wrote in 1711 that “we cannot deny the common sense of beauty.” David Hume, however, disagreed and thought that beauty is not a feature that belongs to reality independent of feeling and sentiment. For David Hume, a Scottish philosopher (1711-1776) “there is no beauty or ugliness inherent in paintings, novels, or fashion models. Therefore, the relationship of experience to aesthetic qualities leads to a challenging problem, which can be expressed in the question of whether there are beautiful or ugly persons in the world.” If there are no aesthetic qualities in the world, nobody can perceive someone to be beautiful or ugly without arriving at the contradiction. Those in power reflect their own aesthetic values to people and art in general. Plato thought that beautiful objects have harmony or unity in their parts. Similarly, Aristotle considered that the features of beauty are order and symmetry. 68
  69. 69. Dalagang Pilipina in Amorsolo’s Painting Nikki Zeiring, International Supermodel Vogue Magazine 2001 A Samburo Woman from Kenya, Africa Simonneta Vespucci in the Venus Paintings by Botticelli Who among them do you consider beautiful and ugly? 69
  70. 70. Durer Self-Portrait 1500 Van Gogh Self-Portrait 1886 Tom Cruise, Hollywood Actor Time Magazine 2003 Leonardo Grotesque Face of Scaramuccia 1492 70
  71. 71. 8. SCARRY glooms and fears 9. HORRIBLE glooms and saddens 10. BIZARRE glooms and entertains 11. POIGNANT glooms and attracts 12. PERVERSE glooms and impresses 13. RUSTIC glooms and awes 14. PATHETIC purely glooms 1. SUBLIME purely delights 2. GRAND delights and awes 3. ELEGANT delights and impresses 4. CHARMING delights and attracts 5. COMIC delights and entertains 6. TRAGIC delights and saddens 7. TERRIBLE delights and fears According to art critics, there are 14 DEGREES OF AESTHETIC VALUES B E A U T Y U G L Y 71
  72. 72. SCARRY Glooms and fears Larry Alcala, Splice of Life COMIC Delights and Entertains COMIC CHARLIE CHAPLIN The Tramp https://y outu.be/ DJ4opMyI U-w BIZARRE Glooms and Entertains Sotein Carcass of Beef, 1925 Sotein, Mad Woman 1922 Sotein, Woman in Red, 1922 72
  73. 73. Damien Hirst ,This little piggy went to market, this little piggy stayed at home (1996), INSTALLATION ART Damien Hirst ,This little piggy went to market, this little piggy stayed at home (1996), INSTALLATION ART Hirst God Alone Knows, 2007 Kalo, My Birth, 1932 Gericault, After Death, 1721 RUSTIC Glooms and awes SUBLIME Purely delights Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Therese, 1592 73
  74. 74. GRAND Delights and awes Beethoven Choral: Ode to Joy From the Ninth Symphony Performed by Choir and Orchestra of 10,000 Members Osaka, Japan 2014 Comic Version https://yout u.be/Ayw4l5 8IWb8 https://you tu.be/oWG ZdYNpaSo 74
  75. 75. Readings Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2020). Beauty. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/beauty/ SlideShare. (2011). A concise history of western art. https://www.slideshare.net/spiller37/a-concise-history-of-western-art 1. Classify the Western View of Beauty in Art According to its Time Period. REFERENCES Lesson 3.4. Western View of Beauty 75
  76. 76. The nature of beauty is one of the most enduring and controversial themes in Western philosophy, and is—with the nature of art—one of the two fundamental issues in philosophical aesthetics. Beauty has traditionally been counted among the ultimate values, with goodness, truth, and justice. It is a primary theme among ancient Greek, Hellenistic, and medieval philosophers, and was central to eighteenth and nineteenth-century thought. 76
  77. 77. The concept of beauty is also a complex topic since antiquity, and this is especially true when tracing the cultural trajectory of our relationship with beauty. Western and Eastern artists tend for instance to use different perspectives to represent the visual world, both in the geometric and in a metaphorical sense. Viewers from different cultures and social groups may have distinct aesthetic experiences to the same visual displays. Cultural differences might explain why beauty is attributed to some things, but not to others. Aesthetic processing can only be understood, if it is also seen as being embedded in cultural contexts and being modulated by social conditions. 77
  78. 78. KEY CONCEPTS 78
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  100. 100. Readings Philosophy Faculty Research and Publications. (2014). Introduction to Aesthetics of Everyday Life: East and West. https://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1449&context=phil_fac Wikipedia. (2020). Arts in the Philippines. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_in_the_Philippines Jocano, Landa F (2001). “Aesthetic Dimension,” in Filipino Worldview, Quezon City: PUNLAD Research House, 2001. pp.135-144. Mercado, L. (1994). Kagandahan: Beauty vis-a-vis Truth and Good. The Filipino Mind: Philippine Philosophical Studies II. Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change Series III, Asia, Volume 8. http://www.crvp.org/publications/Series-III/III-8.pdf Videos Maganda kaba???- https://youtu.be/GYar6rGbukM 1. Classify the Eastern View of Beauty and the Filipino Sense of Art According to its Time Period. 2. Create an art work of Filipino sense of beauty and Japanese sense of beauty REFERENCES Lesson 3.5. The Eastern Art and Filipino Aesthetics Worldview 100
  101. 101. Did you know that painting started from prehistoric men? Early Paintings Prehistoric men used: red ochre black pigment Often showed hunting scenes of man chasing various animals were drawn on the walls of caves, blocks of stones, etc. Some are found in China. 101
  102. 102. Since Eastern aesthetics is traditionally concerned with the art of living, Eastern philosophers may prefer to use the term "living' Aesthetics" or "Aesthetics of Living." "Everyday life" tends to designate only an aspect of human existence, while "the Art of Living" acknowledges the presence of the aesthetic throughout human experiences. This amounts to saying that there is a deep-rooted tradition of living aesthetics in the East. Whether it is Chinese literary art or folk art, Japanese chado or gardening, or Korean porcelain or folk painting, all are part of the artistic expression of living aesthetics. For that matter, aesthetic traditions as such in many cultures have been passed on, without discontinuity, since ancient times, and today these traditions have undergone a creative transformation with heightened attention to living aesthetics in everyday life experiences. 103
  103. 103. More importantly, Chinese Confucian/Taoist aesthetics and Indian Zen aesthetics, among others, are essential sources of living aesthetics in East Asian cultures. The same can be said of aestheticians from the East, who believe that Chinese, Japanese and Korean traditional aesthetics offer a "prototype" of living aesthetics. For example, it is important to note that, living aesthetics, or the idea of artful life, constitutes the fundamental paradigm of Chinese classical aesthetics, whose primary sources are Confucian aesthetics and Taoist aesthetics, with Zen aesthetics as a later addition. 104
  104. 104. What is the relationship between beauty and truth, as well as between beauty and the good? We know from scholastic philosophy that beauty, together with one, being, good, and truth are transcendentals such that they are interchangeable. So what is beautiful is truth, is good, is being, is one. However, thought is concrete. Can a concrete way of thinking also be metaphysical? If being is one of the transcendentals, the Philippine languages have no perfect translation for being. Likewise, being is not the main concern of Filipino thought. Is kagandahan (beauty) also interchangeable with the other transcendentals in Filipino thought? What are the educational and pastoral applications of beauty? We said elsewhere that aesthetics has two views on beauty: beauty as dualistic and beauty as non-dualistic. Beauty as dualistic stems from individualism. Western art, which in general stresses the individual, has man as the focus of its art. We said “in general” because there are also Western philosophers who espouse the non-dualistic view. This is not the case of Oriental art (such as Chinese paintings) where man is just part of the picture. The Filipino shares the non- dualistic way of looking at beauty, wherein he and the object ideally become one. Filipino Aesthetics Worldview 105
  105. 105. Country JAPAN Painting Subjects 1. scenes from everyday life 2. narrative scenes crowded with figures and details CHINA 1. flowers and birds 2. landscapes 3. palaces and temples 4. human figures 5. animals 6. bamboos and stones KOREA 1. landscape paintings 2. Minhwa (the traditional folk painting) 3. four gracious plants (plum blossoms, orchids or wild orchids, chrysanthemums, and bamboo) 4. bamboo 5. portraits Important Aspects in East Asian Painting Landscape painting was regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting. Three concepts of Chinese arts: a. Heaven b. Earth c. Humankind (Yin-Yang) What are the Painting Subjects of East Asian countries? KEY CONCEPTS
  106. 106. Light / Bright / Sun Strong / Assertive Dry / Hot / Fire Male Positive Charge Heaven Spring and Summer Dark / Moon Recessive / Nurturing Damp / Cool / Water Female Negative Charge Earth Autumn and Winter Yang Yin Toah Korea Shutou Sansui-zu Sesshu (Winter landscape) Japan Shen Zhou (Poet on Mountain) China
  107. 107. Important Aspects in East Asian Painting ➢ Silk was often used as the medium to paint upon, but it was quite expensive. ➢ Cai Lun invented paper in the 1st century A.D. ➢ The invention of paper provided not only a cheap and widespread medium for writing, but painting became more economical. ➢ The ideologies of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism played important roles in East Asian art. ➢ Chinese art expresses the human understanding of the relationship between nature and humans. ➢ The history of Korean painting dates to 108 C.E., when it appears as an independent form. ➢ It is said that until the Joseon Dynasty the primary influence of Korean paintings were Chinese paintings. ➢ Mountains and water are important features in Korean landscape painting because it is a site for building temples and buildings. ➢ Landscape painting represents both a portrayal of nature itself and a codified illustration of the human view of nature and the world.
  108. 108. Calligraphy ➢ Painting is closely related to calligraphy among the Chinese people. What is calligraphy? ➢ To the Chinese, calligraphy is the art of beautiful handwriting. ➢ Traditional painting involves essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils are not used. ➢ In calligraphy, the popular materials which paintings are made of are paper and silk. ➢ Poets write their calligraphy on their paintings. Paintings can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging or hand scrolls, album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, and other media Cangjie - is the legendary inventor of Chinese writing - got his ideas from observing animals’ footprints and birds’ claw marks on the sand as well as other natural phenomena
  109. 109. Architecture ➢ Why do temples and buildings in China, Japan, and Korea have sweeping roofs? ➢ East Asian temples and houses have sweeping roofs because they believe that it will protect them from the elements of water, wind, and fire. ➢ Buddhists believed that it helped ward off evil spirits which were deemed to be straight lines. ➢ The figures at the tips are called roof guards. Main Types of Roofs ➢ Straight-inclined- are more economical for common Chinese architecture ➢ Multi-inclined- roofs with two or more sections inclined are used for residences of wealthy Chinese ➢ Sweeping- have curves that rise at the corners of the roofs - usually reserved for temples and palaces
  110. 110. Woodblock Printing ➢ Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images, or patterns used widely throughout East Asia. ➢ It originated in China as a method of printing on textiles but eventually became a method for printing on paper. ➢ This method was adapted in Japan during the Edo period (1603 – 1867) and became one of their oldest and most highly developed visual arts. ➢ The most common theme in Japan for printmaking describes scenes from everyday life. It narrates the scene and is often packed with figures and detail. The Great Wave Off Kanagawa Kanagawa-oki Nami-ura Japan Ukiyo-e ➢ Japanese for “pictures of the floating world” ➢ the best known and most popular style of Japanese art ➢ related to the style of woodblock print making that shows scenes of harmony and carefree everyday living
  111. 111. Theatrical Performances Paintings in East Asia do not only apply on paper, silk and wood. Face Painting (Uses their faces as the canvass for painting.) 1. Kabuki / Kesho (Japan) -is already in itself an interpretation of the actor’s own role through the medium of the facial features 2. Peking Opera /(Jingju Lianpu (China) -is done with different colors in accordance with the performing characters’ personality and historical assessment -Hero type characters are normally painted in relatively simple colors. -Enemies, bandits, rebels and others have more complicated designs on their faces. -It is a traditional special way of make-up in Chinese operas in pursuit of the expected effect of performance. -Originally, Lianpu is called the false mask. 3. Mask painting (Korea) -called tal or t’al -originated with religious meaning just like the masks of other countries which also have religious or artistic origins -Korea has a rich history of masks. * They use it in funeral services to help banish evil spirits and theatre plays dating back to the prehistoric age. -Masks were also used for shamanistic rites.
  112. 112. Meaning of Colors for Face Painting (China) Guan Ju Red indicates devotion,courage, bravery, uprightness, and loyalty. Huang Pang Yellow signifies fierceness, ambition, and cool- headedness. Zhu Wen A green face tells the audience that the character is not only impulsive and violent, he also lacks self- restraint. Zhang Fei Black symbolizes roughness and fierceness. The black face indicates either a rough and bold character or an impartial and selfless personality. Lian Po Purple stands for uprightness and cool- headedness. While a reddish purple face indicates a just and noble character. Cao Cao White suggests treachery, suspiciousness and craftiness. It is common to see the white face of the powerful villain on stage. Jiang Gan -The clown or chou in Chinese Opera has special makeup patterns called xiaohualian (the petty painted face). -Sometimes a small patch of chalk is painted around the nose to show a mean and secretive character. -At times, the xiaohualian is also painted on a young page or jesting to enliven up the performance. NOTE: Gold and silver colors are usually used for gods and spirits.
  113. 113. Kabuki Makeup / Kesho of Japan Types of Kabuki Makeup 1. Standard Makeup - applied to most actors 2. Kumadori Makeup - applied to villains and heroes Colors in Kabuki Makeup -It is composed of very dramatic lines and shapes using colors that represent certain qualities. Dark Red - passion or anger Dark Blue - depression or sadness Pink - youth Black - fear Light Green - Calm Purple - nobility
  114. 114. The Roles of Colors in Korean Masks Black, Red, and White bright and vibrant colors that help establish the age and race of the figure * Some masks have moving parts like winking or shifting eyes and moving mouths. * To further add to the lifelike features of the masks, black fabric is draped from the top of the mask over the wearer's head to simulate hair. Half Red and Half White Mask symbolize the idea that the wearer has two fathers, Mr. Red and Mr. White Dark-faced Mask indicates that the character was born of an adulterous mother
  115. 115. Paper Arts, Knot tying and Kite flying ❖ What are the paper arts of China, Japan, and Korea? Who invented paper? ❖ Paper has a great function in the development of arts not only in East Asia but all over the world. ❖ Paper was first invented by Cai Lun of the Eastern Han Dynasty in China. ❖ It is indeed one of the greatest contributions of ancient China in the development of arts.
  116. 116. Paper Arts of China The earliest document showing paper folding is a picture of a small paper boat in an edition of Tractatus de Sphaera Mundi from 1490 by Johannes de Sacrobosco. Burning of Yuanbao ❖ In China, traditional funerals include burning yuanbao which is a folded paper that look like gold nuggets or ingots called Sycee. ❖ is also used for other ceremonial practices ❖ is commonly done at their ancestors’ graves during the Ghost Festival Sycee ❖ Is a type of silver or gold ingot currency used in China until the 20th century ❖ The name is derived from the Cantonese words meaning “fine silk” ❖ The gold paper is/was folded to look like a sycee. ❖ Today, imitation gold sycees are used as a symbol of prosperity by Chinese and are frequently displayed during Chinese New Year.
  117. 117. Origami ❖ Came from ori meaning “folding” and kami meaning “paper” ❖ is the traditional Japanese art of paper folding ❖ started in the 17th century A.D. and was popularized internationally in the mid-1900s ❖ Goal: To transform a flat sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques without cutting as much as possible Paper Crane Paper crane is the best known Japanese origami.
  118. 118. Paper Cutting ❖ Usually symmetrical in design when unfolded ❖ adapts the 12 animals of the Chinese Zodiac as themes and motifs ❖ mostly chooses the red color ❖ The process of paper cutting is aided by a pair of scissors or knife and other sharp flat cutters. ❖ Chinese Buddhists believe that hanging “Window Flowers” or decorative paper cuttings attract good luck and drive away evil spirits. ❖ Jianzhi is the first type of paper cutting design, since paper was invented by the Chinese. The cut outs are also used to decorate doors and windows. They are sometimes referred to as chuāng huā, meaning “window flower.”
  119. 119. Kite Making ❖ A kite is an assembled or joined aircraft that was traditionally made of silk or paper with a bowline and a resilient bamboo. ❖ Today, kites can be made out of plastic. ❖ Kites are flown for recreational purposes, display of one’s artistic skills. ❖ Chinese kites originated in Wei Fang, Sandong. ❖ According to Joseph Needham, kite is one of the important contributions of Chinese in science and technology. Categories of Chinese Kites 1. Centipede kites 2. Hard-winged kites 3. Soft-winged kites 4. Flat kites
  120. 120. Knot Tying ❖ In Korea, decorative knot work is known as maedeup or called dorae or double connection knot, often called Korean knot work or Korean knots. ❖ Zhongguo is the Chinese decorative handicraft art that began as a form of Chinese folk art in theTang and Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) in China. ❖ In Japan, knot tying is called hanamusubi. It emphasizes on braids and focuses on individual knots.
  121. 121. ANALYSIS OF AESTHETIC TERMS ACCORDING TO FILIPINO ANTHROPOLOGY COVAR JOCANO Pagkataong Filipino and the Concepts of Labas and Loob Filipino Aesthetic Worldview The Beautiful Personhood (Ang Magandang Pagkatao) Filipino Worldview: Ethnography of Local Knowledge, 2001 By F. Landa Jocano Filipino Anthropologist ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY Historical Particularism Cultural Relativism Cognitive Theory 122
  122. 122. A way people look at the universe People’s picture of the universe that lies deep in the heart of culture WORLDVIEW A system of symbols and meanings people use to organize their ideas which they express through language CULTURE Analysis of the meaning of words in a language is analysis of the form of culture on which lies people’s worldview LANGUAGE Contains words that carries culture. Worldview Language = 123
  123. 123. DIMENSIONS OF FILIPINO WORLDVIEW 1.Natural Dimension 2.Biological Dimension 3.Communal Dimension 4.Social Dimension 5.Normative Dimension GANDA (Beauty) ❖ The primary Filipino aesthetic term “Sum total of katangian (traits) of anything that gives the highest pleasure to the senses.” ❖ Relative term since its use defends on the judgment of the beholder. ❖ When applied to person, ganda involves both physical appearance (ayos) and social character (ugali). ❖ Ganda then is about the “totality of the person,” both his pagkataong panlabas (physical appearance) and his pagkataong panloob (social behavior). ❖ Ganda and buti (good) are interchangeable terms so that whatever is maganda is also mabuti. Aesthetic taste involves moral judgement. GANDA (Beauty) BUTI (Good) = 6. Ethical Dimension 7. Moral Dimension 8. Aesthetic Dimension 9. Teleological Dimension 10. Ideological Dimension 124
  124. 124. AESTHETICS OF FILIPINO PERSONHOOD (ESTETIKA NG PAGKAKATAONG FILIPINO) Maayos (Pagkataong Panlabas) Beautiful physical appearance Mabuti ang Ugali (Pagkataong Panloob) Good social behavior Pagkataong Maganda Pareho sa Labas at Loob (Beautiful Personhood) https://you tu.be/GYar 6rGbukM Kanais-nais Desirable, Valuable = 125
  125. 125. CATEGORIES OF GANDA ALINDOG (Charm) RIKIT (Loveliness) RANGYA (Grandeur) DINGAL (Magnificence) AMO (Gentleness) DILAG (Gorgeousness) LAMBING (Affection) KINANG (Radiance) NINGNING (Luster) INAM (Goodness) GILAS (Symmetry) KISIG (Proportion) KINTAB (Radiance) LUNINGNING (Luster) KISLAP (Radiance) GANDA (Beauty) The form of beauty that glows Kinang, ningning, kintab and luningning all refer to glittering beauty Sparkling beauty, like enthusiasm or excitement Ganda that is overwhelming Gorgeous display of ganda in appearance speech, action Gorgeous display of ganda in cosmetics, jewelry or attire Implies orderliness, neatness or fineness Masculine atrributes of handsomeness Feminine attribute of being attractive Affectionate feminine attractive behavior and ways of speaking. Wholesomeness in appearance or act that draws the attention of perceiver. The charm of being gentle and docile 126
  126. 126. THE PHENOMENON OF GANDA Ganda is judged in terms of the emotion or the sentiment it evokes from the perceiver As an affective phenomenon NAKAKABIGHANI: Ganda evokes desirability NAKAKAAKIT: It attracts NAKAKATAWAG NG PANSIN: It calls attention Ganda is judge through scent or sense of smell As an olfactory sense phenomenon NANANATILI O NAMAMALAGI: Ganda makes its presence felt (amoy bagong paligo) MALINIS: It fells or smells clean (malinis haplusin/amoy-malinis SARIWA: It smells or fells fresh (amoy-sariwa, amoy-pinipig) Ganda is judged in terms of action, public appearance or human relation (ugali) As behavioral, ethical phenomenon MAHINHIN: It is coy, dainty, demure MABAIT: It is good-natured, considerate MAGALANG: it is respectful or polite Ganda is judge as a concrete entity with physical attributes As a physical phenomenon MAKINIS ANG BALAT: Smooth skin MAAMO ANG MUKHA: Gentle, docile face MATIPUNO ANG KATAWAN: Healthy body MATIKAS ANG TINDIG: Ganda is judge as the ability to perform work or do things As a capability phenomenon MASIPAG MAGTRABAHO: Industrious MAGALING MAGLUTO: A good cook MAHUSAY KUMANTA: A good singer 127
  128. 128. "[The women I paint should have] a rounded face…. The eyes should be exceptionally lively, not the dreamy, sleepy type…. The nose should be of the blunt form but firm and strongly marked.... The ideal Filipina beauty should not necessarily be white complexioned, nor of the dark brown color of the typical Malayan, but of the clear skin or fresh colored type which we often witness when we met a blushing girl.“ -FERNANDO AMORSOLO Amorsolo, Girl with a Basket of Fruits Amorsolo, The Fruit Gatherer Amorsolo, Woman in a Tobacco Field Amorsolo, The Smiling Palay Maiden Amorsolo, Girl with a Jar Amorsolo, Girl with a Coconut Amorsolo, Girl Taking a Bath Amorsolo, Girl on a Bath Amorsolo, Dalagang Filipina All societies have aesthetic standards for appreciating things. This appreciation is essentially a collective formation, deeply embedded in symbols and meanings of society. These symbols and meanings are closely associated with the people’s concept of ganda as this materializes in their ways of experiencing the world or rationalizing their relationship with it. Ganda may be viewed not only as an emotion experienced in the encounter of what is pleasurable but also as a particular cast of mind out in the world of objects. -Jocano, Filipino Worldview 129
  129. 129. 1. In the concept of Filipino “Pagkatao” what cultural influence do you find relevant to showcase the Philippine culture in the global community? 1. Did you try out different compositional arrangements before producing your final module activities ? 1. Which among the pictures do you consider an artwork that gives greater influence to Philippine art? Explain (Lesson 3.1) 2. What degree of aesthetic values are the paintings of? (Lesson 3.3) a. Sotein b. Hirst c. Kalo Instructions: The answer to each question should have at least a minimum of 50 words. Assessment Analysis Reflection 130
  130. 130. RUBRICS FOR GRADING CRITERIA EXCELLENT (10 PTS) ABOVE AVERAGE (8 PTS) AVERAGE (6 PTS) BELOW AVERAGE (4 PTS) POOR (2 PT) ANALYSIS: Creativity and uniqueness Uniqueness of idea is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Uniqueness of idea is informative and well thought. Uniqueness of idea is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. ASSESSMENT: Clarity: Message is clearly addressed Message is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Message is informative and well thought. Message is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. REFLECTIONS: Impact: The idea is relevant to present situation The relevance is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. The relevance is informative and well thought. The relevance is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. 131
  131. 131. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY Instructions: You can use any of the following medium in painting: black/brown coffee (instant) Charcoal gumamela flower extract Azuete any colourful leaves, vegetables and fruits bricks (different colors) or flower pot 1. Make a horror vacui painting that shows the Filipino concept of space and beauty (From Lesson 3.2) 2. Make a minimalist painting that shows the Japanese concept. (From Lesson 3.2) 3. Write your selected verse or message in calligraphic style then affix your nickname at the right corner below your artwork with the use of Chinese brush and watercolor. (From Lesson 3.5) 4. Use 1/8 illustration board for each activity. The process on making your art painting should be done by using time lapse mode of your cellphone camera. Submit it together with the final pictures of your artwork. Module 3 132
  132. 132. Examples for Activity 3
  133. 133. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE RUBRICS FOR ACTIVITY 3 CRITERIA Excellent (16-20 points) Good (11-15 points) Fair (6-10 points) Needs Improvement (1-5) Application of the concept of horror vacui The application of the concept is correct in the whole composition The concept is correctly applied to the large part of the composition. The application of the concept is correct but only in the small part of the composition The concept is wrongly applied to the whole composition Application of the concept of minimalism The application of the concept is correct in the whole composition The concept is correctly applied to the large part of the composition. The application of the concept is correct but only in the small part of the composition The concept is wrongly applied to the whole composition Aesthetic value of the composition The whole composition is very pleasing to look at. There are some parts of the composition that are not pleasing to see. Many parts of the composition are not pleasing to see. The whole composition is not pleasing to look at. 134
  134. 134. MODULE 3 135