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Low Cost Housing Concept

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Low cost housing needs to be redefined based on life cycle of the buildings.

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
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Low Cost Housing Concept

  1. 1. Dr K M Soni Chief Engineer, WZ-I, CPWD, Mumbai
  2. 2. Definition  It is considered a concept of reduction in the cost of construction without sacrificing the strength required for the performance of the building. 2
  3. 3. Concept  it is said that it is a misconception that low cost housing is based on inferior specifications, low quality and produces sub standard work.  It is said that it is a misconception that low cost housing is only for the poor. 3
  4. 4. Low cost housing  For low height structures ?  For low income group ?  For public  Even for government housing  For simple structures ?  For rural housing? Or  For all type of structures? 4
  5. 5. Value Engineering  Value engineering also adopts methods of adopting design, materials and labour just suitable for the structure and achieving economy in overall construction. 5
  6. 6. Acceptance of low cost housing concept  low housing concept has still not been accepted by majority of architects and engineers.  Possible reasons:  Simple (architectural features make it costly)  Low specifications (rich specifications make it costly)  Low acceptability among middle income group and high income group people 6
  7. 7. Discussion on low cost housing  Deliberated only during financial recession.  Budget is the main constraint  Budget, a constraint to whom? 7
  8. 8. Examples  When mass housing is required and financial resources are limited like Indira Awas Yojana or similar other schemes.  When mass housing schemes are required after natural disasters, particularly due to limited time and funds available for construction.  When recession is there and lower middle class finds difficult to purchase the flats due to their financial constraints. 8
  9. 9. Commonalities  common in all above situations is financial constraint  for poor or lower middle class people. (may not be acceptable to many engineers who are believers of low cost housing but is a reality.) Why don’t we talk about low cost Metro, low cost flyovers, low cost bridges, low cost airports etc. 9
  10. 10. Inference  Low cost housing reflects that it is the housing of low cost and though it may have nothing to do for whom the housing is made but general concept is that low cost housing is for poor and it is very difficult to change the existing concept. Some of the engineers and administrators have started calling it as affordable housing which is again for them who cannot afford a good house at a higher cost. 10
  11. 11. So, one way is let us accept it that low cost housing is for the poor masses and develop design and specifications accordingly and for general housing deliberate on economic housing. Or go on calling low cost housing as a misconcept that it is for poor masses only. 11
  12. 12. Common methods adopted in low cost housing as per available literature 12
  13. 13. Reduce the type and depth of foundation  Depth anywhere from 50 to 60 cms for isolated footings  Provide isolated footings in place of raft foundation  Provide raft foundation in place of pile foundation  Highly non technical ideas  Please do not try without proper evaluation 13
  14. 14. Reduce the wall thickness  From 230 mm to 150 mm  Adopted in unauthorised and non engineered construction for load bearing construction  Adopted by some private builders in framed construction for all internal and external walls  Non technical idea  Can not be adopted due to technical, maintenance, comfort considerations 14
  15. 15. Reduce the plinth height  In few years the road level comes at par with plinth level and plinth disappears.  Non technical idea  Has many functional problems 15
  16. 16. Use of mud/soil stabilised blocks  May have @ 5% cement  Can be used after the economy is established 16
  17. 17. Use of some other materials  Mud  Thatch  Stone  Frameless doors  Mud plaster  Low cost housing in such case will need to be divided further in rural and urban low cost housing 17
  18. 18. Use of hollow cement concrete blocks  Substitute of clay bricks  Economics depend upon local availability  If the economy is established, they can be used 18
  19. 19. Use of wood substitutes  Depends upon availability and type of wood and substituted materials  Wood substitutes are now largely adopted in all type of construction 19
  20. 20. Use of pre cast slabs/jack arch roofing  Not suggested for earthquake prone areas  Economy depends on local availability of materials and labour 20
  21. 21. Use of single stack system, reduction of traps, low width shafts etc.  Not advisable considering maintainability.  Maintenance difficult. 21
  22. 22. Use precast lintels or brick arch lintels  Please do not try in earthquake region  Saves cost if bricks are locally/economically available while cement/concrete are not available locally and are costly 22
  23. 23. Plinth area of building  Reduce the area of the unit or its components 23
  24. 24. Use of locally available materials  Best way of economy in terms of materials, labour, transport and even management. 24
  25. 25. Statement of Laurie Baker (1975)  All the building materials should be found within five miles of the site.  Low cost techniques should not be considered only for the poor  our aim should be to design simplest of buildings for all 25
  26. 26. Specifications  Specifications play an important role in deciding the cost of housing. Interior and finishing works may have a large variation in cost depending upon the specifications adopted.  For example if in Chennai, sand stone cladding, marble flooring, are provided and in Delhi, granite flooring and textured coating are provided.  Some of the occupants tend to alter specifications even before they occupy the house on their own and some after looking to their neighbours. 26
  27. 27. Reduction in cost  Reduction in cost is possible by sacrificing something.  Aesthetic  Uniqueness  Durability  Function  maintainability 27
  28. 28. Architectural features and design  Architectural features added in a building may not be required from any other consideration but will add to the cost and may not fit to low cost housing concept  Design of various components may not be optimum as per the requirements 28
  29. 29. Design  Economic design  Future considerations 29
  30. 30. Life cycle costs  It is a mistake to define a low cost house based on initial cost of construction without giving any consideration of maintenance or life cycle of the structure. 30
  31. 31. Factors to be considered for economic housing 31
  32. 32. Use of locally available materials  Base price is low  Transportation cost is low  Local workers know their use and fixing/ installation hence economic  Saves the time 32
  33. 33. Make use of traditional methods  Traditional methods are time tested  Traditional methods are economic  Traditional methods are based on local materials  Local workers have the knowledge of using Traditional methods 33
  34. 34. Use of free natural resources  Air  Light  To minimize cost of initial construction and thereafter maintenance cost 34
  35. 35. Reduction in labour cost  Through use of local materials  Through use of local techniques  Through use of more skilled labour  Through use of small tools  Through mechanization 35
  36. 36. Reduction in time of construction  Better planning  Through use of small tools  Through mechanization  Quality construction  Better management  Reduction in wastage 36
  37. 37. Reduction in transport, handling and storage cost  Use of local materials  By following “Just in time” approach for  Materials  Avoid storage, multiple handling, storage, wastage, theft, dead stock  Close co-ordination  Use of prefabricated/precast members 37
  38. 38. Reduction in wastage  Adoption of Total Quality Management policy  Better planning  Better execution  Better management of resources  by following just in time approach 38
  39. 39. Plan for reduction in maintenance cost  Reduce life cycle costs  Plan for natural lighting  Plan for use of other natural benefits 39
  40. 40. Management of men, materials, machinery and money  Management of money, machinery and materials  Management of workers  Management of managers 40
  41. 41. Basis of economics  Use of economies of scale  Reduce fixed costs  Convert some of the Fixed costs to semi variable costs  Horizontal expansion of the associated activities with marketing strategies 41
  42. 42. Low quality concept  cost of low quality of work and low quality architects, structural designers, and contractors including skilled workers will also lead to cost reduction. In fact, these cost reductions are misconcepts of economy particularly to the house considering its life cycle, to the society and the nation but adopted widely. 42
  43. 43. Fair way  Economy in construction can be achieved by management of men, materials, money and machinery and adopting locally available materials and techniques with the concepts of economics and total quality management. 43
  44. 44. Conclusions  Low cost housing is considered housing constructed with low budget. The definition should have been the housing with minimum cost even if budget is available. Thus concept should then be valid for small or big, single or multistoried and EWS or bungalow construction and all type of construction. 44

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