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El postpositivismo

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Enfoque post-positivista como método para la investigación.

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El postpositivismo

  1. 1. Post-positivismo Heredia, Costa Rica, 2015 MEJÍA HERNÁNDEZ KENNETH REYES MAYORGA JORDAN SÁENZ SALAZAR JOSÉ CLAUDIO SALAS LISAC JOSÉ MANUEL SAMUELS VARGAS DOROTHY ANDREA VARGAS CORRALESTAMARA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COSTA RICA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES ESCUELA DE RELACIONES INTERNACIONALES INFORMÁTICA Y TÉCNICAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN
  2. 2. Nace de una crítica al positivismo a desde finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX. El enfoque investigativo es óptimo para las investigaciones Karl Popper plantea que las repeticiones de los experimentos son esenciales para acercarse cada vez más a la “verdad” y, mediante estas repeticiones, se van corrigiendo los errores y probando nuevas teorías o ideas y se analizan de paso la influencia de los factores externos en los resultados de las investigaciones. P
  3. 3. El postpositivismo, desafiando la noción tradicional de la verdad absoluta de conocimiento; plantea que la realidad existe pero no es completamente aprensible, solo podemos aproximarnos a esta. El criterio de verdad del cual parte el postpositivismo es la objetividad.
  4. 4. La filosofía nunca es, por principio, una totalidad acabada sino una totalidad posible.
  5. 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Categoría 1 Categoría 2 Categoría 3 Categoría 4 Chart Title Serie 1 Serie 2 Serie 3
  6. 6. Ontológico • Realismo Crítico; existencia de una realidad a la que se puede acceder solo de forma imperfecta y probabilística. Epistemológico • Dualismo. • Modificado objetivismo; resultados probablemente verdaderos. Metodológico • Experimental modificada; "falsación de hipótesis"; manipulación de variables; puede incluir técnicas cualitativas.
  7. 7. La emergencia de nuevos actores en la escena internacional, pues, con la aparición de estos, aparecen nuevas formas de interpretar la realidad.
  8. 8. • Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC): censos y encuestas. • Ministerio de economía, industria y comercio (MEIC): realiza estudios diversos en materia de Consumidor, Mercados, PYME y Tarjetas de Crédito.
  9. 9. • ¿Problemas con la subjetividad a la hora de exponer tus conjeturas?, ¿buscas un resultado concreto?, ¿cuentas con los fundamentos para defenderlo? Utilizá el Método científico, este te ayudará a resolver estos y mucho otros problemas que se enfrentan al momento de investigar… ¿Cómo? Analizando la realidad social, descomponiéndola en variables y recopilando los datos que necesitas!
  10. 10. Para mejorar a través del método científico en el cual se enfoca y así, optimizar los resultados. Además, si estudias en el área de Ciencias Sociales, esta corriente te brinda la posibilidad de ser objetivo y te permite minimizar el margen de error en tu investigación.
  11. 11. • Falsacionismo: la proposición universal es falsa cuando se consigue demostrar, mediante la experiencia, que un enunciado observable es falso. • Fenomenología: ciencia de esencias que debe de proceder conforme a un método el cual, supone la comparación entre objetos, distinción entre partes dependientes e independientes y vivencias perceptivas en las que se captan objetos reales o ideales. • Geisteswissenschaften: ciencia 'subjetiva' de las humanidades.
  12. 12. • Barbé, E. 2007. Relaciones Internacionales. 3° edición. Madrid: Editorial TECNOS. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Edmund Husserl. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/h/husserl.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Franz Brentano. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/b/brentano.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Immanuel Kant. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/k/kant.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Karl Popper. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/p/popper.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Max Weber. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/w/weber_max.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. Wilhelm Wundt. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/w/wundt.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Biografías y Vidas: La Enciclopedia Biográfica en Línea. William James. Disponible en: http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/j/james.htm. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Buscabiografías, Karl Popper. Disponible en: http://www.buscabiografias.com/biografia/verDetalle/8892/Karl%20Popper. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Buscabiografías, Wilhelm Dilthey. Disponible en: http://www.buscabiografias.com/biografia/verDetalle/599/Wilhelm%20Dilthey. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Cresswell, J. 2002. Part 1: Preliminary Considerations. In RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative, Quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed., pp. 2-8). SAGE Publications. • Definición. De. 2015. Definición de Método Científico. Disponible en: http://definicion.de/metodo-cientifico/. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Del Cura, I. La Web de las Biografías. Christian Ehrenfels. Disponible en: http://www.mcnbiografias.com/app-bio/do/show?key=ehrenfels-christian. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Fernández, F. 2001. Philosophica: Enciclopedia filosófica online. Wilhelm Dilthey. Disponible en: http://www.philosophica.info/voces/dilthey/Dilthey.html. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. Disponible en: https://www.uncg.edu/hdf/facultystaff/Tudge/Guba%20&%20Lincoln%201994.pdf. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • INEC. (2012, mayo). X Censo Nacional de Población y VI de Vivienda 2011. Resultados Generales Censo 2011. Disponible en: http://www.inec.go.cr/A/MS/Censos/Censo%202011/Cifras%20preliminares/15.%20Resultados%20Generales%20Censo%202011.pdf. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Karl Popper c1980s. (2009, August 17). Retrieved March 5, 2015. Disponible en: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lselibrary/3833724834/in/set-72157623156680255/. Revisado: 03 de marzo de 2015. • Marvez, M. 2012. Aportes Filosóficos Postpositivistas. Disponible en: http://mariafernandamarvez.blogspot.com/2012/11/aportes-filosoficos-postpositivistas.html. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Ministerio de economía, industria y comercio. 2013. Estado de situacon de los PYMES en Costa Rica 2013. San José, Costa Rica. Disponible en: http://reventazon.meic.go.cr/informacion/estudios/2013/pyme/indicadores/informe.pdf. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Monografías. Evolución de la episteme en el paradigma cuantitativo. Disponible en: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos11/emili/emili.shtml#PARD. Revisado: 04 de marzo de 2015. • Phiillips y Burbules, 2000 mentioned in Cresswell, J. 2002. Part 1: Preliminary Considerations. In RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative, Quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed., pp. 2-8). SAGE Publications. • Post Positivism History And Philosophy. Psychology Essay. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2015, Disponible en: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/post-positivism-history-and-philosophy-psychology- essay.php. Revisado: 03 de marzo de 2015.

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