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Cours routage inter-vlan

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Cours routage inter-vlan

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Cours routage inter-vlan

  1. 1. Le routage inter-VLAN El Hassan EL AMRI Campus des Réseaux Informatiques et Télécommunications Email : elamrihs@gmail.com
  2. 2. Rappel • Un VLAN permet de segmenter un réseau commuté et améliorer les performances, ainsi la facilité de gestion et la sécurité. • Les VLAN permettent de segmenter les réseaux commutés. Les commutateurs de couche 2, tels que ceux de la gamme Catalyst 2960, • Un VLAN est un domaine de diffusion : les ordinateurs se trouvant sur des VLAN différents ne peuvent donc pas communiquer sans l'intervention d'un dispositif de routage.
  3. 3. Le routage inter-VLAN Fonctionnement du routage inter-VLAN
  4. 4. Le routage inter-VLAN • Le routage inter-VLAN s'effectue par la connexion de différentes interfaces de routeur physiques à différents ports de commutateur physiques. • Le routage inter-VLAN reposait sur des routeurs dotés de plusieurs interfaces physiques. Chaque interface devait être connectée à un réseau distinct et configurée pour un sous-réseau différent. • Le but du routage inter-VLAN c’est réalisé la communication entre tous les VLANs qui existent dans notre réseau, à travers un routeur pour communiquer les différents réseaux.
  5. 5. Le routage inter-VLAN router-on-stick Router-on-stick = les sous interfaces ( routeur) • La méthode « router-on-a-stick » est un type de configuration de routeur dans laquelle une seule interface physique achemine le trafic entre plusieurs VLAN d'un réseau.
  6. 6. Routage inter-VLAN des commutateurs multicouches • Les commutateurs multicouches peuvent effectuer des fonctions de couche 2 et 3, ce qui évite aux routeurs dédiés d'effectuer du routage de base sur un réseau. • Les commutateurs multicouches prennent en charge le routage dynamique et le routage inter-VLAN. • Les commutateurs multicouche remplace les routeurs, permet de faire l’interconnexion des VLANs entre des différents réseaux.
  7. 7. Routage inter-VLAN des commutateurs multicouches  // Récapitulatif //
  8. 8. Configuration du routage inter-VLAN existant
  9. 9. Configuration du routage inter- VLAN sous interfaces
  10. 10. vérification des sous- interfaces • La commande show vlans affiche des informations sur les sous-interfaces VLAN du logiciel Cisco IOS. • show ip route pour afficher la table de routage (chapitre 4)
  11. 11. vérification du routage • Une fois que le routeur et le commutateur ont été configurés pour assurer le routage inter-VLAN, l'étape suivante consiste à vérifier la connectivité d'hôte à hôte. // Ping Test (Test Ping) // • La commande ping envoie une requête d'écho de protocole ICMP à l'adresse de destination pour tester la connectivité. // Test Tracert // • Tracert est un utilitaire permettant de confirmer le chemin de la route prise entre deux périphériques.
  12. 12. Le routage inter-VLAN Dépannage du routage inter-VLAN
  13. 13. Problèmes liés aux ports de commutateur • Lors de l'utilisation du modèle de routage existant pour le routage inter- VLAN, assurez-vous que les ports de commutateur se connectant aux interfaces de routeur sont configurés sur les VLAN corrects. • Assurer que l’interface de commutateur qui sera reliée avec le commutateur est configuré comme mode truc • Pour le routeur, assurer que l’interface n’est pas configuré par une adresse IP, pour appliquer la méthode router-on-stick
  14. 14. Vérification de la configuration du commutateur • Lorsque vous suspectez un problème avec une configuration de commutateur, utilisez les diverses commandes de vérification pour examiner la configuration et identifier le problème. o Pour avoir l’état administratif sur l’état d’un port, il suffit de taper la commande : show interfaces fa x/x, g x/x switchport. o Pour afficher la configuration en cours sur le commutateur, taper la commande : show run.
  15. 15. Vérifier la configuration du routeur • La commande show interface produisant de nombreux résultats sur les interfaces. • La commande show running-config, affiche la configuration en cours au niveau du routeur.
  16. 16. Problèmes d'adressage IP • Les VLAN correspondent à des sous-réseaux uniques sur le réseau. Pour que le routage inter-VLAN fonctionne, un routeur doit être connecté à tous les VLAN, par des interfaces physiques distinctes ou des sous-interfaces. En général : • Si l’adressage IP des sous interfaces est différent par rapport à les VLANs, le routage inter-VLAN va pas fonctionner correctement, résultat problème dans la communication des VLANs.
  17. 17. Inter-VLAN (Initiation aux réseaux Commutés) El Hassan EL AMRI Campus des Réseaux Informatique et Télécommunications Email : elamrihs@gmail.com

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