1. Introduction to physiology
2. Introduction to cardio vascular system
3. Functions of Heart
4. Layers of the heart
5. Heart circulation
6. Cardiac cycle
7. Heart Sounds
8. Cardiac output
9. Cardiac Rhythmia
10. Blood Pressure
3. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY
• It is the study of how human body works in health and disease.
• It describe the physics and chemistry behind basic body function.
• It help us to understand what happens in a healthy body in everyone’s life and what
goes wrong when someone gets sick.
It is a muscular organ that pumps blood
through out the circulatory system.
Heart is having four chamber.
1. Two atrium :-
- Right atrium
- Left atrium
2. Two ventricles:-
- Right ventricle
- Left ventricle
6. FUNCTIONS OF HEART
• Pumping oxygenated blood.
• Pumping hormones.
• Removes metabolic waste product.
• Maintaining of blood pressure.
• Maintaining of heart rate & rhythm.
7. LAYERS OF THE HEART
There are 3 layers of heart :-
1. Outer Pericardium
2. Middle Myocardium
3. Inner Endocardium
9. A. Fibrous Pericardium
• Outer most layer of heart.
• Maintain shape & size.
• Protect the heart from over stretching.
• Protect from infection.
B. Serous Pericardium
• Secrets small amount of fluid ( 20 – 60 ml ).
• This fluid prevent friction & allows free movement of heart.
10. Pericardial sac
• Help in repairing of tissue.
• Cardiac tamponade ( Increase in fluid ).
• Muscular contraction & relaxation of heart.
• Maintain heart rate & rhythmicity.
• Myocardium is made up of 2 types of cell.
a) Nodal cells – Conductivity of heart, Maintain rhythm, HR, Blood volume.
b) Cardio myocytes – Contraction & relaxation of heart.
11. 3. Endocardium
• Keeps the blood flowing throughout the heart.
• Provide protection to the valves & heart chamber.
14. HEART SOUNDS
Heart sounds are sounds produced by the mechanical activities of the heart during each
They are due to movements of
• Blood flow through the chambers of the heart.
• Cardiac muscle.
• Valves of the heart.
These are heard by placing the ear over the chest or by using stethoscope or
15. HEART SOUNDS
• S1 - "LUBB" caused by the closing of the AV valves.
• S2 - "DUBB" caused by the closing of semilunar valves.
• S3 -Associated with blood flowing into the ventricles.
• S4 -Associated with atrial contraction.
Four heart sounds can be recorded by phonocardiography, but normally only the first
and the second heart sounds, are audible through stethoscope.
18. CARDIAC OUTPUT
It is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one
Contractility Preload Afterload
19. CARDIAC RHYTHM
• Normal cardiac rhythmia
Heart rate 60 – 100 beats / min.
Every heart rate is orginating from S.A node.
Cardiac impulse should propogate through normal conduction pathway.
22. BLOOD PRESSURE
It is the lateral pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the valve of blood vessel.
There are two types of Blood Pressure :-
1. Systolic Blood Pressure :-
Maximum pressure exerted by blood on vessel wall during contraction of heart chamber.
Normal Range - 90 to 120 mm of Hg.
2. Diastolic Blood Pressure :-
Minimum pressure exerted by blood on vessel wall during relaxation of heart chamber.
Normal Range - 60 to 80 mm of Hg.
(mm of hg)
(mm of hg)
NORMAL Less than 120 and Less than 80
ELEVATED 120-129 and Less than 80
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
130-139 or 80-89
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
140 or Higher or 90 or Higher
(consult your doctor
or/and Higher than 120
27. Factors affecting arterial blood pressure
1. Age : with the age
2. Gender : Before menopause females have high BP compare to males of same age group.
After menopause female have less BP compare to males of same age group.
3. Temperature : Hot climate - BP
Cold climate BP
4. Emotions : emotion sympathetic actions - BP
5. Effect of meals : After meals - for 1 hour.
6. Effect of gravity : on standing -
7. Sleep : during sleep - upto 15 – 20 mm of Hg.
28. 9. Effect of posture change : Immediate effect on standing BP.
10. Body built : In obese – slightly
11. During pregnancy :
Normal Increase Decrease
Heart Rate 72-80 beats/min More than100 beats/min
Less than 60 beats/min
Blood Pressure 120/80 MM of hg More than 140/100 mm of
Less than 100/80 mm of
Oxygen Saturation More or equal to 95 %
Less than 90 %
Cardiac Output 4.0-8.0 ltr/min More than
Increase of Blood
Decrease of Blood