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Data Modeling for XML & JSON
Donna Burbank
Global Data Strategy Ltd.
Lessons in Data Modeling DATAVERSITY Series
Dec 6th, ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Donna is a recognized industry expert in
information management with over 20
years of expe...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Lessons in Data Modeling Series
• July 28th Why a Data Model is an Important Part of your ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Agenda
• Overview of XML and JSON
• Data Modeling & Metadata for XML & JSON
• Integrating ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Assumption
• An assumption for today is that the majority of attendees are familiar with r...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
What is XML?
• What is XML? – (Extensible Markup Language) is used to store and transport ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML and JSON Assist with Data Exchange
7
• XML and JSON can be used to assist with data ex...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Emergence & the Growth of Data Exchange
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, e...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML uses a Hierarchical Structure
• XML uses a hierarchical, nested tree structure
• An XM...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML is Extensible
• XML is extensible, in that element can be easily added as needed.
• If...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML is Self-Describing
• XML is self-describing (sort of) with the use of element tags
• H...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML Metadata – the XML Schema
• Similar to DDL, an XML Schema (XSD) defines the structure ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Graphical Models of XML Schemas
13
• XML Schemas can be shown graphically as well as via t...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML Metadata – the XML Schema
• Although the XML Schema does provide some physical structu...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Levels of Data Modeling
15
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Purpose
Communication & Definition ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Metadata & Context
From Data Modeling for the Business by Hoberman, Burbank,
Bradley, Tech...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
XML Assists with Data Exchange
17
• XML and JSON can be used to assist with data exchange ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Integrating XML with Relational Databases
• XML is often used in conjunction with relation...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Integrating XML with Relational Databases
• XML can be translated into relational database...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Integrating XML with Relational Databases
20
• XML can be translated into relational datab...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
What is JSON?
• What is JSON? – (JavaScript Object Notation) is a minimal, readable format...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
JSON Metadata – The JSON Schema
22
• The JSON schema offers a richer set of metadata.
{
"i...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Integrating JSON with Document Databases
• JSON is often used with document databases, suc...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
The Semantic Web & RDF
• The RDF (Resource Description Framework) model from the World Wid...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Creating a Web of Data
25
@type: Place
Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina
1380 Harbor Islan...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
• The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative provides a common me...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Schema.org
• Schema.org is a vocabulary that webmasters can use to mark-up Web pages for t...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
There are Many Other Common Schemas & Vocabularies
• The Dublin Core and Schema.org are tw...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Summary
• XML and JSON are used for transport and interoperability of data
• They offer a ...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
About Global Data Strategy, Ltd
• Global Data Strategy is an international information man...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Contact Info
• Email: donna.burbank@globaldatastrategy.com
• Twitter: @donnaburbank
@Globa...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
DATAVERSITY Training Center
• Learn the basics of Metadata Management and practical tips o...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Lessons in Data Modeling Series - 2017
• January 26th How Data Modeling Fits into an Overa...
Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016
Questions?
34
Thoughts? Ideas?
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LDM Slides: Data Modeling for XML and JSON

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Data modeling has traditionally focused on relational database systems. But in the age of the internet, technologies such as XML and JSON have evolved to provide structure and definition to “data in motion”. Have data modeling technologies evolved to support these technologies? Can we use traditional approaches to model data in XML and JSON? Or are new tools and methodologies required? Join this webinar to discuss:

- XML & JSON vs. Relational Database Modeling
- Techniques & Tools for Data Modeling for XML
- Techniques & Tools for Data Modeling for JSON
- Use Cases & Opportunities for XML and JSON Data Modeling

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LDM Slides: Data Modeling for XML and JSON

  1. 1. Data Modeling for XML & JSON Donna Burbank Global Data Strategy Ltd. Lessons in Data Modeling DATAVERSITY Series Dec 6th, 2016
  2. 2. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Donna is a recognized industry expert in information management with over 20 years of experience in data strategy, information management, data modeling, metadata management, and enterprise architecture. She is currently the Managing Director at Global Data Strategy, Ltd., an international information management consulting company that specialises in the alignment of business drivers with data-centric technology. In past roles, she has served in a number of roles related to data modeling & metadata: • Metadata consultant (US, Europe, Asia, Africa) • Product Manager PLATINUM Metadata Repository • Director of Product Management, ER/Studio • VP of Product Marketing, Erwin • Data modeling & data strategy implementation & consulting • Author of 2 books of data modeling & contributor to 1 book on metadata management, plus numerous articles • OMG committee member of the Information Management Metamodel (IMM) As an active contributor to the data management community, she is a long time DAMA International member and is the President of the DAMA Rocky Mountain chapter. She has worked with dozens of Fortune 500 companies worldwide in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa and speaks regularly at industry conferences. She has co-authored two books: Data Modeling for the Business and Data Modeling Made Simple with ERwin Data Modeler and is a regular contributor to industry publications such as DATAVERSITY, EM360, & TDAN. She can be reached at donna.burbank@globaldatastrategy.com Donna is based in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Donna Burbank 2 Follow on Twitter @donnaburbank Today’s hashtag: #LessonsDM
  3. 3. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Lessons in Data Modeling Series • July 28th Why a Data Model is an Important Part of your Data Strategy • August 25th Data Modeling for Big Data • September 22nd UML for Data Modeling – When Does it Make Sense? • October 27th Data Modeling & Metadata Management • December 6th Data Modeling for XML and JSON 3 This Year’s Line Up
  4. 4. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Agenda • Overview of XML and JSON • Data Modeling & Metadata for XML & JSON • Integrating XML & JSON with Databases (Relational & NoSQL) • RDF & the Semantic Web • Summary & Questions 4 What we’ll cover today
  5. 5. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Assumption • An assumption for today is that the majority of attendees are familiar with relational databases & Entity-Relationship (E/R) modeling. • E.g. Data Modelers, Data Architects, SQL Developers, BI Developers, etc. • The examples are given with that bias, i.e. a comparison with the relational database world. 5 From Data Modeling for the Business by Hoberman, Burbank, Bradley, Technics Publications, 2009
  6. 6. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 What is XML? • What is XML? – (Extensible Markup Language) is used to store and transport data. • Some design principles of XML: • Simplicity: ease of usage, interoperability & understanding • Modular design: do one thing well • Extensible: Ability to easily modify the structure & content • Self-descriptive: ease of understanding • Machine readable • Human readable • Embedded descriptive tags • XML is designed for data availability, sharing & transport. • It requires complementary technology to do anything else. i.e. Someone must write a piece of software to send, receive, store, or display it, for example: • HTML: Format & presentation of the data • Web Service: Transport of the data (e.g. SOAP) • Database: Store & integrate with other data sources 6
  7. 7. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML and JSON Assist with Data Exchange 7 • XML and JSON can be used to assist with data exchange (B2B, B2C, etc.) • Companies • Government Agencies • Research Organizations • Etc. Purchase Order
  8. 8. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Emergence & the Growth of Data Exchange In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions. - Wikipedia
  9. 9. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML uses a Hierarchical Structure • XML uses a hierarchical, nested tree structure • An XML tree starts at a root element and branches from the root to child elements. • All elements can have sub elements (child elements) 9 <?xml version="1.0"?> <shipto> <name>John Smith</name> <address>123 Main ST</address> <city>Boise</city> <country>USA</country> </shipto> Root element Child elements
  10. 10. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML is Extensible • XML is extensible, in that element can be easily added as needed. • If the <state> element is added below, older applications using the original version will still work. 10 <?xml version="1.0"?> <shipto> <name>John Smith</name> <address>123 Main ST</address> <city>Boise</city> <country>USA</country> </shipto> <?xml version="1.0"?> <shipto> <name>John Smith</name> <address>123 Main ST</address> <city>Boise</city> <state>ID</state> <country>USA</country> </shipto>
  11. 11. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML is Self-Describing • XML is self-describing (sort of) with the use of element tags • Human-readable format • Tags describe the content of the element (sort of) 11 <?xml version="1.0"?> <shipto> <name>John Smith</name> <address>123 Main ST</address> <city>Boise</city> <country>USA</country> </shipto> From reading the tags, it’s pretty clear that we’re talking about a “Ship To” address that contains the name, address, city & country. But it doesn’t provide full metadata, e.g.: • What’s the data type? • What’s the business definition? • Is <name> a required field?
  12. 12. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML Metadata – the XML Schema • Similar to DDL, an XML Schema (XSD) defines the structure & format of data 12 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <xs:element name="shiporder"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="orderperson" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="shipto"> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="name" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="address" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="city" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="country" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:sequence> <xs:attribute name="orderid" type="xs:string" use="required"/> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:schema> XSD Metadata Ship to: John Smith 123 Main ST Boise USA ……………………………………… ……………………………………… Order Shipment Data <?xml version="1.0"?> <shipto> <name>John Smith</name> <address>123 Main ST</address> <city>Boise</city> <country>USA</country> </shipto> XML Data
  13. 13. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Graphical Models of XML Schemas 13 • XML Schemas can be shown graphically as well as via text. * Source: Altova
  14. 14. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML Metadata – the XML Schema • Although the XML Schema does provide some physical structural metadata, full metadata descriptions are incomplete, e.g. • Is the name field required? • What’s the business definition for each field? • Are there code values and/or reference data that can be used? • Can a complex data type be used? • Etc. 14
  15. 15. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Levels of Data Modeling 15 Conceptual Logical Physical Purpose Communication & Definition of Business Terms & Rules Clarification & Detail of Business Rules & Data Structures Technical Implementation with a Physical Database or Structure Audience Business Stakeholders Data Architecture Business Analysts DBAs Developers Business Concepts Data Entities Physical Tables XML Schema defines some physical metadata But limited or no business metadata
  16. 16. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Metadata & Context From Data Modeling for the Business by Hoberman, Burbank, Bradley, Technics Publications, 2009 Is this Customer a: • Premier Customer • Lapsed Customer • High Risk Customer? Can a Customer have more than one Account? Is the Ship To Address related to the Customer or the Account? What are the valid state codes for the Ship To Address?
  17. 17. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 XML Assists with Data Exchange 17 • XML and JSON can be used to assist with data exchange (B2B, B2C, etc.) • Remember modularity, simplicity, etc. Purchase Order Dude-all that other stuff isn’t my job. I’m just sending the PO!
  18. 18. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Integrating XML with Relational Databases • XML is often used in conjunction with relational databases for permanent storage and integration with other operational, reporting, and reference data. 18 Purchase Order Oracle SQL Server
  19. 19. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Integrating XML with Relational Databases • XML can be translated into relational databases, and vice-versa 19 XML Schema DDL * Source: Altova
  20. 20. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Integrating XML with Relational Databases 20 • XML can be translated into relational databases, and vice-versa XML Model Diagram Relational Model Diagram * Source: Altova
  21. 21. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 What is JSON? • What is JSON? – (JavaScript Object Notation) is a minimal, readable format for structuring data. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML. • It is similar to XML in that it is: • "self describing" & human readable • hierarchical • simple & interoperable 21 • It differs from XML in that it is: • can be parsed with standard JavaScript notation • uses arrays • can be simpler & shorter to read & write. {"employees":[ {"firstName":“Shannon", "lastName":“Kempe"}, {"firstName":"Anita", "lastName":“Kress"}, {"firstName":“Tony", "lastName":“Shaw"} ]} <employees> <employee> <firstName>Shannon</firstName> <lastName>Kempe</lastName> </employee> <employee> <firstName>Anita</firstName> <lastName>Kress</lastName> </employee> <employee> <firstName>Tony</firstName> <lastName>Shaw</lastName> </employee> </employees> JSON XML
  22. 22. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 JSON Metadata – The JSON Schema 22 • The JSON schema offers a richer set of metadata. { "id": 127849, “brand": “Super Cooler", "price": 12.50, "tags": [“camping", “sports"] } Example Product in the API Data • Can the ID contain letters? • What is a brand? • Is a price required? • Etc. Context Needed (i.e. Metadata) For example, assume we have a JSON based product catalog. This catalog has a product which has an id, a brand, a price, and an optional set of tags. { "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#", "title": "Product", "description": "A retail product from Acme's online catalog", "type": "object", "properties": { "id": { "description": "The unique identifier for a product", "type": "integer" }, “brand": { "description": “The brand name of the product as shown in the online catalogue", "type": "string" }, "price": { "type": "number", }, "tags": { "type": "array", "items": { "type": "string" }, "minItems": 1, } }, "required": ["id", “brand", "price"] } JSON Schema Metadata
  23. 23. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Integrating JSON with Document Databases • JSON is often used with document databases, such as MongoDB, which uses JSON documents in order to store records • Document databases are popular ways to store unstructured information in a flexible way (e.g. multimedia, social media posts, etc. ) 23 • Each Collection can contain numerous Documents which could all contain different fields. {type: “Artifact”, medium: “Ceramic” country: “China”, } {type: “Book”, title: “Ancient China” country: “China”, }
  24. 24. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 The Semantic Web & RDF • The RDF (Resource Description Framework) model from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) provides a way to link resources on the web (people, places, things). It provides a common framework for applications to share information without losing meaning. • Search Engines • Exchanging data between datasets • Sharing information with applications / APIs • Building social networks • Etc. • The goal is to move from a web of documents to a web of data. • The Framework is a simple way to express relationships between resources. • IRIs (International Resource Identifiers) (e.g. URI) identify resources • Simple triples relate objects together in the format: <subject> <predicate> <object> • These relationships create a connected Graph • There are several serialization formats, with RDF XML being a common one. For example: • Turtle is a human-friendly format • RDF/XML • JSON-LD • Schemas define the vocabularies used to describe the objects • Dublin Core and Schema.org are two common ones 24 Subject Object Predicate ACME Publishing RDF is Easy Is Publisher Of
  25. 25. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Creating a Web of Data 25 @type: Place Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina 1380 Harbor Island Drive San Diego, California 92101 USA "@context": "http://schema.org", “location": { "@type": "Place", "name": "Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina", "address": { "@type": "PostalAddress", "streetAddress": "1380 Harbor Island Drive", "addressLocality": "San Diego", "addressRegion": "CA", "postalCode": "92101" }, "telephone" : "+1-877-734-2726", "image": "http://edw2016.dataversity.net/uploads/ConfSiteAssets/72/im age/sheraton.jpg", "url":"http://edw2016.dataversity.net/travel.cfm" }, "@context": "http://schema.org", "location": { "@type": "Place", "name": "Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina", "address": { "@type": "PostalAddress", "streetAddress": "1380 Harbor Island Drive", "addressLocality": "San Diego", "addressRegion": "CA", "postalCode": "92101" }, "telephone" : "+1-877-734-2726", "image": “http://mysite.com/edw16photo.jpg", "url":“http://mysite.com/myphotos" }, * Script provided by: Eric Franzon, eric@smartdataconsultants.com *
  26. 26. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative • The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative provides a common metadata standards for resources such as media, library books, etc. • It defines standards for information such as: 26 http://dublincore.org Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights  Resources can be described using:  Text  HTML  XML  RDF XML Sample Metadata Format="video/mpeg; 5 minutes“ Language="en" Publisher=“Kats Online, LLC" Title=“My Favorite Cat Video“ Subject=“Cats“ Description=“A short video of a black cat playing with string."
  27. 27. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Schema.org • Schema.org is a vocabulary that webmasters can use to mark-up Web pages for the Semantic Web, so that search engines understand what the pages are about . • Created by a group of search providers (e.g. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Yandex). • Vocabularies are developed by an open community process • Through GitHub (https://github.com/schemaorg/schemaorg) • Using the public-schemaorg@w3.org mailing list • The schemas are a set of 'types', each associated with a set of properties. The types are arranged in a hierarchy. There are currently over 570 types, including: • Creative works • Organization • Person • Place, LocalBusiness, Restaurant • Product, Offer, AggregateOffer • Etc. • There are also extensions for particular industries such as: • auto.schema.org • health-lifesci.schema.org 27  Resources can be described using:  JSON-LD  RDFa  Etc.
  28. 28. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 There are Many Other Common Schemas & Vocabularies • The Dublin Core and Schema.org are two popular schemas, but many more exist for particular subject areas, industries, etc. • The Linked Open Vocabularies site (LOV) provides a helpful listing 28http://lov.okfn.org/dataset/lov/ Dublin Core Schema.org Friend of a Friend
  29. 29. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Summary • XML and JSON are used for transport and interoperability of data • They offer a variety of benefits • Simplicity: ease of usage, interoperability & understanding • Modular design: do one thing well • Extensible: Ability to easily modify the structure & content • Self-descriptive: ease of understanding • Integration with Databases allows for broader enterprise sharing & storage • Translation to Relational databases • Storage for Document databases • Graphical Models can be used across technologies for an intuitive way to visualize hierarchies & relationships • The Semantic Web is a powerful way to support the internet as a “web of data”
  30. 30. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 About Global Data Strategy, Ltd • Global Data Strategy is an international information management consulting company that specializes in the alignment of business drivers with data-centric technology. • Our passion is data, and helping organizations enrich their business opportunities through data and information. • Our core values center around providing solutions that are: • Business-Driven: We put the needs of your business first, before we look at any technology solution. • Clear & Relevant: We provide clear explanations using real-world examples. • Customized & Right-Sized: Our implementations are based on the unique needs of your organization’s size, corporate culture, and geography. • High Quality & Technically Precise: We pride ourselves in excellence of execution, with years of technical expertise in the industry. 30 Data-Driven Business Transformation Business Strategy Aligned With Data Strategy Visit www.globaldatastrategy.com for more information
  31. 31. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Contact Info • Email: donna.burbank@globaldatastrategy.com • Twitter: @donnaburbank @GlobalDataStrat • Website: www.globaldatastrategy.com • Company Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/global-data-strategy-ltd • Personal Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/donnaburbank 31
  32. 32. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 DATAVERSITY Training Center • Learn the basics of Metadata Management and practical tips on how to apply metadata management in the real world. This online course hosted by DATAVERSITY provides a series of six courses including: • What is Metadata • The Business Value of Metadata • Sources of Metadata • Metamodels and Metadata Standards • Metadata Architecture, Integration, and Storage • Metadata Strategy and Implementation • Purchase all six courses for $399 or individually at $79 each. Register here • Other courses available on Data Governance & Data Quality 32 Online Training Courses New Metadata Management Course Visit: http://training.dataversity.net/lms/
  33. 33. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Lessons in Data Modeling Series - 2017 • January 26th How Data Modeling Fits into an Overall Enterprise Architecture • February 23rd Data Modeling & Business Intelligence • March 23rd Conceptual Data Models - How to Get the Attention of Business Users (for a Technical Audience) • April 27th The Evolving Role of the Data Architect – What Does it Mean for Your Career? • May 25th Data Modeling & Metadata Management • June 22nd Self-Service Data Analysis, Data Wrangling, Data Munging, and Data Modeling – how do they fit together? • July 27th Data Modeling & Metadata for Graph Databases • August 24th Data Modeling & Data Integration • September 28th Data Modeling & MDM • October 26th Agile & Data Modeling – How can they work together? • December 5th Data Modeling, Data Governance, & Data Quality 33 Next Year’s Line Up
  34. 34. Global Data Strategy, Ltd. 2016 Questions? 34 Thoughts? Ideas?

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