Political Advertising During 2013 Elections

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A final year Bachelor Business Administration (Majors: Marketing) thesis researched and written to gauge the progressive trends concerning the art of campaigning during the Election Campaign of 2013 compared to 2009 Elections, through the electronic medium and the future potential of campaigning to woo the public into voting for the respective political party via political communication.

Veröffentlicht in: Marketing, News & Politik, Business
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Political Advertising During 2013 Elections

  1. 1. “The Efficacy of Political Advertising, during 2013 Elections, through Television Commercials and its impact on first time voters between 18-23 years in Karachi.” Thesis Advisor: Ms. Rabab Sultan Group Members Eisha Salim (1011148) Maria Shafiq Sheikh (1011181) Yusra Hassan (10111238) Mustafa Khan (1011119) Submitted on: 27th November 2013
  2. 2. Introduction  Acc. to ECP report: “2013’s electorate constituted of nearly half of the 84 million legal voters 35 below, of which 47.8% between the ages of 18 and 35, while 19.77%, or 16.88 million voters, are under the age of 26”  Rising ad expenditure from PKR 225 million to PKR 781 million (PAS)  Focus on four major political parties: PPP, PTI, MQM and PML-N  Parties tried to create a impact to gather votes through airing of TVCs  Political TVCs: Means of election campaigning legalized regions such as USA, Pakistan & India  Efficacy: According to Merriam Webster: “the power to produce an effect”  Advertising efficacy: Measurement of effectiveness of advertising efforts Sources: Website: Marketing.About.Com (http://marketing.about.com/od/marketingglossary/g/advresearchdef.htm) Website: Merriam Webster A British Encyclopedia and Skyblogs (http://skyblog.skytics.com/2010/03/advertising-efficacy-wheres-the-beef/)
  3. 3. Theoretical Framework Factors Tested Awareness, Liking, Knowledge, Believability, Conviction, Preference, Comprehension Models and Measures of Advertising Effectiveness AIDA Model for Advertising Impact Perception & Voting Decision Change Source: AIDA Model: Strong, E.K. (1925). "Theories of Selling". Journal of Applied Psychology 9: 75-86., Lavidge and Steiner (1961) Effective Advertising by Gerard J Tellis, CH 4:Measuring Advertising Effectiveness ,Page 44,Exibit 4.1: Models & Measures of Advertising Effectiveness
  4. 4. Problem Statement How effective was the political advertising, during 2013 General Elections, through television commercials and what was its impact on first time voters between ages 18-23 in Karachi? Research Objectives To analyze the changing trends of advertising by political parties through television and its implications on the voter‟s mind How advertising and political experts of the industry viewed 2013 election campaigns by major parties in relation to the voters perception The degree of efficacy of the political ads based on media monitoring/buying reports, voters perception and expert interviews of political party representatives
  5. 5. Research Methodology Type of study Qualitative; Descriptive, Case Study Population First time voters between ages 18-23 years old Sample Size 400 Respondents; 60% (240) Males, 40% (160) Females Sampling Method Non Probability, Convenience Sampling Research Tools Primary Research Expert Interviews (4) Survey Questionnaire (400) Secondary data International Research Journals, Media Buying Reports , Election Commission Reports 2013
  6. 6. Top of Mind Recall: Frequency vs. Advertising Minutes Frequency of Ads seen according to Voters 32% PPP PML-N MQM PTI 55% 9% 4% 48,321 Minutes of Advertising 2008 2013 22,939 12,440 1,693 PPP 1,694 PTI PML(N) 10,092 70 2,116 MQM 1,876 PML(Q) 7601,849 PML(F) 1,744 JI Pakistan 661 APML 364 240 TTP Habib Ur Rehman (AU) Source: Minutes of Advertising , Pakistan Advertising Society (PAS) and Media Bank (Media Intelligence Agency) Post Election Analysis Report
  7. 7. Channel Preferences: Voters vs. Media Buying Total Minutes of Advertising Channel Genre Split Voter Channel Preference No of Respondents 94 News/ Current Affairs Sports Entertainment Others 72 56 59 53 34 32 10 PTI 12 MQM 27 24 10 12 PPP 7 5 0 PMLN Source: Total Minutes of Advertising according to channel genre split , Pakistan Advertising Society (PAS) and Media Bank (Media Intelligence Agency) Post Election Analysis Report
  8. 8. Perception vs. Decision: Voter Change Change in Perception Changed PML-N Neutral 42% 13% 36% PPP MQM 10% 50% 19% 62% 42% 0% 45% 14% 19% PTI Not Changed 20% 13% 30% 40% 50% 45% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Change in Decision Change of Decision PML - N No Impact Did Not Vote 47% PPP 26% 27% 55% MQM 35% 40% PTI 15% 0% 10% 60% 30% 20% 30% 10% 55% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  9. 9. Advertising Spend vs. Advertising Minutes Advertising Spend 48,321 Minutes of Advertising 2008 2013 22,939 12,440 1,693 PPP 1,694 PTI PML(N) 10,092 70 2,116 MQM 1,876 PML(Q) 7601,849 PML(F) 1,744 JI Pakistan Source: Group M Post Elections Research and Analysis Report, Comparative Study: 2008 and 2013 661 APML 364 240 TTP Habib Ur Rehman (AU)
  10. 10. Expert Interview Findings • Expert Interviews were conducted to understand rationale behind each political parties‟ media campaigns pre-elections • Significant deductions from the interviews were: • The political parties had a number of creative agencies • PTI & MQM relied on in-house Media Cell expertise to create & execute electronic media & digital media campaigns • The eruption of blame game obscured the message and content • Political parties did not incorporate their manifestos in the message content • Ads focused on defaming opposing party: PTI vs. PML-N and MQM vs. PPP Source: Mr. Wasay Jaleel (MQM), Mr. Salman Danish (PTI), Agency for PML-N and PPP (Orient Advertising)
  11. 11. Research Findings • 243%+ Above Increase in Advertising Expenditures from 2008 to 2013 • High advertising expenditure cannot necessarily create an impact on the voting • Positive impact on recall & remembrance caused by high frequency • The viewership of news channels was higher than Entertainment & Regional • First time voters responded to liking an ad due to: • Emotional cues for MQM and PPP and Functional cues for PTI & PML-N • Frequency & Recall: PTI & PPP‟s TVC • According to the AIDA Model: Successfully grabbed attention, Interest factor was present, but call to action got lost between negative counter attacks • The message content did not reflect parties‟ manifestos except that of MQM Source: Pakistan Advertising Society (PAS) and Media Bank (Media Intelligence Agency) Post Election Analysis Report and Media Buying and Monitoring Report: GroupM 2008-2013 Elections
  12. 12. Conclusion • Ad expenditure rise from PKR 225 million to PKR 781 million (243% increase) • Extensive media buying cannot guarantee results, good for initial hype • All ads successful on AIDA model‟s first 3 stages; Attention, Interest, Desire but failed to create powerful impact to elicit „call to action‟ • True potential of political advertising requires in-depth research • Emotional and Function cues to be used equally for Pakistani voters audience • Ads need to communicate manifesto and potential performance • Right combination of advertising mediums can change youth‟s perception • Liking for a party means support, but does not guarantee an actual vote Sources: Pakistan Advertising Society (PAS) and Media Bank (Media Intelligence Agency) Post Election Analysis Report Group M Post Elections Research and Analysis Report, Comparative Study: 2008 and 2013 Election Commission of Pakistan, Post Elections Report 2013
  13. 13. Recommendations • Pre & Post-Advertising Research to create impactful strategies • Carefully planned campaigns with media planners and advertising experts for future • Avoid negative advertising and personal attacks in advertising • Guidelines and regulations for political advertising to be created • Global trends to be analyzed and the regulations followed • Parties to use investment in marketing through a 360 degrees campaign and not bombard TV channels • Other strategies to be explored for attracting young voters
  14. 14. Limitations Law and Order Conditions Time Constraints Sampling Methodology and Gender Ratio Case Study Report Unavailability of Political Representatives Possibility of Fallacious Responses
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  17. 17. Thank You

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