Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

How society-is-organized

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 22 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Ähnlich wie How society-is-organized (20)

Anzeige

Aktuellste (20)

How society-is-organized

  1. 1. • The following report is purely based on the reporters opinions and understanding. • ROASTING and showing unpleasant kind of attitude is strictly prohibited.
  2. 2.  Society can be classified into 3 (5) groups.  GROUPS WITHIN SOCIETY a. Primary b. Secondary  IN & OUT GROUPS  REFERENCE GROUPS.
  3. 3.  The scale of a society comes from an understanding of that society's settlement pattern, which can only come from survey.  The study of the buildings and other evidence of administration at a centre gives valuable information about the social, political, and economic organization of a society, as well as a picture of the life of the ruling elite. Road systems and lower-order administrative centres give further information about the social and political structure. The study of the differences in the treatment accorded to different individuals at death, in both the size and wealth of grave offerings, can reveal the complete range of status distinctions in a society.
  4. 4.  Other sources can also provide information about social organization.  Literate Societies  Oral tradition  Ethno archaeology
  5. 5.  A personal identity is a general feature of our species but it is not always easy to reconstruct this identity from archaeological remains. The use of purely personal objects in a society tends to correspond with the development of ritual activity and the construction of monumental buildings. Gender has become an important aspect of the archaeological study of identity as it is a social construct involving the sex- related roles of individuals in society.
  6. 6.  The study of molecular genetics is also a potentially important new field in the investigation of individuals and social groups
  7. 7.  Primary- primary group is typically a small social group (small-scale society) whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, in shared activities and culture. - The concept of the primary group was introduced by Charles Cooley, a sociologist from the Chicago School of sociology, in his book Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. - Primary groups play an important role in the development of personal identity. A primary group is a group in which one exchanges implicit items, such as love, caring, concern, animosity, support, etc. - They also are often psychologically comforting to the individuals involved and provide a source of support.
  8. 8.  Secondary- People in a secondary group interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting - Since secondary groups are established to perform functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable. A secondary group is one you have chosen to be a part of. - They are based on interests and activities. They are where many people can meet close friends or people they would just call acquaintances. Secondary groups are groups in which one exchanges explicit commodities, such as labour for wages, services for payments.
  9. 9.  In Groups - In-groups distinguish themselves from other groups based on certain membership criteria and boundaries that the members establish. - an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member. - uses ‘us’ to refer themselves.
  10. 10.  Out Groups - If the 'us' refers to the in-group, then the 'them' refers to the out-group. The out-group is a group to which a person is not a member and is not loyal to. The out-group includes everyone who is not a part of your in-group. It follows that the out-group of one person serves as the in-group for another person. It is important to note that the identity of an in-group depends on its ability to distinguish itself from those in out-groups. This includes cases where the out-group has a similar purpose to the in-group.
  11. 11.  Reference Groups- A reference group is a group that we compare ourselves to for the purpose of evaluating our behaviours. -A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared. Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group.
  12. 12.  INFORMAL & FORMAL REFERENCE GROUPS -Most reference groups are Informal Reference Groups, which means that they are based on the group members' shared interests and goals. Informal groups are not structured with a specific goal in mind. Group members interact on a very personal level.
  13. 13.  Examples of Informal and Formal Reference Groups •Families •A group of local mothers •Peer groups •Formal Reference Groups have a specific goal or mission. They also have a specific structure and positions of authority. Examples of formal reference groups include: •Labor unions •Mensa, a society for people with high IQ •Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
  14. 14.  MEMBERSHIP & DISCLAMANT REFERENCE GROUPS - Membership Reference Groups are those reference groups that we not only belong to but are also in agreement with in regards to attitudes, norms, and behaviours. Suppose that Carol is a married woman. If Carol identifies and agrees with the attitudes and behaviours of other married women in her area and relies on them as a way to compare and modify her own attitudes and behaviours, then she is part of a membership reference group. •Disclaim ant Reference Groups are groups that we belong to, but do not agree with in regards to attitudes, social, and behaviours. Suppose that Carol has a busy career and does not want any children. Carol finds that the married women in her area believe that all married women should stay at home and have at least one child. In this instance, the married women in her area are a disclaim ant reference group.
  15. 15.  ASPIRATIONAL & AVOIDANT REFERENCE GROUPS - • We do not have to belong to a reference group in order for it to have an influence over us. An aspirational reference group is a group we do not belong to, but we hope to belong to in the future. Suppose Jim is a High School Senior who is applying for college in hopes of becoming a career psychologist. He might use established career psychologists as an aspirational reference group to determine which programs he should apply to, what his undergraduate major should be, and what societies he should join. An avoidant reference group, also known as a dissociative reference group, is a group that we do not belong to and disapprove of in regards to attitudes, values, and behaviors.
  16. 16. 1. A primary group is typically a big social group. 2. The concept of the primary group was introduced by Charles Cooley. 3. Families is an Example of Formal Groups. 4. Peer Groups is an example of Formal Groups. 5. Formal Reference Groups have a specific goal or mission.
  17. 17. 6. A typically small group. 7. A group interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. 8-9. If the 'us' refers to the_________, then the 'them' refers to the _________. 10. A group that we compare ourselves to for the purpose of evaluating our behaviours.
  18. 18. 11-15. Society Groups 16-20. Give 5 Examples of Informal and Formal Reference Group.
  19. 19. Thank you and Godbless!! 

×