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Global health policy

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Global health policy

  1. 1. GLOBAL HEALTH POLICIES Presented By – DebrajMukherjee Dr.Saleha Khan Dr.Vibhor Dudhraj
  2. 2. Health Policy • A set of decisions or commitments to persue courses of action aimed at achieving defined goals for improving health. • Policies usually state or infer the values that underpin the policy position • They may also specify the source of funding that can be applied to the action, the planning and management arrangements to be adopted for implementation of the policy and the relevant institutions to be involved.
  3. 3. Aims Of Health Policy • The Prime Aim : Maintenance and improvement of the health status of populations • The risk factors which influence health difference between countries • Thus policies for health will be influenced by different factors in each country and region
  4. 4. Health Policy In Developing Countries • Central issue : Making the best use of limited resources in the environments in which there is a wide gap between needs and resources, expectations and performance. • There are three main issues : Diversity, Complexity, Change
  5. 5. Health for all (HFA) •In 1977, in world health assembly “HEALTH FOR ALL BY 2000” movement launched. •Fundamental principle of HFA strategy is EQUITY. •Members countries of WHO at the 3Oth world assembly defined health for all as “attainment of a level of health that will enable every individual to lead a socially and economically productive life.” WHO has established 13 global indicators to assess the progress toward HFA. EX. Minimum life expectancy of 60 years and max. IMR of 50 per 1000 Live births.
  6. 6. 6 Millennial development goals ( Goals to be achieved by 2000-01 to 2015 ) Suring September 2000, representative from 189 countries met at millennium summit in new york to adopt united nations millennium declaration now widely referred as MILLENUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS. •To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. •Achieve universal primary education. •Promote gender equality. •Improve maternal health. •Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and others communicable disease.
  7. 7. Continued… • Ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development. • Recently included universal accsess to reproductive health.
  8. 8. Sustainable development goals (SDG) Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages. •By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births. •By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1000 live births and
  9. 9. Continue…. • By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-
  10. 10. Continue…. • By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non- communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well- being • Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
  11. 11. Continue….. • By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents. • By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programs
  12. 12. Continue… • Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health- care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. • By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollutio
  13. 13. Continue…. • Strengthen the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate. • Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States.
  14. 14. Continue…. • Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks. • Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non- communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries • Provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all.
  15. 15. Universal health coverage by 2030 (UHC) Universal health coverage (UHC) means that all people and communities can use the promotive , preventive, curative rehabilitative and palliative health service they need, of sufficient quality to be effective, while also ensuring that the use of these services does not expose the user to financial hardship.(WHO) UHC firmly based on : •The WHO constitution 1948 declaring health a fundamental human right. •the Health for all agenda set by alma ata declaration in 1978.
  16. 16. Continued… •UHC cut across all of the health related sustainable development goals (SDGs) and bring hope of better health and protection for the world’s poorest. •At present 18 countries offer true UHC : Australia, France, Germany, Ireland , New Zealand , united kingdom, etc.
  17. 17. Advantages & disadvantages
  18. 18. 19 Global alliance for vaccination and immunisation (Gavi the vaccine alliance) •Created in year 2000, GAVI is an international organisation- global vaccine alliance, bringing together public and private sectors . with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries. (gavi.org) •Founder : bill and melinda gates foundation. •GAVI receives 2019 lasker~bloomberg public serving award for saving millions of lives by providing sustained access to childhood vaccines around the globe.
  19. 19. Current strategy 2016-2020
  20. 20. 21 Conclusions • Foreign policy has a clear role to play in catalyzing and supporting responses to key urgent health-related challenges as well as non-health problems that adversely affect national and global health. • Global health issues and initiatives appear with increasing frequency in all foreign policy contexts, including bilateral relations, regional organizations, other intergovernmental processes and multilateral institutions.
  21. 21. Continued… •The level of foreign policy involvement and interest in global health has grown dramatically, making the relationship between global health and foreign policy an increasingly important issue for the United Nations, WHO, many intergovernmental organizations and processes and national Governments. This change reinforces the importance of concerted and sustained international cooperation through global health initiatives, health-sensitive multi-sectoral policies and advocacy for improved individual, national and global health outcomes. Ex: Smallpox vaccination & disease eradication is a case of global health efforts.
  22. 22. CONTENT: Global funds to fights HIV & AIDS Tuberculosis MALARIA  GAIN(Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition)
  23. 23. HIV & AIDS • HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus, which targets the immune system and weakens people's defense systems. AIDS is acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the most advanced stage of HIV infection. • The Global Fund partnership has achieved what was once considered impossible. From the peak of the HIV crisis in the late 1990s and early 2000s, we have cut annual AIDS-related deaths and new infections by half. • Of 37.9 million people living with HIV, 23.3 million are on antiretroviral therapy – 18.9 million in Global Fund-supported countries in 2018. • But after more than 15 years of incredible progress, we have now entered a new phase in the fight against HIV. As the epidemic evolves, so must our responses.
  24. 24. Summary of the global HIV epidemic (2018) Source: UNAIDS/WHO estimates 0.8millionHIV-related deaths [0.6 million –1.1 million] 1.7millionpeople newly infected [1.4 million – 2.3 million] 37.9millionpeople living with HIV [32.7 million – 44.0 million] 2018
  25. 25. Global HIV epidemic – incidence and mortality since 2010 2018 Globally 37.9 million People living with HIV - 16% New infections annually relative to 2010 - 33% Deaths annually relative to 2010
  26. 26. FUNDING PARTNERS: A collective, global effort • Together with partners, the Global Fund has set a bold target to reduce the number of new HIV infections among adolescent girls and young women by 58% in 13 African countries by 2022. • The Global Fund’s investmentsof the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the DREAMS. • HER is a collaborative platform for diverse partners to support adolescent girls and young women in countries with a high risk of HIV.
  27. 27.  (RED) and partners have contributed over US$600 million to the Global Fund, investing in smart, innovative HIV/AIDS programs that empower and support young women and girls.  Partnering with (RED), Durex has committed at least US$5 million to the Keeping Girls in School program in South Africa.  Tapping into Coca-Cola’s network of best-in-class creative marketing and consumer insight capacities, Project Last Mile worked with the Global Fund and Eswatini Health Promotion Unit to develop Girl Champ.  Nearly 2,000 girls have registered for health services so far. Financial Support  The bank is an active HER supporter – both financially and through advocacy efforts.Global Fund since 2008.
  28. 28. Tuberculosis • Tuberculosis is the world’s leading killer among infectious diseases. In 2017, TB killed 1.6 million people, including 300,000 people with HIV, making it one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. • TB is spread from person to person through coughing and sneezing. One person with active, untreated TB can spread the disease to as many as 15 other people in a year. • Roughly 36% of people with active TB are missed each year.
  29. 29. Progress in the response to TB Progress is being made. The mortality rate for TB fell by 42% between 2000 and 2017. The Global Fund provides 69% of all international financing for TB more than US$6.7 billion through TB grants as of August 2019. The development of diagnostic tools such as the GeneXpert machine has greatly aided the response to multidrug-resistant TB. The number of people treated for drug-resistant forms of TB in Global Fund-supported countries in 2018 was more than 114,000
  30. 30. Malaria The fight against malaria is one of the biggest public health successes of the 21st century. Global malaria death rates have dropped by 60% since 2000 – translating to millions of lives saved. Malaria, caused by a parasite spread by certain types of mosquitoes, is among the deadliest diseases in human history. In 2017, there were 219 million cases and 435,000 deaths from malaria, with nearly 80% of these occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated US$3.1 billion was invested in malaria control and elimination efforts globally in 2017 – less than half the 2020 funding target.
  31. 31. Continued: The Global Fund provides nearly 60% of all international financing for malaria, and has invested more than US$11.4 billion in malaria control programs in more than 100 countries from 2002-2018, using a comprehensive approach that combines:  Education about symptoms, prevention and treatment  Prevention through use of mosquito nets, spraying structures with insecticide and preventive treatment for children and pregnant women  Diagnosis, including supplying rapid diagnostic tests to community health volunteers  Treatment
  32. 32. it is an international financing and partnership organization that aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations. Located in : Geneva, Switzerland Founded : January 28, 2002
  33. 33. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has raised US$ 14 billion for the three diseases for a three-year period (2020–2022) At its Sixth Replenishment Conference, held in Lyon, France, on 9 and 10 October 2019, the Global Fund raised US$ 14.02 billion, the highest amount ever for the partnership, which is working to end the three diseases. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) leads and inspires the world to achieve its shared vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. GENEVA, 11 October 2019 NEW DELHI,08 FEBRUARY 2019 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) presented its Sixth Replenishment Investment Case to donors and partners at a meeting held in New Delhi, India, on 8 February. The Investment Case calls for US$ 14 billion to be invested over three years to help save 16 million lives through programmes for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. UNAIDS estimates that US$ 26.2 billion will be required for the AIDS response in 2020.
  34. 34. GENEVA, 20 September 2016 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). At its Fifth Replenishment Conference in Montreal, Canada, donors pledged US$ 12.9 billion of the US$ 13 billion called for by the Global Fund for the three-year period 2017–2019. For the three diseases, the Global Fund estimates that the amount raised will save 8 million lives, avert 300 million infections and help build sustainable systems for health. To meet global targets to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030, UNAIDS estimates that US$ 26.2 billion will be needed in 2020, around US$ 7 billion more than was available in 2015
  35. 35. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) is an independent non-profit foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland GAIN was developed at the UN 2002 Special Session of the General Assembly on Children
  36. 36. The GAIN Vision, Mission, Goal  GAIN stands for the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition  Driven by the vision of a world without malnutrition  GAIN’s mission is to reduce global malnutrition through food fortification and other sustainable strategies aimed at improving the health and nutrition of populations at risk, particularly women and children  GAIN’s target is to reach 1 billion people with improved nutrition,including 500 million women and children.
  37. 37. Work GAIN supports market-based nutrition solutions in nutrition interventions areas including:  Large Scale Food fortification  Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition.  Agriculture and Nutrition  Business Partnerships and Alliances  Monitoring Learning and Research