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Leaving nobody behind in access to safe water how prepared is kaduna state

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The paper looks at the institutional arrangements put in place by the Kaduna State Government in Nigeria for water resources management and assess the level of preparedness to ensure that nobody is left behind in access to safe water in the State.

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Leaving nobody behind in access to safe water how prepared is kaduna state

  1. 1. D. Bashir Kaduna State Water Services Regulatory Commission IN ACCESS TO SAFE WATER: HOW PREPARED IS KADUNA STATE? LEAVING NOBODY BEHIND Paper presented at a Symposium Organized as part of the 2019 World Water Day Celebrations by Kaduna State Ministry of Water Resources at Command Guest House, Kaduna on 21st March, 2019
  2. 2. 1. Introduction 2. Access to Water as a Human Right 3. Key Issues Under Consideration 4. What Needs to be Done 5. Features of WASH in Kaduna State 6. Water Sector Reforms in Kaduna State 7. Regulating the Water Sector in Kaduna State 8. Status of WASH Sector in Kaduna State 9. Way Forward Outline of Presentation 2
  3. 3.  World Water Day is an international day designated by the United Nations to celebrate freshwater.  This was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro and was approved by the United Nations General Assembly by designating 22 March as the World Water Day.  World Water Day is held annually as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for its sustainable management.  The Day also provides opportunity to learn more about water related issues, be inspired to tell others and take action to make a difference.  The theme of 2019 World Water Day is 'Leaving No One Behind'. Introduction 3
  4. 4.  The theme of 2019 World Water Day (Leaving No One Behind) is an adaptation of the central promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: as sustainable development progresses, everyone must benefit .  Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) includes a target to ensure availability and sustainable management of water for all by 2030. By definition, this means leaving no one behind.  Billions of people are still living without safe water in their households, schools, workplaces, farms and factories.  Marginalized groups – women, children, refugees, indigenous peoples, disabled people and many others – are often overlooked, and sometimes face discrimination, as they try to access and manage the safe water they need. Introduction… 4
  5. 5.  ‘Safe water’ is a ‘safely managed drinking water service’ that provides water that is accessible on the premises, available when needed, and free from contamination1;  Access to water underpins public health and is therefore critical to sustainable development and a stable and prosperous world;  In 2010, the UN recognized “the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights2;  The human right to water entitles everyone, without discrimination, to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use;  This includes water for drinking, personal sanitation, food preparation, and personal and household hygiene3. Access to Water as a Human Right 5
  6. 6. Key Issues Under Consideration  2.1 billion people live without safe water at home4;  One in four primary schools have no drinking water service, with pupils using unprotected sources or going thirsty5;  More than 700 children under five years of age die every day from diarrhoea linked to unsafe water and poor sanitation6;  Globally, 80% of the people who have to use unsafe and unprotected water sources live in rural areas7;  Women and girls are responsible for water collection in eight out of ten households with water off-premises8;  Over 800 women die every day from complications in pregnancy and childbirth9; 6
  7. 7.  For the 68.5 million people who have been forced to flee their homes, accessing safe water services is highly problematic10,11;  Around 159 million people collect their drinking water from surface water, such as ponds and streams12;  Around 4 billion people - nearly two-thirds of the world’s population - experience severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year13;  700 million people worldwide could be displaced by intense water scarcity by 203014;  The wealthier generally receive high levels of WASH services at (often very) low cost, whereas the poor pay a much higher price for a service of similar or lesser quality15. Key Issues Under Consideration… 7
  8. 8. How People are Left Behind Without Safe Water  Some of the factors that militate against access to safe water are: • Sex and gender, • Race, religion, caste, and nationality, • Disability, age and health status; • economic and social status;  Other factors, that affect marginalized groups through impacts on water include: • environmental degradation, • climate change, • population growth, • conflict, • forced displacement and migration. 8
  9. 9. To ‘leave no one behind’:  Efforts must be focused towards including people who have been marginalized or ignored;  Water services must meet the needs of marginalized groups and their voices must be heard in decision- making processes;  Regulatory and legal frameworks must recognise the right to water for all people, and  sufficient funding must be fairly and effectively targeted at those who need it most. What Needs to be Done 9
  10. 10. How Prepared is Kaduna State? 10 Enabling Environment Assessment Information Allocation tools Policies Legislation Strategies Organizational Framework Institutional Capacity Building ECOSYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY SOCIAL EQUITY  How prepared Kaduna State is would depend on how much its WASH Sector is aligned to the provisions of the IWRM Framework
  11. 11. Features of Kaduna State Kaduna In North West Geo-political Zone Capital in Kaduna City, Kaduna North LGA Capital of defunct Northern Nigeria Land Mass 46,051 km2 ≈ 5% Land Area of Nigeria Coordinates Between Lat. 90 03”N and 110 32”N & Between Long. 60 05”E and 800 38”E Population 3rd most populous State in Nigeria 6,113,503 (2006 Census) 8,767,304 (2018 estimates at projected 3.05% growth) People Diverse people spread in:  23 LGAs,  46 Dev. Areas,  255 Political Wards  32 Autonomous Traditional Institutions  Christianity and Islam as Major Religions 11
  12. 12. Features of Kaduna State… Climatic Patterns Altitude (asl) = 638 m Ave. Temp. = 24.9 oC Annual Rainfall = 1050 mm Altitude (asl) = 613 m Ave. Temp. = 25.2 oC Ann. Rainfall = 1211 mm Altitude (asl) = 740 m Ave. Temp. = 24.4 oC Ann. Rainfall = 1540 mm 12
  13. 13. Surface Water Bodies in Kaduna State Source: NASRDA (2008). Surface Water Mapping of Kaduna State Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS. A Study Report by The Nigeriasat Imageries and Consultancy Services Ltd, National Space Research and Development Agency, Obasanjo Space Centre, Airport Road, Abuja. December, 2008 o Identified surface water bodies in the State include: Streams 3,098 units, Rivers 196 units, Ponds 26 units, Lakes 24 units and Dams 9 units; o Most of the Local Government Areas are having pots of either ponds, lakes and dams except Sanga, Kaura, Lere, Jaba, Markafi, Zaria and Kaduna South where traces of these features could not be found; o 69 major rivers are identified across the LGAs in the State except in Jaba, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Kudan and Sabon Gari where no such rivers could be identified; o These 69 rivers identified are rivers that originate from the LGA and/or enters the State through the LGA. 13
  14. 14. Ponds Lakes Dams Rivers Identified Rivers Birnin Gwari 4 3 1 10 R. Araga, R. Damari, R. Kogin-Bagwoma, R. Koriga, R. Kura, R. Kureta, R. Kusheriki, R. Kwingi, R. Mariga, R. Shiwaka Chikun 4 4 1 8 R. Babban-Udawa, R. Godani, R. Gunugu, R. Jugo, R. Kada Taba, R. Romi, R. Shapedna, R. Uba Giwa 1 0 0 3 R. Gazara, R. Iyaka, R. Tubo Igabi 4 6 2 3 R. Labar, R. Likarbu, R. Rigasa Ikara 0 1 0 2 R. Bauda, R. Tiga Jaba 0 0 0 0 Jema'a 4 1 0 3 R. Assow, R. Mada, R. Okwa Kachia 0 1 0 7 R. Abron, R. Babban-Kogi, R. Deidei, R. Dinya, R. Kasan-Kogi, R. Lai, R. Sarkin-Pawa Kaduna North 1 0 0 0 Kaduna South 0 0 0 0 Kajuru 1 2 0 4 R. Gurara, R. Iyna, R. Rubu, R. Tapa, Kagarko 1 0 0 1 R. Iri Source: NASRDA (2008). Surface Water Mapping of Kaduna State Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS. A Study Report by The Nigeriasat Imageries and Consultancy Services Ltd, National Space Research and Development Agency, Obasanjo Space Centre, Airport Road, Abuja. December, 2008 Major Surface Water Bodies in Kaduna State… 14
  15. 15. Ponds Lakes Dams Rivers Identified Rivers Kaura 0 0 0 1 R. Kogun Kauru 3 1 0 3 R. Kabari, R. Kadi, R. Kutsheri Kubau 2 0 0 6 R. Galma, R. Kaciwirgi, R. Kwanderri, R. Maiwa, R. Mantunku, R. Matsachik Kudan 0 0 1 0 Lere 0 0 0 5 R. Dalgagu, R. Gora, R. Kaduna, R. Karami, R. Rahama Makarfi 0 0 0 2 R. Gimi, R. Shika Sabon Gari 0 2 3 0 Sanga 0 0 0 4 R. Gudi, R. Karma, R. Sanga, R. Toep Soba 0 3 1 1 R. Kinkaba Zangon Kataf 1 0 0 5 R. Babana, R. Gantan, R. Kachia, R. Ohwang, R. Wawa Rafi Zaria 0 0 0 1 R. Saye Total 26 24 9 69 Source: NASRDA (2008). Surface Water Mapping of Kaduna State Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS. A Study Report by The Nigeriasat Imageries and Consultancy Services Ltd, National Space Research and Development Agency, Obasanjo Space Centre, Airport Road, Abuja. December, 2008 Surface Water Bodies in Kaduna State… 15
  16. 16. Hand Pump Borehole Other Pipe borne Water Protected Well Rain Water River/ Lake/ Pond Unpro- tected Well Vendor / Truck Improve d Sources Birnin Gwari 8.5 0.6 2.45 22.4 0.6 13.9 49.7 1.8 33.9 Chikun 10.6 0.6 25.7 41.3 0.6 3.3 10.1 7.8 78.2 Giwa 13.3 0.6 0.6 21.1 0.6 4.8 54.2 5.4 35.5 Igabi 18.3 0.0 0.6 18.9 0.0 3.3 55.0 3.9 37.8 Ikara 16.6 0.0 9.9 7.9 0.0 0.0 63.6 2.0 34.4 Jaba 4.7 0.0 32.7 21.3 0.7 9.3 30.7 0.7 59.3 Jema'a 19.1 0.0 13.1 51.4 0.0 7.7 7.1 1.6 83.6 Kachia 33.1 0.0 8.8 29.8 0.6 14.4 12.7 0.6 72.4 Kaduna North 10.2 0.6 50.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.2 25.0 64.2 Kaduna South 22.5 0.0 49.7 16.2 0.0 0.0 8.4 3.1 88.5 Kajuru 30.0 0.7 0.0 30.7 0.0 0.0 38.7 0.0 60.7 Kagarko 34.5 0.0 0.7 14.2 0.0 16.2 34.5 0.0 49.3 Kaura 14.6 0.0 34.4 28.5 0.0 9.3 13.2 0.0 77.5 Main Source of Drinking Water (% Households) Source: Kaduna State General Household Report 2015 16
  17. 17. Hand Pump Borehole Other Pipe borne Water Protected Well Rain Water River/ Lake/ Pond Unpro- tected Well Vendor / Truck Improve d Sources Kauru 9.6 0.0 0.0 12.6 0.0 37.7 40.1 0.0 22.8 Kubau 0.0 0.6 3.0 23.2 0.0 0.0 73.2 0.0 26.2 Kudan 4.7 0.0 4.7 24.05 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 33.3 Lere 26.1 1.8 3.0 12.1 0.0 6.1 49.7 1.2 41.2 Makarfi 2.9 0.0 0.0 33.8 0.0 0.0 62.6 0.7 36.7 Sabon Gari 18.3 0.0 18.3 23.2 0.0 0.0 13.4 26.8 59.8 Sanga 42.1 0.0 0.0 6.1 0.0 32.3 18.9 0.6 48.2 Soba 9.2 0.6 0.0 23.9 0.0 10.4 49.7 6.1 33.1 Zangon Kataf 9.1 1.8 4.8 47.3 0.0 9.7 26.7 0.6 61.2 Zaria 17.4 0.5 5.5 29.4 0.0 0.0 25.4 21.9 52.2 Urban 17.2 0.3 30.6 18.4 0.0 0.0 14.6 18.9 66.3 Rural 16.3 0.4 7.6 25.0 0.2 9.5 39.2 1.8 49.1 State 16.5 0.3 12.0 23.8 0.2 7.7 34.5 5.1 52.4 Main Source of Drinking Water (% Households)… Source: Kaduna State General Household Report 2015 17
  18. 18. Access to Improved Sources of Drinking Water (% Households) Source: Kaduna State General Household Report 2015 89 84 78 78 72 64 61 61 60 59 52 49 48 41 38 37 36 34 34 33 33 26 23 66 49 52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 K/South Jema'a Chikun Kaura Kachia K/North Z/Kataf Kajuru S/Gari Jaba Zaria Kagarko Sanga Lere Igabi Makarfi Giwa Ikara B/Gwari Kudan Soba Kubau Kauru Urban Rural State 18
  19. 19. Covered Pit Latrine Flush Sewer Flush To Soak Away None (Open Defeca- tion Other Pail/ Bucket Toilet On Water Un- Covered Pit Latrine VIP Latrine Birnin Gwari 54.5 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 42.4 0.0 Chikun 39.7 6.1 42.5 1.1 0.0 0.0 3.9 5.6 1.1 Giwa 39.8 0.6 4.8 3.0 3.6 0.0 0.0 48.2 0.0 Igabi 48.9 0.6 7.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 42.2 0.0 Ikara 46.4 0.0 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 49.7 0.7 Jaba 54.7 0.0 19.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 24.7 0.7 Jema'a 35.5 3.3 26.8 21.3 0.0 0.0 0.5 12.0 0.5 Kachia 37.6 7.7 13.8 24.3 7.2 0.0 2.2 6.1 1.1 Kaduna North 34.1 21.0 30.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 13.6 0.0 Kaduna South 29.3 17.8 38.2 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 12.0 0.0 Kajuru 4.07 0.7 4.7 13.3 11.3 0.0 0.0 27.3 2.0 Kagarko 16.9 4.7 4.7 7.4 19.6 0.0 0.0 46.6 0.0 Kaura 41.7 6.0 24.5 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 23.8 0.0 Type of Toilet Facilities Used (%Households) Source: Kaduna State General Household Report 2015 19
  20. 20. Covered Pit Latrine Flush Sewer Flush To Soak Away None (Open Defeca- tion Other Pail/ Bucket Toilet On Water Un- Covered Pit Latrine VIP Latrine Kauru 25.1 2.4 0.6 38.3 6.6 0.0 1.8 22.2 3.0 Kubau 54.9 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 42.7 1.2 Kudan 50.7 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 47.3 0.0 Lere 38.2 3.0 0.6 7.9 0.6 2.4 0.0 39.4 7.9 Makarfi 51.1 0.0 1.4 10.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.5 2.9 Sabon Gari 31.1 11.6 24.4 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 31.7 0.0 Sanga 42.1 10.4 1.8 14.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 30.5 0.0 Soba 36.2 0.0 1.2 8.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 53.4 0.0 Zangon Kataf 37.6 3.6 7.3 32.1 1.8 0.0 0.0 16.4 1.2 Zaria 60.2 0.5 11.4 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.0 22.9 3.5 Urban 39.3 12.4 26.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 19.8 1.0 Rural 41.6 2.7 9.3 10.0 2.7 0.2 0.5 31.9 1.2 State 41.1 4.5 12.5 8.2 2.3 0.2 0.5 29.6 1.1 Type of Toilet Facilities Used (%Households)… Source: Kaduna State General Household Report 2015 20
  21. 21. 21 Water Sector Reforms in Kaduna State The Kaduna State Government reviewed the 2013 State Water Supply and Sanitation Policy (KSWSSP) to align it with IWRM principles, address some identified gaps and capture the current thrust of Government that included: a) Review of the sector service delivery targets; b) Institutionalization of participation by the private sector and communities in sectoral development strategies; c) Adoption of the cost sharing arrangement for capital investment and operations and maintenance between the tiers of government; d) Incorporation of a robust pro-poor policy that allows for targeted subsidy to allow for timely exit in the sector;
  22. 22. 22 e) Designation of the Kaduna State Water Board (to be renamed as Kaduna State Water Corporation (KSWC)) as the urban water infrastructure asset holder on behalf of Government; f) Designation of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA) as the agency responsible for rural and small- town water supply; g) Establishment of a Water Services Regulatory Commission to regulate operations in the sector and promote all State and Federal water policies and strategies and enforcement of laws; and h) Assigning the Kaduna State Ministry of Water Resources to be in-charge of policy formulation and sector co-ordination. Water Sector Reforms in Kaduna State…
  23. 23. 23 Legal Framework for Sustainable Management of the Water Sector  Based on the provisions of the 2015 KSWSS Policy, the Kaduna State Government developed a composite law for the establishment and operations of three vital water sector agencies.  On 25th May, 2016, the Executive Governor of Kaduna State signed into law, the Kaduna State Water Supply and Sanitation Law, 2016; Law No. 11 of 2016 of Kaduna State of Nigeria.
  24. 24. 24 Objectives of the KSWSS Law 2016 The general objectives of the Kaduna State Water Supply and Sanitation Law, 2016 are to provide for: a) the right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation necessary to secure sufficient water and an environment not harmful to human health or well-being; b) the setting of standards and norms for service provision and standards for tariffs in respect of water and sanitation services; c) the preparation and adoption of water services development plans by the Ministry responsible for water resources in accordance with this Law; d) a regulatory framework for water services institutions and other water service providers; e) the establishment of state water supply service delivery agencies, their powers and duties, and of state steering committees;
  25. 25. 25 f) the formulation, monitoring and review of the Kaduna State Water Sanitation and Hygiene Policy for the water and sanitation sector; g) coordination of intervention in water and Sanitation delivery by Federal, State and Local Governments as well as other non- governmental agencies and bodies; h) the gathering and dissemination of information in a State information system; i) the accountability of water and sanitation service providers; j) the promotion of effective water resource management and conservation particularly for water within the constitutional authority of the State; and k) collaboration of the sector institutions with other national and state agencies in the development of water and sanitation services in accordance with the National Water Policy, the State Water Sector Master Plan and this Law. Objectives of the KSWSS Law 2016...
  26. 26. a) The goal of regulating the water sector is ensuring sustainable provision of water, adequate in quantity and quality to the various water users including the ecosystem; b) The Water Supply and Sanitation Law, 2016 established the Kaduna State Water Services Regulatory Commission and places on it the responsibility of regulating the water sector in the State so that residents can have better access to safe water c) For the Commission to execute its mandates, certain working tools must be put in place. Consequently, one of its key take-off activity is the development and production of regulatory tools 26 Regulating the Water Sector in Kaduna State
  27. 27. 27 The Commission had gone far in the development of the following Start-off Regulations, Standards and Guidelines : a) Regulations on Quality of Service of Water Utilities – drafted; b) Regulations and Guidelines for Reservoir Operation and Utilization in Kaduna State – drafted; c) Regulations on Groundwater Exploitation in Kaduna State – drafted; d) Occupational Code for Borehole Drillers in Kaduna State – drafted; e) Occupational Code for Package Water Production and Vending in Kaduna State – drafted; f) Guidelines for Establishment and Operations of Water Users Associations (WUAs) in Kaduna State; and g) Guidelines for Establishment and Operations of Water Consumers Associations (WCAs) in Kaduna State. Development of Start-off Regulatory Tools
  28. 28. 28 Status of WASH Sector in Kaduna State  With the reforms in the WASH sector embarked in 2015 by the current administration in Kaduna State, the sector has been properly positioned for sustainable WASH services delivery;  The WASH sector reforms are fully compliant with IWRM principles;  The enabling environment are substantially provided as the policy and legislation are in place and are in conformity with IWRM principles;  The institutional arrangements provided by the enabling WASH policy and legislation are IWRM compliant and the institutions are established;  Most of the coordination mechanisms are set up;  Regulations, guidelines and Codes to guide WASH services delivery are being developed;
  29. 29. 29 Way Forward  The current administration in Kaduna State has provided the enabling environment for sustainable WASH services delivery;  However, part of the institutional roles and most of the management instruments in the IWRM framework are yet to be provided;  To consolidate the reforms in the WASH sector and ensure that “no one is left behind” in access to safe WASH services, the following are recommended: a) Embark on capacity development of the WASH institutions; b) Carry out comprehensive water resources assessment and water demand assessment in the State;
  30. 30. 30 Way Forward… c) Strengthen and regularize the functions of the coordination mechanisms such as: i. The State WASH Steering Committee ii. Water Sector Management Committee iii. Water Sector Technical Committee d) To effectively involve all WASH sector stakeholders, expedite actions to develop guidelines for the establishment and operations of: i. Water Consumers Associations (WCAs) in Kaduna State, ii. Water Users Associations (WUAs) in Kaduna State, and iii. Water Sector CSOs in Kaduna State e) Develop and implement effective funding regimes for the WASH sector agencies to subsidize WASH services to the marginalized groups.
  31. 31. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 31
  32. 32. 1. WHO/UNICEF: https://washdata.org/monitoring/drinking-water 2. UN (2010): A/RES/64/292 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 28 July 2010: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/64/292 3. OHCHR, UN Habitat, WHO: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet35en.pdf 4. WHO/UNICEF (2017) Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/jmp-2017/en/ 5. UNICEF (2018) WASH in Schools: Global baseline report 2018: https://data.unicef.org/resources/wash-in-schools/ 6. Calculation made in 2018 based on data from UNICEF: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-health/diarrhoeal-disease/ 7. WHO (2017) Safely managed drinking water - thematic report on drinking water 2017: https://data.unicef.org/wp- content/uploads/2017/03/safely-managed-drinking-water-JMP-2017-1.pdf 8. WHO/UNICEF (2017) Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/jmp-2017/en/ 9. UNICEF: https://data.unicef.org/topic/maternal-health/maternal-mortality/ 10. UNHCR (2017) Global Trends Report: Forced Displacement in 2017: https://www.unhcr.org/5b27be547.pdf 11. WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme)/UN-Water (2019) The United Nations World Water Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind 12. WHO/UNICEF (2017) Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/jmp-2017/en/ 13. Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2016), Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Science Advanced, Vol. 2, No. 2: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26933676 14. Global Water Institute (2013) Future water (in)security: facts, figures and predictions: https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/27b53d18-6069-45f7-a1bd-d5a48bc80322/downloads/1c2meuvon_105010.pdf 15. WWAP (UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme)/UN-Water (2019) The United Nations World Water Development Report 2019: Leaving No One Behind References 32

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