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MODULE 1 (Art as a Humanistic Discipline).pdf

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MODULE 1 (Art as a Humanistic Discipline).pdf

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao) Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept of Art MODULE 1 Art as a Humanistic Discipline 2
  3. 3. Chapter Overview In the age of Instagram and Facebook, it is very easy to come across a work of art which is made, remade, or reused to fit a certain purpose or value. You must have pressed that “like” or “love” button as you deem a graphic post so relatable. YouTube offers lots of tutorials and techniques for painting, calligraphy, watercolor and others; lots of young artists have been exposed to a wide range of art techniques because of them. Art and information is now within our reach. There are so many sources available to learn from. The downside of this quick information is that it is very scattered. We do not know which to prioritize and are unsure if we are getting the right information. Art Appreciation on the other hand is a discipline offered in an academic to direct our often ambivalent feelings toward art which is a good starting point: YOU. 3
  4. 4. Originally, the term "humanity" implied the distinguishing between human beings and those considered to be less than human, whether that mean dogs, goldfish, or the literal "less than humans" known as the barbarians and slaves. But with the dawning of what we now refer to as the Middle Ages, an interest in the divine arose and man began looking at what was greater than himself. And with this recollection came the understanding that if some humans were considered subhuman, then what must humans appear as to God? And thus a new definition of "humanitas" began infiltrating the vernacular, one that implied our certain mortality rather than superiority over one another. This new definition and conception lead to what we now call "humanism" which Panofsky describes as maintaining our rationality and freedom while still keeping in mind our own fallibility and frailty. Thus, responsibility for ourselves and tolerance to others. 4
  5. 5. With the rise of humanism in the Middle Ages, it is no wonder that new artistic styles emerged everywhere and played off one another versus the soon to come Renaissance which radically shifts to looking at the past as something to be reconstructed. The humanists learned and grew from what they could study of the past but didn't emulate it. As Panofsky says so beautifully, "For, if human existence could be thought of as a means rather than an end, how much less could the records of human activity be considered as value in themselves.” 5
  6. 6. Readings Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Australia: Penguin Books. Dhakhwa, S. & Enriquez, S. (2008). The Relevance of Confucian Philosophy to Modern Concepts of Leadership and Followership (2008). All Volumes (2001-2008). 5.http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/5 CANVAS Network. Module 1 - Introductions and Definitions. WHAT IS ART? https://learn.canvas.net/courses/24/pages/m1-what-is-art?module_item_id=44378 Study.com. Christian Humanism: Definition & Role in the Renaissance. Chapter 1, Lesson 14. https://study.com/academy/lesson/christian-humanism-definition-role-in-the- renaissance.html#:~:text=Christian%20Humanism%20was%20a%20Renaissance,helped%20encourage%20the%20Protestant%2 0Reformation. Video Who Am I. (Dec. 4, 2010). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBcqria2wmg What was crucifixion like? (April 15, 2017). https://youtu.be/V0gNIL5GAdE The audacity of Christian art: the problem with Christ | National Gallery. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/introduction-cultures-religions-apah/christianity- apah/v/christian-art-national-gallery 1. Survey the Place of the Humanities in the History of Western and Eastern Civilization. 2. Distinguish the Humanities and the Sciences as Fields of Learning. REFERENCES Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities 6
  7. 7. Among all these pictures, which do you think gives the right description of the crucifixion of Christ? Explain your answer? https://yout u.be/V0gN IL5GAdE https://you tu.be/XKg 7YILYBkc 7
  8. 8. The Renaissance & Humanism The word 'renaissance' literally means rebirth. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, Europe experienced a rebirth of Greco-Roman culture, which had died out centuries before. Historians call this time period of rebirth, the Renaissance. This Renaissance included a renewed interest in Greco-Roman texts, a rekindled love of learning, an increased interest in understanding the natural world, and the philosophy of humanism. Humanism is an optimistic outlook emphasizing the goodness and success of humanity. Before the Renaissance, Christian Europeans often viewed humanity as sinful creatures who needed to be constantly mindful of their souls. During this new period of rebirth, however, there was much more emphasis on the goodness of God's creation and the talents and skills God had granted humanity. 8
  9. 9. The Northern Renaissance & Christian Humanism The Renaissance started in Italy, which had always been very aware of its Greco-Roman heritage. As the movement migrated north into places such as England, Germany, and Scandinavia, however, some of the Greco-Roman aspects were downplayed. Instead, there was much more emphasis on the understanding of Christianity, particularly early Christianity. What happened in the north is known as the Northern Renaissance, and its version of humanism became known as Christian Humanism. In Christianity, Jesus is understood to have both mortal and divine aspects to his being. Before the Renaissance, Christian teachings focused primarily on the spiritual and divine aspects of their belief: Jesus as divine, miracles, salvation, damnation, and so on. During the Northern Renaissance, however, there was much more focus on Jesus the mortal man, including his teachings, relationships, and experiences culminating with his execution via crucifixion. This ultimately affected many different aspects of religious life in northern Europe. One of the results of this focus on Jesus's mortal aspects was artwork that emphasized the physical and emotional pain associated with the crucifixion. Previously, images of his death were primarily about salvation through sacrifice, and artists depicted Jesus peacefully slumped over, as if he was sleeping. Artists influenced by Christian Humanism, however, often depicted Jesus tightly twisted in agony. Those witnessing his death are shown as wrought with grief rather than reflecting on the joy of salvation. 9
  10. 10. How would you define ‘art’? For many people art is a specific thing; a painting, sculpture or photograph, a dance, a poem or a play. It is all of these things, and more. They are mediums of artistic expression. Webster’s New Collegiate dictionary defines art as “The conscious use of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects.” Yet art is much more than a medium, or words on a page. It is the expression of our experience. Art is uniquely human and tied directly to culture. It takes the ordinary and makes it extraordinary. It asks questions about who we are, what we value, the meaning of beauty and the human condition. As an expressive medium it allows us to experience sublime joy, deep sorrow, confusion and clarity. It tests our strengths, vulnerabilities and resolve. It gives voice to ideas and feelings, connects us to the past, reflects the present and anticipates the future. Along these lines, art history, combined with anthropology and literature, are three main sources in observing, recording and interpreting our human past. Visual art is a rich and complex subject whose definition is in flux as the culture around it changes. Because of this, how we define art is in essence a question of agreement. In this respect, we can look again to the dictionary’s definition for an understanding of exactly what to look for when we proclaim something as ‘art’. 10
  11. 11. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE FRAMEWORKS AND PERSPECTIVES Sciences HUMANITIES Art Creation Artist Practice ART APPRECIATION Spectator Theory History FIELDS OF LEARNING Language Philosophy ART Our frail and fallible human bodies leave behind frail and fallible records of our frail and fallible lives oddly turning our inescapable mortality into a kind of immortality for subsequent mortals to humanistically or scientifically observe. And so, the duality we face regarding the definition of "humanity" still remains. The humanities actually compliment the sciences and vice versa. It's only that the exactness of science is a mastery and the depth of the humanities is wisdom. KEY CONCEPTS 11
  12. 12. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE SCIENCES THE TWO GENERAL FIELDS OF LEARNING THE HUMANITIES Deals with natural, physical phenomena Deals with human phenomena 12
  13. 13. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE SUBJECT-KNOWER PARADIGM FOR LEARNING IN THE SCIENCES OBJECT-KNOWN “The scientist learns about things in the world.” SCIENTIFIC METHOD 13
  14. 14. SUBJECT-KNOWER = OBJECT-KNOWN PARADIGM FOR LEARNING IN THE HUMANITIES “The humanist learns about the self.” REFLEXIVE METHOD 14
  15. 15. “Who am I?” THE BASIC QUESTION IN THE HUMANITIES https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=m Bcqria2wmg 15
  16. 16. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE For various reasons cultural, political, economic, and ideological that the norm of self-knowledge has come and gone with the tides through Western history. Even if we had been constantly enjoined to achieve self-knowledge for the 2,300 years since the time Socrates spoke, just as Sigmund Freud said about civilization; that civilization is constantly being created anew and everyone being born has to work their way up to being civilized being; so, also the project of achieving self-knowledge is a project for every single new member of our species. No one can be given it at birth. It’s not an achievement you get for free like a high IQ or a prominent chin. Continuing to beat that drum, to remind people of the importance of that, is something we’ll always be doing. SOCRATES 469-399 BC “Know thyself.” “Withdraw into yourself truth dwells in the inner man.” AUGUSTINE, 354-430 AD WISDOM THINKERS WHOSE THOUGHTS WERE THE BASIS OF METHOD IN THE HUMANITIES ‘Know Thyself’ was carved into stone at the entrance to Apollo’s temple at Delphi in Greece, according to legend. Scholars, philosophers, and civilizations have debated this question for a long time. Why have we not been able to find the answer? 16
  17. 17. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE SCIENCES THE HUMANITIES KNOWLEDGE WISDOM The scientist becomes a LEARNED MAN. The humanist becomes a WISE MAN. 17
  18. 18. THALES OF MILETUS (620-546 BC) “A scientist tends to know everything about the world that he forgets to know anything about himself.” A Philosopher renowned as one of the legendary Seven Wise Men, or Sophist, of antiquity. He is remembered primarily for his cosmology based on water as the essence of all matter, with Earth a flat disk floating on a vast sea. The most outstanding aspects of Thales’s heritage are: The search for knowledge for its own sake; the development of the scientific method; the adoption of practical methods and their development into general principles; his curiosity and conjectural approach to the questions of natural phenomena – In the sixth century B.C.E., Thales asked the question, ‘What is the basic material of the cosmos?’ The answer is yet to be discovered. 18
  19. 19. A wise man once said, “If you can revive the ancient and use it to understand the modern, then you are worthy to be a teacher” (2:11, Marquis Zhang Analects Version). Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) was born a couple of centuries before Socrates’ teachings on ethics and logic, and half a millennium before the start of our modern calendar and the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. He established a school with the explicit purpose of educating the next generation for political leadership. He was the first great thinker of the independent intellectual class, and is regarded as China’s first self- conscious philosopher who can be historically verified. He is further recognized as China’s first teacher, and his ideas have travelled beyond its borders to influence Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and now Western civilizations. The philosophy of Confucius does not purport to lay out a formula of how everyone should live. It is merely the way in which he, as a particular person, chose to live his life. “The Great Sage”-Wise Man of the East 19
  20. 20. What is the basic answer to this question? “I am a human being.” Who am I? “Humanities” 20
  21. 21. Readings Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Penguin Books. Videos Morelli, L. (March 7, 2014). TEDEd: Is there a difference between art and craft? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tVdw60eCnJI. 1. Examine the History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. REFERENCES Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization 21
  22. 22. How many moral ideas can you get from these pictures? 22
  23. 23. Have you ever watched something being made: a time-lapse of a building construction, a short video on how to bake muffins, a potter spinning his wheel and pulling up day into the shape of a vessel? There is something satisfying in seeing these processes and how things are created. One can have a clue of the skill and set, materials, and methods required to get the task done. You call it and art work. The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the language arts. The study of humanities in western civilization can be traced back to ancient Greece, where the humanities formed the basis of education for all citizens. In ancient Rome, there developed the notion of the seven liberal arts; these included grammar, rhetoric, logic, music, geometry, arithmetic, and astronomy. 23
  24. 24. The Relationship of Arts and Humanities What comes to your mind when you hear the word humanities? When you hear the word "humanities," what is the first thing that comes to mind? "Human nature, people, relationships, understanding others.“ When you say Humanities, those are branches of knowledge that concern themselves with human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself. Is humanities and arts are same? Arts and humanities are considered as two of the oldest fields of knowledge available to man. While art is seen as a more all-inclusive field, humanities, on the other hand, takes into consideration a diverse and oftentimes unrelated set of disciplines from literature to political history. KEY CONCEPTS 24
  25. 25. What is the importance of arts and humanities? The humanities and the arts are central to all human cultures throughout time. Their study can facilitate deeper intercultural understanding and lay the groundwork for a civically engaged life. They can also prepare you to think critically, act creatively, and succeed in a rapidly changing world. Both interpret the human experience through words or non-verbal forms of expression. It's true that the arts have more to do with the act of creation itself, whether through performance or the physical production of works, while the humanities have to do more with research and critical analysis Why art is called as humanities? The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the language arts. 25
  26. 26. How the arts and humanities affect everyday life? The humanities have practical applications for everyday life. They benefit people by helping them to think about and to consider life's surprises and challenges before they happen and by giving strength when they do happen. The humanities help us to make informed decisions. The humanities help us answer big questions How does art and humanities function in society? Arts and humanities research is useful because it gives societies the capacity to do more good things and improve the quality of life for more of its population. 26
  27. 27. “HUMANITIES” LATIN ENGLISH humanitas “humanity” humanitas barbaritas divinitas People in the state of culture in civilized society Savages in the state of nature for survival Gods in the state of perfection in heaven To Panofsky, he considers “Art as a Humanistic Discipline” Let us take a closer look on the meaning of Classified in three state: 27
  28. 28. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE PLACE OF HUMANITIES IN THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION MEDIEVAL RENAISSANCE ANCIENT COSMOCENTRIC VIEW PROTAGORAS: Man is the measure of all things. GEOCENTRISM: Man is at the center of the universe. MODERN POSTMODERN 800 BC 300 AD 1400 1600 THEOCENTRIC VIEW SCHOLASTICISM: Man is created in the image of God Man is at the center of creation. ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW HUMANISM: Nothing is more wonderful than man. SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC VIEW Man is a part of nature. ECLECTIC VIEW Man is a piece of everything. HUMA NITIES HUMA NITIES HUMA NITIES 28
  29. 29. ANCIENT IMAGE OF COSMOCENTRIC MAN: GEOCENTRIC THEORY Earth (Man) is the center of the universe. Ptolemy (100-170 AD) Almagest Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence. 29
  30. 30. MEDIEVAL IMAGE OF THEOCENTRIC MAN Man is created by God. Escorial Beatus, Illuminated Manuscript, 10th Century Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence. 30
  31. 31. RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF MAN: ANTROPOCENTRIC MAN: Measure of all things Leonardo da Vinci Vitruvian Man, 1490 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence. 31
  32. 32. Michelangelo, The Creation of Man (Sistine Chapel Painting, 1512) RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF ANTHROPOCENTRIC MAN The image of man is the image of God. Man is the measure of God. Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human’s existence. 32
  33. 33. HELIOCENTRIC THEORY: Removed man from the center of the universe and suggested the view man was special in the universe. Copernicus, On the Revolution of Celestial Bodies, 1542 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human’s existence. 33
  34. 34. The Evolution of Man MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC MAN Man is a part of nature. 34
  35. 35. Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Turf, 1642 MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC MAN The scientist is detached observer of the objectified man. Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human’s existence. 35
  36. 36. MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC- TECHNOCENTRIC MAN Man is dehumanized during the industrial age. Legaspi Gadgets 1947 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human’s existence. 36
  37. 37. POSTMODERN IMAGE OF ECLECTIC MAN Man is a piece of everything. Medio Cruz, Poleteismo, from Kulo Exhibit 2011 INSTALLATION ART Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human’s existence. 37
  38. 38. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE HISTORY Human events happening in the world LANGUAGE Written and oral forms of human communication PHILOSOPHY Human reason concerning reality ART Admiration (ART APPRECIATION) of human-made objects Human creativity (ART CREATION) by which these objects are made HUMANISTIC DISCIPLINES is define: 38
  39. 39. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE ENGLISH is called “art” LATIN is called “ars” Defines as skillful production or performance ETYMOLOGY of the word ART MAJOR ART MINOR ART LIBERAL ART SERVILE ART ARTIST ARTISAN CRAFT Architect Sculptor Stone Cutter Carpenter FINE ART Professional & Academic Artist (The study of the sources and development of words) ART 39
  40. 40. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE WESTERN CONCEPT ART ACADEMIC Only schooled people are artists Meant for the higher social class Liberal art and servile art, high and low art, major art and minor art or craft, fine art and practical art, folk art, indigenous art, popular art ELITIST HIERARCHICAL 40
  41. 41. MAJOR ART ➢ Made by artists and ➢ primarily concerned with the form of beauty MINOR ART OR CRAFT ➢ Made by artisans ➢ Concerned with functionality and usefulness of human-made objects (artifacts) WESTERN CLASSIFICATION OF THE ARTS 41
  42. 42. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE 7 MAJOR ARTS IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION PAINTING SCULPTURE ARCHITECTURE MUSIC DANCE DRAMA LITERATURE Performing Visual Linguistic 42
  43. 43. Ceramics Weaving Sewing Handicraft Carpentry Masonry Stone Cutting Gardening Cooking MINOR ARTS: CRAFT They were considered as makers of: https://yout u.be/tVdw6 0eCnJI 43
  44. 44. Michelangelo Painting in the Ceiling of Sistine Chapel 1508-1512 Michelangelo took the credit and was recognized as the artist who made this art and not the artisans who helped him during the time it was created. Example of Artist and Artisans: 44
  45. 45. Readings Covar, P. (1992) De Leon, F. (2015) Guillermo, B. (2016) Videos Usapang Pinoy EPISODE 2: Ang Pagkakakilanlan ng Pagkataong Pilipino. https://youtu.be/pV6Q9J61AfI Usapang Pinoy: EPISODE 1 [Kahalagahan, Pinagmulan at Daloy ng Pagkataong Pilipino]. https://youtu.be/60rPA2xErrA 1. Relate the Western Concept of Humanities with the Filipino Notion of “pagkatao.” 2. Compare and Contrast the Concepts of Art According to Western and Filipino Thought. REFERENCES Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao) 45
  46. 46. Question: Based on the picture illustrations, how do you explain “Madali ang maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” 46
  47. 47. Ayon kay Covar (1992), “hangarin ng disiplinang antropolohiya na pag-aralan ang likas na tao, kasama na rito ang pagdalumat (conceive/deep thought) ng pagkataong Pilipino. Di gaya ng siyensya na may pretensyong panukat na unibersal. Pagkatao at Katauhan Ayon pa rin kay Covar, “May kasabihan ang mga Pilipino na: “Madali ang maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” Ang pagiging tao ay isang prosesong bayolohikal. Ang pagpapakatao ay naaayon naman sa prosesong kultural. Ang salitang “tao” ay pangngalan. Ito ay tumatanggap ng iba’t-ibang panlapi upang makapagsaad ng iba’t-ibang kahulugan. Halimbawa: maka-tao, t-um-ao, tau-han. Ang ka-tau-han ay nangangahulugan ng “kabasalan ng diwang taglay ng salitang-ugat,” i.e., tao. Sa Ingles, ang salin ng katauhan ay “humanity.” Ayon kay Miranda, “humanhood.” Dahilan dito, ang salitang “pagkatao” ay angkop na konsepto bilang “personhood” o pagiging taong Pilipino. Ayon kay Santiago at Tiangco, ang pagka- “ay tumutukoy sa kalikasan ng tao, hayop o bagay.” Ganito ang gamit ng pagka- sa pariralang “pagkataong Pilipino,” i.e., Pilipinong tao.” 47
  48. 48. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE “HUMANITIES” LATIN humanitas ENGLISH “humanities” FILIPINO ? “pagpapakatao” Mula sa “pagkatao” “tao” KEY CONCEPTS 48
  49. 49. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE KATAUHAN Biological: Born as a human being Act of being human “personality” Cultural: Becoming a human being Process of becoming human “personhood” “Madaling maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” PAGKATAO “PAGPAPAKATAO” The process by which one becomes a human being COVAR’S FILIPINO ANTHROPOLOGY 49
  50. 50. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE How does a human being become a Filipino? FILIPINO PERSONHOOD Manunggul Jar, 890-710 BC, Tabon Cave, Palawan PAGKATAO can be likened into a jar like the 50
  51. 51. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE JAR AND THE FILIPINO PERSONHOOD LABAS LOOB ulo dibdib isip damdamin LALIM kaluluwa budhi Both came from clay 51
  52. 52. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE anito (banal) LABAS NG PAGKATAO Katawan (Physical) kulay ng balat (maputi, maitim) tindig (matangkad, andak) ilong (matangos, pango) dibdib (malapad, malaki) LOOB NG PAGKATAO Kalooban (Intellectual, Emotional and Moral) isip (matalino) ugali, asal (mabuti) LALIM NG PAGKATAO Kaluluwa (Espiritual) 52
  53. 53. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE NON-DUALISTIC RELATION OF TERMS LABAS LOOB malapad ng noo matalino salubong ang kilay matapang o galit malagkit ang tingin umiibig maduming bibig masamang magsalita LALIM malinis ang kaluluwa matuwid ang budhi 53
  54. 54. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE NON-DUALISTIC RELATION IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY LABAS LOOB hipo dama pigil timpi dinig ulinig tawa tuwa saya ligaya sarap ginhawa 54
  55. 55. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE THE “HUMANITIES” IN FILIPINO CONCEPT “PAGPAPAKATAO” The process how a human being becomes a Filipino FILIPINO In the study of Humanities, as Pagpapakatao, the students would discover and realize their own identity as a Filipino. ART 55
  56. 56. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE . Filipe del Leon Jr. (2011) “Defining the Filipino through the Arts” CULTURAL IDENTITY “The worldview and values, beliefs systems, knowledge, skills and practices, core principles and ideas shared by a society” FILIPINO “Cultural identity is a sine qua non for becoming active in the world… a source of social empowerment. Rob a people of their identity and they become passive, lost, indolent, uncreative and unproductive.” 56
  57. 57. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE Pre-Colonial Period (Before 1500’s) “The first objective of a colonizing power is to erase the cultural memory of the conquered people, to induce a collective amnesia about their past and supplant it with the culture of the colonizers. In this lie the roots of Filipino derivativeness and inferiority complex vis-a-vis the West.” Colonial Period (1500-1950) Post-Colonial Period (1950 onwards) Had our own cultural identity Our identity destroyed by colonizers: Westernization of Filipino Culture making us alienated from our own Reclamation, affirmation and definition of our identify in our own terms 57
  58. 58. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE 1. Alienation from Community 2. Alienation from Our Sources of Cultural Energy: Thinking in Borrowed Forms and the Economics of Dependency 3. Alienation from Our Race: The Doña Victorina Syndrome: 4. Alienation from the Indigenous: Denigrating the Local 5. Alienation from the Land 6. Alienation from Being Filipino 7. Alienation from Sustainable Living FORMS OF ALIENATION CAUSED BY WESTERNIZATION OF FILIPINO CULTURE WESTERN CULTURE (Standard) FILIPINO CULTURE (Subordinated) 58
  59. 59. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE 1. Heightening social consciousness and sense of responsibility to the nation. 2. Promoting people participation, local genius, and cultural diversity. 3. Promoting the local but thinking national or global: human communities, not the state, are the ultimate actors in the development process 4. Integrating the arts to social and cultural phenomena as lucid mirrors of social consciousness. Some Recommendations for Developing a Filipino and Humanistic Perspective OTHER CULTURES FILIPINO CULTURE (Standard) 59
  60. 60. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE 1. Integration of the arts with other values and functions 2. Unity of the arts 3. Art is integrated with everyday life and not regarded as a separate activity. 4. Equality of opportunity for participation in the artistic and creative process. 5. Flexibility of material, technical, and formal requirements 6. Use of available resources for artistic creation 7. Emphasis on the creative process rather than the finished product 8. Simultaneity of conception and realization THE COMMUNAL CHARACTER OF PHILIPPINE TRADITIONAL CULTURES AS REFLECTED IN THE ARTS 60
  61. 61. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE BECOMING FILIPINO THROUGH THE ARTS: The Process of Pagpapakatao “The arts can provide us the most vivid images of social relations and cultural values. They are perhaps the most lucid symbols of a people’s quality of being or consciousness. Contemplating the arts is like reflecting on the psychic template of an artist or a cultural community.” FILIPINO ARTS 61
  62. 62. Readings Covar, P. (1992) De Leon, F. (2015) Videos Xiao Time. (2014). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i8muLe9vss Damian Domingo: Primer Pintor Filipino (2010). https://youtu.be/m1sPyGbz6T8 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/MUeZuGfUUuo?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/rMSRrn1p_V4?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/kW6DU9IOe74?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 TUKLAS: Sining Saysay - Philippine History in Art. (2018).https://youtu.be/ZN75VyLipIU Preserving the Uniqueness of Philippine Culture. (2018).https://youtu.be/z1gfrrevD1A 1. Discover the Filipino Identity through the Arts. 2. Apply the Filipino Sense of Art in the Appreciation of Art. REFERENCES Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept of Art 62
  63. 63. We are a nation of possibilities. Filipinos are generally innovative, strategic and imaginative. Together with our innate adaptability, we can adjust to any situation, make use of resources at hand, and create something from nothing. Amidst natural disasters, Filipinos are strong- spirited people who continue to brave each storm hand in hand. Whatever situation we are in, we rise as one nation. Filipino Pride, as they say, is "May angas. May yabang." Ginebra San Miguel, also once known as La Tondeña Distillers, Inc. has become, through the years, an iconic fixture in the Filipino’s culture of celebration, camaraderie and tenacity. Proudly Pinoy 63
  64. 64. The phrase “Only in the Philippines” can be read in various ways – as an expression of pride in what we feel are activities, attitudes, and aspirations that are uniquely Filipino; yet also as an expression of frustration and exasperation about systems and situations that we know are corrupt, unjust, or simply not good enough. The answers have come in all shapes and colors. They come in the vibrant hues of parols that point to our fascinating way of celebrating Christmas – over four months, starting in September; in the curious ways we turn our plates when somebody leaves the table before one is finished with his or her meal; in the image of a boxer as national hero who could, if imagination and votes meet, be the country’s next president. Good or bad, major or minor, these images collectively afford us a glimpse into the richness and diversity of our culture. They also assure us that pride and frustration are not mutually exclusive feelings toward our country and ourselves. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin; and both are necessary elements to motivate us in steering our nation into a brighter, peaceful, and just future. “ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINES” 64
  65. 65. Western Concept ART Academic Elitist Hierarchical ART Filipino Concept Only schooled people are artists Meant for the higher social class High vs low art major art vs craft fine vs practical art folk indigenous Has no such Western distinctions KEY CONCEPTS 65
  66. 66. Son of Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity, but thought to be a noble Spanish descent by the Spaniards so that they commissioned him to paint Engaged by a merchant to paint, in miniaturismo style, albums of people wearing their daily costumes Had a vision of making art more accessible to the Filipinos (Indios) Founded the first Art School in the Philippines Escuela Dibujo y Pintura in Tondo Manila in 1821 His patron was Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais Professor and Director of the Philippine Art Academy. The academy was closed after his death producing Filipino artists trained in Western artistic tradition DAMIAN DOMINGO (1796-1834) FATHER OF PHILIPPINE PAINTING Video 1.2. EXAMPLES OF RENOWN FILIPINO ARTISTS https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=3i8 muLe9vss https://youtu. be/m1sPyGb z6T8 66
  67. 67. Domingo, Tipos del Pais, Water color of Filipinos in native costumes 67
  68. 68. JUAN LUNA (1857-1899) Bachelor of Arts Degree, Ateneo Municipal de Manila. Enrolled in Academy of Fine Arts, Manila Went to Europe in 1877, and studied in Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Won gold medal in Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884 for Spoliarium Commissioned by Spanish government to do paintings like La Batalla de Lepanto and El Pacto de Sangre Arrested for murdering his wife and mother-in-law, but was acquitted on grounds of crime of passion. ACADEMIC WESTERNIZED FILIPINO PAINTER 68
  69. 69. Juan Luna, Spoliarium, 1884, Gold Medal, Exposicion Nacional NEOCLASSICAL STYLE Felix R. Hidalgo, Las Virgines Cristiana espuestas al population, 1884, Silver Medal, Exposicion Nacional 69
  70. 70. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE RIZAL’S SPEECH “…. In the history of mankind there are names which in themselves signify an achievement…. To such belong the names of Luna and Hidalgo: their splendor illuminates two extremes of the globe-the Orient and the Occident, Spain and the Philippines. As I utter them, I seem to see two luminous arches that rise from either region to blend there on high…to unite two peoples with eternal bonds; two peoples whom the seas and space vainly separate; two peoples among whom do not germinate the seeds of disunion blindly sown by men and their despotism. Luna and Hidalgo are the pride of Spain as of the Philippines- though born in the Philippines, they might have been born in Spain, for genius has no country; genius bursts forth everywhere….” Winning the exposition had proven that Filipinos were equal with the Spaniards, so that the Filipinos deserve the recognition of other people in the world with equal dignity and respect. 70
  71. 71. Luna, España y Filipinas 1886 One positive way of looking at Filipino identity in the arts is to see Philippine Art as integrated in Western Art, and these two traditions are uniting and harmonizing with one another. Philippine Art Western Art 71
  72. 72. Tolentino Bonifacio Monument 1933 NEOCLASSICISM Amorsolo, Planting Rice ROMANTIC REALISM RENAISSANCE ART IMPRESSIONISM Manansala, Marketscene TRANSPARENT CUBISM Lamaroza Ecology Series 1978 SURREALISM 72
  73. 73. Joya Karate ACTION PAINTING ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Gus Albor, Upward Duality COLOR FIELD PAINTING 73
  74. 74. Tinalak, Tiboli Art Examples of Filipino Indigenous Arts Embedded in our Culture Basey, Art of Colorful Mats from Samar-Leyte Pastillas, Wrapper Art of Pampanga and Bulacan Vinta, Badjao Art Sarimanok Design Maranao Art Okir, Maranao Art 74
  75. 75. Torogan, Maranao Art Maranao Brassware Art Burnay Jars of Ilocos PASIKING, Ifugao Native Backpack Ling Ling O, Art of the Cordillera Group Bulul, Igorot Art 75
  76. 76. COLORFUL ARTS made of capiz shells with twikling light design PAHIYAS, ART OF LUCBAN QUEZON Taka Art of Paete, Laguna JEEPNEY ART THE COLORFUL ART OF THE PHILIPPINE KALESA THE COLORFUL ART OF TRICYCLE DESIGN 76
  77. 77. COLORFUL PHILIPPINE ICE CREAM CART Laji of the Ivatan is literature and music Pasyon is literature, and pabasa is music Senakulo is a theater art 77
  78. 78. “dayaw” Binisaya word that means good, valuable, superior or beautiful Video 1.3 https://youtu.be/MU eZuGfUUuo?list=P LEU- B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPIt U-U4jl9E_2XN5 https://youtu.be/rM SRrn1p_V4?list=PL EU- B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPIt U-U4jl9E_2XN5 https://youtu.be/kW 6DU9IOe74?list=P LEU- B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPIt U-U4jl9E_2XN5 https://yout u.be/ZN75 VyLipIU https://yout u.be/z1gfrr evD1A 78
  79. 79. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE FILIPINO “The principle of cultural identity does not mean that cultures cannot be criticized. If all cultures on earth are to survive, most of them have to change some of their beliefs and practices in order to become compatible with one another” (Felipe, 2011). WESTERN The Philippine culture has to be dynamic in its relation with other cultures in the world. By harmonizing the Western and the Filipino concepts of art and its practice, a truly Philippine identity in the arts would emerge out of the shared cultural universe, not only of our own people, but of the humanity as a whole. IDENTITY 79
  80. 80. 1. In the concept of Filipino “Pagkatao” what cultural influence do you find relevant to showcase the Philippine culture in the global community? (Lesson 1.3) 1. Based on this module activity, do you find Filipino craftsmanship a world class art? Explain 1. How does technology affect what it means to be human? (Lesson 1.1) 2. How do the humanities help us imagine the future? (Lesson 1.1) Instructions: The answer to each question should have at least a minimum of 50 words. Assessment Analysis Reflection 80
  81. 81. RUBRICS FOR GRADING CRITERIA EXCELLENT (10 PTS) ABOVE AVERAGE (8 PTS) AVERAGE (6 PTS) BELOW AVERAGE (4 PTS) POOR (2 PT) ANALYSIS: Creativity and uniqueness Uniqueness of idea is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Uniqueness of idea is informative and well thought. Uniqueness of idea is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. ASSESSMENT: Clarity: Message is clearly addressed Message is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. Message is informative and well thought. Message is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. REFLECTIONS: Impact: The idea is relevant to present situation The relevance is thorough, informative, and demonstrates significant effort. The relevance is informative and well thought. The relevance is present, but some details missing/incorrect. Minimal detail provided, needs improvement. Absolute minimal effort. 81
  82. 82. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE a. Individual activity: Along the sidewalks or local shops, find a native Philippine product (work of art) such as basket, bracelet, hut, rags, textile, sandals, etc. b. Make a documentation of the artifact: Where did you buy it? How much? What is its local name? What is it made of? Its color, size? Other information? c. Write a one-paragraph essay answering the question: How does the product or artifact express the Filipino concept of art? d. Use the paper provided for this activity. Module 1 82
  83. 83. ART APPRECIATION ACTIVITY 1 NAME: Course/Section/time: Date: A. Description of the artwork, product or artifact Name or term: Color: Composition: Dimensions: Other information: B. ESSAY: How does this product or artifact express the Filipino concept of Art? (minimum of 5 sentences) Picture 83
  84. 84. DR. ALLAN C. ORATE, UE RUBRICS FOR ACTIVITY 1 CRITERIA Excellent (16-20 points) Good (11-15 points) Fair (6-10 points) Needs Improvement (1-5) Documentation Documentation of the artifact is complete. Some elements are lacking in the documentation. Many elements are lacking in the documentation There is no documentation at all Content and Substance The essay answers the question completely and correctly. The essay partially answers the question correctly. A large part of the essay incorrectly answer the question. The essay does not answer the question at all. Language and Comprehension The essay abides with all the rules of language, and it is easily understood. The essay is understood although there are some mistakes in language There are many mistakes in language, and the essay is hard to understand. The essay has many mistakes in language, and it is totally not understood. 84
  85. 85. MODULE 1 85

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