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Value impacts of truck limited haulage - SME 2015

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Recent drops in commodity prices and economic uncertainty have seen many businesses re-evaluate their operational expenditure to ensure mine profitability. The high capital and operational cost of truck and digger fleets has resulted in loading and hauling of material being a significant proportion of a mine's expenses (Nel, Kizil and Knights, 2011), thus it is often one of the first areas to be considered for cost reduction. If an operation requires additional trucks to maintain or improve productivity, a robust justification is crucial due to the expenditure involved.

Mining schedules form the basis of productivity and cost estimations for mining operations and therefore must have a significant level of confidence with regards to achievable quantities and rates. Traditionally, a mining schedule is produced without detailed consideration of the trucking capacity or requirements. Although some mine planning software incorporates haulage predictions into schedules, most cannot model the dynamic nature of dumping and haulage. Previous studies have shown that it is necessary to have detailed haulage analysis instead of the traditional mining block centroid to dump block centroid methods for more realistic mining schedules and cost estimation (Doig and Kizil, 2013).

Recent developments in software have allowed the dynamic integration of haulage analysis with mining schedules. Engineers can now create mining schedules in conjunction with dumping schedules, allowing mining schedules to reflect the restrictions created by the number of available trucks, combined with dynamic consideration of available in-pit and out-of-pit dumping locations.
A study has been completed producing a mining schedule in conjunction with a dumping schedule and haulage analysis. Multiple schedules were run with various haulage strategies (including minimising rehabilitation liability) and truck availability to identify the impacts on coal production, and hence revenue. A financial analysis was then completed where a Net Present Value (NPV) was calculated for each scenario. The study showed that trucking shortfalls can significantly impact mining schedules and cost estimations, both in terms of cost as well as revenue lost when trucks cannot maintain forecast production rates, thus dumping schedules and haulage analysis should be completed simultaneously. If dumping and haulage is not considered when planning the mining schedule, a mining business is ignorant to the impacts trucking has on the mine production, closure risk and profitability.

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Value impacts of truck limited haulage - SME 2015

  1. 1. Patrick Doig February 2015 Presented By: Date: Value Impacts of Truck Limited Haulage SME 2015 – Denver Originally Presented at AusIMM Life of Mine Conference 2014
  2. 2. Overview Benefits of integrated scheduling and landform to determine NPV considering entire value chain from open to closure. Narrow focus on reduction of unit cost = value destruction
  3. 3. Economics Economic Cycle Reduce Cost • Capital expenditure first to be cut • High cost of Loading and Transportation • Must consider entire costs, not individual components
  4. 4. Why Detailed Haulage Analysis Plan material placement Reduce and understand cost Selective material placement Determine final landform Reduce overall closure risk
  5. 5. Cycle Time Variation Using average cycle time Insufficient truck allocation (over and under trucked) Reduced mining rate Schedule delays
  6. 6. Methods of Truck Model Methods of predicting truck requirements Old software requires intense manual input Difficult to run multiple scenarios Recent advances allows • More detail • Selective material placement schedule • Integrated with mining schedule
  7. 7. Dynamic Integration Mining Schedule Haulage Integrated Scheduling & Landform Reflect trucking restrictions Optimize haulage strategies • Maximize Production • Minimize Cost • Minimize Rehabilitation Liability
  8. 8. Production Schedule Calculate Truck Requirements Cost Model Traditional Method
  9. 9. Integrated Method Production Scheduler Selective Material Placement (Dump Schedule) Calculate Truck Requirements Modify Production Schedule to Truck Restrictions Cost Model Quickly run multiple scenarios
  10. 10. Case Study How many trucks Reduce Cost Reduce Risk Reduce Rehabilitation Liability Maximizes NPV
  11. 11. Geological Model
  12. 12. Pit Design DraglineSpoilPiles Excavator MiningSolids TruckDumpDesigns Dragline MiningSolids
  13. 13. Mining Schedule 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Coal(milliontonnes) WastePrimeVolume(millionbcm) Prestrip Prime Volume Dragline Prime Volume ROM Coal t Product Coal t
  14. 14. Landform Model
  15. 15. Total Number of Trucks - 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 TotalNumberofTrucks
  16. 16. Truck Limited Model
  17. 17. Integrated Method Production Scheduler Selective Material Placement (Dump Schedule) Calculate Truck Requirements Modify Production Schedule to Truck Restrictions Cost Model Multiple Scenarios (12-46 Trucks) Multiple Truck Fleets Inadequate trucks = reduced mining rates Resulted in • Schedule Quantities • Total equipment requirements • Operational Hours Required • Fuel Burn • Landform Schedule
  18. 18. Cost Model Detailed Cost Model Variable and Fixed Costs Included Capital and Operational Mining Disturbance
  19. 19. Results What to compare Schedule Physicals Cost per Product Tonne Minimum Trucking Cost NPV
  20. 20. - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 - 50 100 150 200 250 300 12 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 38 42 46 Coal(milliontonnes) WasteVolume(millionbcm) Total Number of Trucks Prod Coal t ROM Coal t Total Prime bcm Total DRE Prime bcm Total TS Prime bcm Schedule Physicals
  21. 21. Cost per Product Tonne $151 $110 $90 $83 $79 $78 $77 $75 $74 $73 $71 $70 $70 $69 $69 $69 $69 $69 $69 $70 $70 $70 $71 $71 $72 $- $20 $40 $60 $80 $100 $120 $140 $160 $/ProductTonne
  22. 22. $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NPV(million$AUD) ROMCoal(milliontonnes/year) AVG ROM t/year NPV $AUD NPV
  23. 23. Truck Unit Cost $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $2.00 $2.20 $2.40 $2.60 $2.80 $3.00 $3.20 $3.40 $3.60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 NPV($AUD)Millions TruckCost($AUD/bcm) Number of Trucks Truck Cost $AUD/bcm NPV $AUD Maximum Business Value Minimum Unit Cost
  24. 24. - 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 TotalNumberofTrucksDiscussion
  25. 25. Variance in Planned Coal Production 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 ROMCoaltMillions 29 Truck Case Base Case (No Truck Limited)
  26. 26. Video
  27. 27. Summary Deficit / excess of trucks = increased costs Understand how many trucks are required Integrate landform with the mining schedule • Reduce the mining schedule • Better cost estimation • Decrease cost per product tonne • Reduce Risk
  28. 28. Thanks Patrick Doig Senior Engineer MAusIMM(CP), RPEQ Deswik Australia

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