• The following report is purely
based on the reporters
opinions and understanding.
• ROASTING and showing
unpleasant kind of
attitude is strictly
Society can be classified into 3 (5) groups.
GROUPS WITHIN SOCIETY
IN & OUT GROUPS
The scale of a society comes from an understanding of that
society's settlement pattern, which can only come from
The study of the buildings and other evidence of
administration at a centre gives valuable information
about the social, political, and economic organization of a
society, as well as a picture of the life of the ruling elite.
Road systems and lower-order administrative centres give
further information about the social and political
structure. The study of the differences in the treatment
accorded to different individuals at death, in both the size
and wealth of grave offerings, can reveal the complete
range of status distinctions in a society.
Other sources can also provide information about
A personal identity is a general feature of our species
but it is not always easy to reconstruct this identity
from archaeological remains. The use of purely
personal objects in a society tends to correspond with
the development of ritual activity and the construction
of monumental buildings. Gender has become an
important aspect of the archaeological study of
identity as it is a social construct involving the sex-
related roles of individuals in society.
The study of molecular genetics is also a potentially
important new field in the investigation of individuals
and social groups
Primary- primary group is typically a small social group (small-scale
society) whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships.
These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, in
shared activities and culture.
- The concept of the primary group was introduced by Charles
Cooley, a sociologist from the Chicago School of sociology, in his
book Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind.
- Primary groups play an important role in the development
of personal identity. A primary group is a group in which one
exchanges implicit items, such as love, caring, concern,
animosity, support, etc.
- They also are often psychologically comforting to the
individuals involved and provide a source of support.
Secondary- People in a secondary group interact on a
less personal level than in a primary group, and their
relationships are temporary rather than long lasting
- Since secondary groups are established to perform
functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable. A
secondary group is one you have chosen to be a part of.
- They are based on interests and activities. They are
where many people can meet close friends or people they
would just call acquaintances. Secondary groups are
groups in which one exchanges explicit commodities,
such as labour for wages, services for payments.
In Groups - In-groups distinguish themselves from
other groups based on certain membership criteria
and boundaries that the members establish.
- an ingroup is a social group to which a
person psychologically identifies as being a member.
- uses ‘us’ to refer themselves.
Out Groups - If the 'us' refers to the in-group, then the
'them' refers to the out-group. The out-group is a
group to which a person is not a member and is not
loyal to. The out-group includes everyone who is not a
part of your in-group. It follows that the out-group of
one person serves as the in-group for another person.
It is important to note that the identity of an in-group
depends on its ability to distinguish itself from those
in out-groups. This includes cases where the out-group
has a similar purpose to the in-group.
Reference Groups- A reference group is a group that we
compare ourselves to for the purpose of evaluating our
-A reference group is a group to
which an individual or another group is compared.
Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a
standard for evaluating themselves and their own
behavior a reference group.
INFORMAL & FORMAL REFERENCE GROUPS
-Most reference groups are Informal Reference
Groups, which means that they are based on the group
members' shared interests and goals. Informal groups
are not structured with a specific goal in mind. Group
members interact on a very personal level.
Examples of Informal and Formal Reference Groups
•A group of local mothers
•Formal Reference Groups have a specific goal or mission.
They also have a specific structure and positions of
authority. Examples of formal reference groups include:
•Mensa, a society for people with high IQ
•Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
MEMBERSHIP & DISCLAMANT REFERENCE
- Membership Reference Groups are those reference groups that we not only
belong to but are also in agreement with in regards to attitudes, norms, and
behaviours. Suppose that Carol is a married woman. If Carol identifies and
agrees with the attitudes and behaviours of other married women in her area
and relies on them as a way to compare and modify her own attitudes and
behaviours, then she is part of a membership reference group.
•Disclaim ant Reference Groups are groups that we belong to, but do not agree
with in regards to attitudes, social, and behaviours. Suppose that Carol has a
busy career and does not want any children. Carol finds that the married
women in her area believe that all married women should stay at home and
have at least one child. In this instance, the married women in her area are a
disclaim ant reference group.
ASPIRATIONAL & AVOIDANT REFERENCE GROUPS
- • We do not have to belong to a reference group in order
for it to have an influence over us. An aspirational reference
group is a group we do not belong to, but we hope to belong to in
the future. Suppose Jim is a High School Senior who is applying
for college in hopes of becoming a career psychologist. He might
use established career psychologists as an aspirational reference
group to determine which programs he should apply to, what his
undergraduate major should be, and what societies he should
join. An avoidant reference group, also known as a dissociative
reference group, is a group that we do not belong to and
disapprove of in regards to attitudes, values, and behaviors.
1. A primary group is typically a big social group.
2. The concept of the primary group was introduced by
3. Families is an Example of Formal Groups.
4. Peer Groups is an example of Formal Groups.
5. Formal Reference Groups have a specific goal or
6. A typically small group.
7. A group interact on a less personal level than in a
primary group, and their relationships are temporary
rather than long lasting.
8-9. If the 'us' refers to the_________, then the 'them'
refers to the _________.
10. A group that we compare ourselves to for the
purpose of evaluating our behaviours.
11-15. Society Groups
16-20. Give 5 Examples of Informal and Formal
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