Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
1(,=5$=,7$ /2*,.$ 3RMDP QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH      1HL]UD]LWD ORJLND MH SURãLUHQMH NODVLþQH %RRORYH ORJLNH VSRVREQD XSRWUHEOMD...
L  LVWLQD
GRN QHL]UD]LWD ORJLND SRGUåDYD UDVSRQ YULMHGQRVWL RGSRWSXQH ODåL GR SRWSXQH LVWLQH WM SRNULYD UDVSRQ YULMHGQRVWL L] LQWHUY...
_ I Ÿ )         Y Ÿ  @ `      JGMH MH SUYL þODQ XUH HQRJ SDUD HOHPHQW RG ) GUXJL þODQ EURM L] LQWHUYDOD GR GR  =D VYDNL HO...
[ QLMH HOHPHQW RG )      J[
[ MH HOHPHQW RG )      J[
S! [ HOHPHQW RG ) X] VWXSDQM SULSDGQRVWL S   S        )XQNFLMD J VH QD]LYD SULSDGQRVQD LVWLQLWRVQD LOL NDUDNWHULVWLþQD IXQ...
WM GD VH QD H SDU [ J[
L] JGMH MH SUYL HOHPHQW [ D GUXJL HOHPHQW PMHUD SULSDGQRVWL [ =D UD]PDWUDQMH³þYUVWLK´ HQJO FULVS VHWV
LOL L]UD]LWLK SRGVNXSRYD PRJXüH VX YULMHGQRVWL SULSDGQRVQHIXQNFLMH J VDPR X VNXSX ^` 8 OLWHUDWXUL VH þHVWR NRULVWL QD]LY Q...
.DR SULPMHU PRåH VH X]HWL SRGMHOD PUHåQLK þYRURYD SR YUHPHQX RG]LYD WMGHILQLUDQMH YULMHGQRVWL DWULEXWD WUDMDQMD RG]LYD PUH...
7DEOLFD  9ULMHGQRVWL RãWUH IXQNFLMH Y[
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Fuzzy neizrazita logika uvod

852 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

  • Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

Fuzzy neizrazita logika uvod

  1. 1. 1(,=5$=,7$ /2*,.$ 3RMDP QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH 1HL]UD]LWD ORJLND MH SURãLUHQMH NODVLþQH %RRORYH ORJLNH VSRVREQD XSRWUHEOMDYDWLNRQFHSW ³GMHORPLþQH´ LVWLQLWRVWL 6WDQGDUGQD ORJLND SRGUåDYD VDPR YULMHGQRVWLLVWLQLWRVWL ODå
  2. 2. L LVWLQD
  3. 3. GRN QHL]UD]LWD ORJLND SRGUåDYD UDVSRQ YULMHGQRVWL RGSRWSXQH ODåL GR SRWSXQH LVWLQH WM SRNULYD UDVSRQ YULMHGQRVWL L] LQWHUYDOD GR 2;B 1HL]UD]LWL SRGVNXSRYL 1HL]UD]LWL SRGVNXS 6 VNXSD ) PRåH VH GHILQLUDWL NDR VNXS XUH HQLK SDURYD 6 ^ I Y
  4. 4. _ I Ÿ ) Y Ÿ @ ` JGMH MH SUYL þODQ XUH HQRJ SDUD HOHPHQW RG ) GUXJL þODQ EURM L] LQWHUYDOD GR GR =D VYDNL HOHPHQW RG ) SRVWRML WRþQR MHGDQ XUH HQ SDU NRML GDMH VWXSDQMSULSDGQRVWL I X SRGVNXS 6 âWR VH PRåH NUDüH ]DELOMHåLWL NDR 6 ^ I_Y I_Y IL_YL ` 1D WDM QDþLQ GHILQLUDQD MH IXQNFLMD J NRMD VYDNRP HOHPHQWX RG ) GRGMHOMXMHMHGDQ EURM L] LQWHUYDOD RG GR J )  @ J[
  5. 5. [ QLMH HOHPHQW RG ) J[
  6. 6. [ MH HOHPHQW RG ) J[
  7. 7. S! [ HOHPHQW RG ) X] VWXSDQM SULSDGQRVWL S S )XQNFLMD J VH QD]LYD SULSDGQRVQD LVWLQLWRVQD LOL NDUDNWHULVWLþQD IXQNFLMD D VNXS) VH QD]LYD XQLYHU]DOQLP VNXSRP QHL]UD]LWRJ SRGVNXSD 6 3ULSDGQRVQD YULMHGQRVWVXGD [ MH X ) RGUH XMH VH WDNR GD VH QD H YULMHGQRVW J[
  8. 8. WM GD VH QD H SDU [ J[
  9. 9. L] JGMH MH SUYL HOHPHQW [ D GUXJL HOHPHQW PMHUD SULSDGQRVWL [ =D UD]PDWUDQMH³þYUVWLK´ HQJO FULVS VHWV
  10. 10. LOL L]UD]LWLK SRGVNXSRYD PRJXüH VX YULMHGQRVWL SULSDGQRVQHIXQNFLMH J VDPR X VNXSX ^` 8 OLWHUDWXUL VH þHVWR NRULVWL QD]LY QHL]UD]LWL VNXSXPMHVWR QHL]UD]LWL SRGVNXS SD üH VH VWRJD L X GDOMQMHP WHNVWX NRULVWLWL QD]LY VNXSXPMHVWR SRGVNXS
  11. 11. .DR SULPMHU PRåH VH X]HWL SRGMHOD PUHåQLK þYRURYD SR YUHPHQX RG]LYD WMGHILQLUDQMH YULMHGQRVWL DWULEXWD WUDMDQMD RG]LYD PUHåQRJ þYRUD 7DEOLFD
  12. 12. 7DEOLFD 9ULMHGQRVWL RãWUH IXQNFLMH Y[
  13. 13. ýYRU 9ULMHPH RG]LYD PV
  14. 14. Y[
  15. 15. X] [! PV Y[
  16. 16. X] [ PV DPLU $QD 3HUR -DVQD ,YLFD =D SULPMHQX L]UD]LWLK SRGVNXSRYD PRåH VH GHILQLUDWL IXQNFLMD SULSDGQRVWL Y[
  17. 17. NRMD LVND]DQD ULMHþLPD ]QDþL [ MH VSRU DNR MH YULMHPH RG]LYD YHüH RG PV DYULMHGQRãüX Y[
  18. 18. [ ! PV Y[
  19. 19. [ PV )XQNFLMD Y[
  20. 20. LPD SUHNLG X PV ãWR MH SRVOMHGLFD QMHQH GHILQLFLMH LDNR MHYULMHPH RG]LYD UHDODQ EURM WM NRQWLQXLUDQD YHOLþLQD 6OLND
  21. 21. ,YLFD $QD -DVQD DPLU 3HUR 6OLND *UDI RãWUH IXQNFLMH Y[
  22. 22. =D QHL]UD]LWL SRGVNXS GHILQLUDPR SULSDGQRVQX IXQNFLMX YULMHPH RG]LYD Y[
  23. 23. QDSULURGQLML QDþLQ NDR QHSUHNLQXWX IXQNFLMX 7DEOLFD 6OLND
  24. 24. 7DEOLFD 7DEOLFD QHSUHNLQXWH IXQNFLMH Y[
  25. 25. ýYRU PV Y[
  26. 26. [
  27. 27. [ Y[
  28. 28. [ Y[
  29. 29. [ ! DPLU $QD 3HUR -DVQD ,YLFD ,YLFD $QD -DVQD DPLU 3HUR 6OLND *UDI QHSUHNLQXWH IXQNFLMH Y[
  30. 30. .DR ãWR MH YLGOMLYR QD VOLFL QHSUHNLQXWD IXQNFLMD Y[
  31. 31. GDMH GDOHNR NRULVQLMLRSLV EU]LQH RG]LYD PUHåQRJ þYRUD NRMLP VH PRJX GDYDWL L XVSRUHGEH V GUXJLPDWULEXWLPD WM GRQRVLWL RFMHQH 3ULND] QHL]UD]LWLK VNXSRYD 1HL]UD]LWL VNXSRYL VH X UDþXQDOLPD SULND]XMX NDR SROMD YDULMDELOQLK LOL ]DGDQLKGXåLQD 2YLVQR R REOLNX JUDID SULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH NRULVWH VH UD]OLþLWH PHWRGHL]JUDGQMH QHL]UD]LWLK VNXSRYD 5D]OLNXMHPR QHNROLNR JUXSD QHL]UD]LWLK VNXSRYD SRREOLNX 7DEOLFD
  32. 32. 3ULND] REOLND RYLVL R DODWX NRML VH NRULVWL 8RELþDMHQR MH GD VHGRPHQD VNXSD VHJPHQWLUD L QD SRMHGLQLP VHJPHQWLPD GD VH YULMHGQRVW IXQNFLMHSULSDGQRVWL DSURNVLPLUD ILNVQLP L]QRVRP LOL OLQHDUQRP DSURNVLPDFLMRP SUHPD UXEQLPYULMHGQRVWLPD 3RGMHOD VH RELþQR YUãL QD VHJPHQDWD SD GRPHQH VNXSRYD QH VPLMXELWL SUHYHOLNH ]ERJ SUHFL]QRVWL DSURNVLPDFLMH
  33. 33. 7DEOLFD 2EOLFL QHL]UD]LWLK SRGVNXSRYD 2EOLN 2SLV =YRQROLNL JUDI L]JOHGD NDR ]YRQROLND NULYXOMD 3, LOL %(7$ NULYXOMD
  34. 34. 6LJPD UDVWXüD LOL SDGDMXüD VLJPD NULYXOMD /LQHDUQL JUDI MH SULEOLåQR SUDYDF UDVWXüL LOL SDGDMXüL 6ORERGQD VHULMD JUDI QHPD QHNL SUDYLODQ REOLN 6NXS SUDYLOD MH RELþQR RQR ãWR MH LQWXLWLYQR MDVQR R VXVWDYX D REOLN VNXSRYD LSULGMHYL NRML SRGHãDYDMX SUDYLOD XWYU XMX VH NUR] UD]YRM QHL]UD]LWRJ VXVWDYD 8 RYRPUDGX QDMYLãH VX NRULãWHQL WURNXWDVWL VNXSRYL ]D RSLV QHL]UD]LWLK EURMHYD WH VORERGQHVHULMH NRG NUHLUDQMD VNXSRYD NRML RSLVXMX SULURGQR SRQDãDQMH QHNH YHOLþLQH /RJLþNH RSHUDFLMH QD QHL]UD]LWLP SRGVNXSRYLPD 0RJXüH VX L ORJLþNH RSHUDFLMH QD QHL]UD]WLWLP VNXSRYLPD HILQLFLMH ORJLþNLKRSHUDFLMD VX MHGQRVWDYQH L VWDQGDUGL]LUDQH VX QD LVWLQD QH [
  35. 35. LVWLQD[
  36. 36. LVWLQD $ L %
  37. 37. PLQLVWLQD$
  38. 38. LVWLQD%
  39. 39. LVWLQD $ LOL %
  40. 40. PD[LVWLQD$
  41. 41. LVWLQD%
  42. 42. 3RVWRMH L GUXJH GHILQLFLMH ORJLþNLK RSHUDFLMD SUHNR XPQRãND L ]EURMD QR MHGLQDþYUVWD GHILQLFLMD MHVW GHILQLFLMD QHJDFLMH NRMD GROD]L RG SULURGH SRVWXSND 6,/(B2;B 2SHUDFLMH VH RGDELUX SUHPD SUREOHPX QD NRML VH QHL]UD]LWD ORJLNDSULPMHQMXMH 7LS RSHUDFLMD L SDUDPHWUL VH RGDELUX X SRVWXSNX SRGHãDYDQMD PRGHOD LVXVWDYD SUREOHPX 2GDELU WLSD RSHUDFLMD RYLVL WDNR HU L R LVNXVWYX SURMHNWDQWD $NR VH X] SUHWKRGQL SULPMHU L] WDEOLFH GHILQLUD L QHL]UD]LWL VNXS SURSXVQRVW]DGDQ SULSDGQRVQRP IXQNFLMRP V[
  43. 43. SUHPD SRGDFLPD L] WDEOLFH V[
  44. 44. [ V[
  45. 45. SURSXVQRVW[
  46. 46. [! L [ V[
  47. 47. [!
  48. 48. RELYD VH ]D QL] YULMHGQRVWL NRMH SRND]XMX IXQNFLRQLUDQMH QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH ]DVORåHQH VXGRYH ; LPD YULMHPH RG]LYD L ; LPD SURSXVQRVW PLQ Y[
  49. 49. V[
  50. 50. ,
  51. 51. ; LPD YULMHPH RG]LYD LOL ; LPD SURSXVQRVW PD[ Y[
  52. 52. V[
  53. 53. ,,
  54. 54. ; LPD YULMHPH RG]LYD Y[
  55. 55. ,,,
  56. 56. 7DEOLFD 9ULMHPH RG]LYD L SURSXVQRVWýYRU 9ULMHPH 3URSXVQRVW V[
  57. 57. Y[
  58. 58. ,
  59. 59. ,,
  60. 60. ,,,
  61. 61. RG]LYD
  62. 62. PV
  63. 63. DPLU $QD 3HUR -DVQD ,YLFD 3ULPMHQD QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH VH XSUDYR L ]DVQLYD QD XSRUDEL VORåHQLK QHL]UD]LWLKVXGRYD L RSHUDFLMD QD QMLPD 1DYHGHQL SULPMHU GDMH SURFMHQX QHNLK VYRMVWDYD þYRUD XPUHåL UDþXQDOD QD RVQRYL YUHPHQD RG]LYD þYRUD L SURSXVQRVWL YH]H SUHPD WRP þYRUXDNOH PRåH VH GRELWL RGJRYRU QD SLWDQMH NRML þYRU ; X PUHåL LPD ; LPD YULMHPHRG]LYD LOL ; LPD SURSXVQRVW PDQMX RG 3UL JUDGQML QHL]UD]LWLK VNXSRYD þHVWR VH NRULVWL SRGMHOD SRGUXþMD YULMHGQRVWL XNYDQWL]LUDQH GLMHORYH 8 VNODGX VD ]QDþHQMHP VNXSD WDNYD VH SRGMHOD QD]LYDOLQJYLVWLþND SRGMHOD D QDVWDOL NYDQWL WM QHL]UD]LWL SRGVNXSRYL OLQJYLVWLþNH YDULMDEOH =DQHNX YDULMDEOX RYLVQR R ]QDþHQMX QMHQH YULMHGQRVWL XYRGLPR OLQJYLVWLþNH YDULMDEOH NRMHRSLVXMX L]QRV WH YDULMDEOH SUHNR DWULEXWD NDR ãWR VX MDNR VUHGQMH L YHOLNR =D SRþHWQLSULPMHU YULMHPH RG]LYD PRJX VH GHILQLUDWL WUL OLQJYLVWLþNH YDULMDEOH 6OLND
  64. 64. •Ã PDOR YULMHPH RG]LYD•Ã VUHGQMH YULMHPH RG]LYD•Ã YHOLNR YULMHPH RG]LYD 7H VH YDULMDEOH GHILQLUDMX SUHNR QRYLK IXQNFLMD 3ULPMHQD OLQJYLVWLþNLK YDULMDEOLRPRJXüXMH SLVDQMH SUDYLOD JRWRYR X JRYRUQRP MH]LNX 2GDWOH MH L QD]LY OLQJYLVWLþNDYDULMDEOD 6DPD VHJPHQWDFLMD VH RVQLYD QD YHü RSLVDQRP SRVWXSNX L]JUDGQMHYULMHGQRVWL ]D QHL]UD]LWH VNXSRYH SXWHP DSURNVLPDFLMH YULMHGQRVWL VNXSD QD VHJPHQWXGRPHQH VNXSD
  65. 65. PDOR VUHGQMH YHOLNR YULMHPH RG]LYD YULMHPH RG]LYD YULMHPH RG]LYD ,YLFD $QD -DVQD DPLU 3HUR 6OLND /LQJYLVWLþNH YDULMDEOH L]YHGHQH L] YUHPHQD RG]LYD 2JUDGH QD QHL]UD]LWLP VNXSRYLPD 3UL NRULãWHQMX QHL]UD]LWLK VNXSRYD GHILQLUDMX VH L SRVHEQL RSHUDWRUL RJUDGD HQJOKHGJHV
  66. 66. þLML MH ]DGDWDN PRGLILFLUDQMH ]QDþHQMD RVQRYQRJ QHL]UD]LWRJ SRGVNXSD 7R VXRSHUDWRUL NRML PLMHQMDQMX REOLN YULMHGQRVWL
  67. 67. SULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH L QD WDM QDþLQSRMDþDYDMX LOL VODEH ]QDþHQMH VNXSD 7DEOLFD
  68. 68. .RULVWH VH X QHL]UD]LWLP HNVSHUWLPD]D SULND] ]QDþHQMD SULGMHYD 9UOR VX SRJRGQL ]D ]DSLVLYDQMH RELþQLK JRYRUQLK VXGRYDX REOLNX QHL]UD]LWLK SUDYLOD•Ã D MH MDNR YHOLN•Ã MH EOL]X F
  69. 69. 7DEOLFD 9H]D RJUDGH L PRJXüH PDWHPDWLþNH RSHUDFLMH2JUDGD =QDþHQMH QXPHULþNL RSLV$%287 NRG ‘$5281 RNR ‘ $%29( L]QDG YHüH RG JUDQLFH326,7,9( VLJXUQR YHüH RG JUDQLFH%(/2: LVSRG PDQMH RG JUDQLFH*(1(5$// RSüHQLWR RNR JUDQLFH L L]QDG JUDQLFH/26( EOL]X ‘ ‘ 127 QH LQYHUWLUDQR620(:+$7 QHNDNR XVND RNROLQD9(5 MDNR XVND RNROLQD QDNRQ YULMHGQRVWL(;75(0(/ HNVWUHPQR VXåHQMH VNXSD QD ãLULQH6/,*+7/ QH]QDWQR ‘$)7(5 QDNRQ VYH QDNRQ%()25( SULMH VYH SULMH58( X JUXER ‘ 528*+/ SULEOLåQR ‘ ,DNR VH X]LPD GD VX RJUDGH VWDQGDUGL]LUDQH RQH RYLVH R SUREOHPX QD NRML VHQHL]UD]LWD ORJLND SULPMHQMXMH 7RþQR SRGHãDYDQMH QMLKRYH YULMHGQRVWL SRVWLåH VH XSRVWXSNX SRGHãDYDQMD PRGHOD 2;B 6,/(B 1HL]UD]LWL EURMHYL 3RMDP QHL]UD]LWRJ EURMD HQJO IX]] QXPEHU
  70. 70. MH YUOR YDåDQ X RYRP UDGX1HL]UD]LWL EURM PRåH VH MHGQRVWDYQR GHILQLUDWL NDR EURM þLML MH VWYDUQL L]QRV QHVLJXUDQ5DGL VH R QDþLQX GD VH RSLãH RNROLQD QHNRJ EURMD D RELþQR VH NRULVWL ]DMHGQR X]RJUDGH ,]UD] RNR MH SULPMHU ]D QHL]UD]LWR SUHGVWDYOMDQMH EURMD 2NROLQD L WLSSULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH X]LPDMX VH RYLVQR R WLSX SUREOHPD X þLMHP VH NRQWHNVWXQHL]UD]LWL EURM NRULVWL REUD SRþHWQD DSURNVLPDFLMD MH WURNXWQL VNXS X] JUDQLFH ‘6OLND
  71. 71. ãWR RGJRYDUD GHILQLFLML RJUDGH RNR 1DþLQ SULND]D QHL]UD]LWRJ EURMD MDNR RYLVL R XSRUDEL WRJ EURMD 5D]QL DXWRULSUHSRUXþXMX LOL WURNXWDVWL VNXS 6,/(B LOL ]YRQROLNL VNXS 2;B 2GDELU RYLVL RWRPH GD OL VH UDGL R VWDWLþNRP XVSRUH LYDQMX EURMD L YHü SRVWRMHüHJ VNXSD LOL RXVSRUH LYDQMX GYDMX EURMHYD GLQDPLþNL =D GLQDPLþNL VOXþDM WURNXWDVWL VNXS MH EROML]ERJ PDQMH VORåHQRVWL D WRþQRVW MH SULEOLåQR LVWD
  72. 72. RNRB 6OLND 1HL]UD]LWL EURM LOL RNR X L]UDåHQR RELþQLP JRYRURP 1HL]UD]LWL HNVSHUWQL VXVWDYL L QHL]UD]LWR ]DNOMXþLYDQMH 1HL]UD]LWL HNVSHUWQL VXVWDY VH GHILQLUD NDR HNVSHUWQL VXVWDY NRML RGOXNH GRQRVLQD RVQRYL QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH 3UHPD WRPH QHL]UD]LWL HNVSHUWQL VXVWDY MH VNXSSULSDGQRVQRLK IXQNFLMD L SUDYLOD ]D ]DNOMXþLYDQMH 3UHGQRVW QHL]UD]LWRJ HNVSHUWQRJVXVWDYD MH X WRPH ãWR VH ]DNOMXþLYDQMH L]YRGL UDþXQDQMHP D QH VLPEROLþNLP]DNOMXþLYDQMHP 6WRJD VH PRJX UD]YLWL L HNVSHUWQL VXVWDYL ]D UDG X VWYDUQRP YUHPHQXLOL ]D UDG QD UDþXQDOQRP VODELMLP SODWIRUPDPD 8 RVQRYL XYLMHN SRVWRML WRþQR RGUH HQLEURM SUDYLOD NRMD VH L]UDþXQDYDMX SD YULMHPH GRQRãHQMD ]DNOMXþDND MH OLQHDUQRSURSRUFLRQDOQR EURMX SUDYLOD QHL]UD]LWRJ HNVSHUWD 0RJXüH VX L VLWXDFLMH JGMH EURMSUDYLOD RYLVL R QHNRP VYRMVWYX QR RQH VH PRJX VYHVWL QD VOXþDM ILNVQRJ EURMD SUDYLOD3ULPMHQRP LQWHUSUHWLUDQLK MH]LND NDNDY MH 7/ PRJXüH MH L]JUDGLWL NRPELQLUDQL DODWX NRP VH QHL]UD]LWD ORJLND L QHL]UD]LWL HNVSHUWL NRULVWH X SXQRM VORERGL L GLQDPLþNRPSULODJR LYDQMD VLWXDFLML 3UL WRPH VH PRåH SRVWLüL L MHGQRVWDYQD L]JUDGQMD VXVWDYD VYDULMDELOQLP EURMHP SUDYLOD RYLVQLP R VYRMVWYLPD REMHNDWD NRML VH SUDWH
  73. 73. 3UDYLOD X QHL]UD]LWLP HNVSHUWLPD VX MHGQDND SUDYLOLPD X RVWDOLP HNVSHUWLPDRELþQR VX REOLND DNRBMH ; PDOR L YHOLNR
  74. 74. RQGD MH = VUHGQMH
  75. 75. ; L VX XOD]QH YDULMDEOH HQJO LQSXW
  76. 76. SRGDWNRYQH YULMHGQRVWL = MH L]OD]QD YDULMDEOD HQJO RXWSXW
  77. 77. GLR XQXWDU DNRBMH L RQGD QD]LYD VH XYMHW LOL SUHWSRVWDYND GLR L]D RQGD MH ]DNOMXþDN PRåH ELWL YLãH ]DNOMXþDND ]D MHGQR SUDYLOR 6NXS SUDYLOD VH QD]LYD ED]D ]QDQMD LOL ED]D SUDYLOD HQJO UXOH EDVH NQRZOHGJHEDVH
  78. 78. $NR MH XYMHW SUDYLOD ]DGRYROMHQ NDåH VH GD SUDYLOR L]YUãDYD WH VH L]UDþXQDYDYULMHGQRVW ]DNOMXþND ]D WR SUDYLOR 3UDYLOR VH SULPMHQMXMH X VOXþDMX GD MH YULMHGQRVWSUDYLOD YHüD RG QHNRJ SUDJD þLPH VH SRGHãDYD RVMHWOMLYRVW VXVWDYD 3URFHV]DNOMXþLYDQMD X QHL]UD]LWRP HNVSHUWQRP VXVWDYX SURYRGL VH X QHNROLNR NRUDND2;B•Ã SULGUXåHQMH YULMHGQRVWL SULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH•Ã LQWHUIHUHQFLMD•Ã NRPSR]LFLMD•Ã UDþXQDQMH SULSDGQH þYUVWH YULMHGQRVWL 3UL UDþXQDQMX YULMHGQRVWL SULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH XOD]QH YHOLþLQH VH SURSXãWDMXNUR] SULSDGRVQH IXQNFLMH GD EL VH GRELOH SULSDGRVQH YULMHGQRVWL ]D VYDNX SULSDGQRVQXIXQNFLMX 6WXSDQM LVWLQLWRVWL SUDYLOD QD]LYD VH DOID SUDYLOD LOL LVWLQLWRVW SUDYLOD $NRSUDYLOR LPD LVWLQLWRVW YHüX RG WDGD WR SUDYLOR GMHOXMH RNLGD
  79. 79. MHORYDQMHP SUDYLOD VHVYDNRP ]DNOMXþNX SULGUXåXMH MHGDQ QHL]UD]LWL SRGVNXS 0RJXüH MH L SRVWDYOMDQMHRJUDQLþHQMD QD L]QRV DOID YULMHGQRVWL SUDYLOD WM SUDYLOR PRUD LPDWL DOID YULMHGQRVWYHüX RG QHNH JUDQLþQH GD EL GMHORYDOR QD UH]XOWDW 3UHPD SUDYLOLPD LQWHUIHUHQFLMH L]UDþXQDYD VH SULSDGQRVQD IXQNFLMD QHL]UD]LWRJVNXSD ]DNOMXþND ]D VYDNR SUDYLOR NRMH MH GMHORYDOR 3RVWRMH GYD RVQRYQD SRVWXSNDLQWHUIHUHQFLMH PLQLPXP L SURGXNW =D SUDYLOR PLQLPXPD L]OD]QD SULSDGQRVQD IXQNFLMDL]UDþXQDYD VH NDR PLQLPXP SULSDGQRVQH IXQNFLMH SUDYLOD L QMHJRYH DOID YULMHGQRVWL.RG NRULãWHQMD SUDYLOD SURGXNWD L]OD]QD SULSDGQRVQD IXQNFLMD L]UDþXQDYD VH NDRXPQRåDN DOIH SUDYLOD L QMHJRYH SULSDGQRVQD IXQNFLMH 8 RYRP UDGX MH NRULãWHQRSUDYLOR PLQLPXPD .RPSR]LFLMD REMHGLQMXMH VYH QHL]UD]LWH VNXSRYH NRML VX SULGUXåHQL MHGQRML]OD]QRM YDULMDEOL SURFHVRP LQWHUIHUHQFLMH 3RVWRMH GYD RVQRYQD SRVWXSND NRPSR]LFLMHPDNVLPXP L VXPD 0DNVLPXP SRVWXSDN UDþXQD PDNVLPXP ]D VYH SULSDGQQRVQHIXQNFLMH 3RVWXSDN VXPH MH ]EURM VYLK SULSDGQRVQLK IXQNFLMD SD PRåH GRYHVWL GRXNXSQRJ ]EURMD LVWLQLWRVWL YHüHJ RG 8 RYRP UDGX VH NRULVWL SRVWXSDN PDNVLPXPD
  80. 80. 1HL]UD]LWL VNXS NRML MH UH]XOWDW NRPSR]LFLMH SRWUHEQR MH SUHYHVWL X MHGQXEURMþDQX YULMHGQRVW W]Y RãWUX YULMHGQRVW
  81. 81. 3RVWRML YLãH WDNYLK SRVWXSDND QDMþHãüL VXWHåLãQL SRVWXSDN FHQWURLGQL
  82. 82. L PDNVLPXP 7HåLãQL SRVWXSDN L]UDþXQDYD WHåLãWH OLNDNRML RSLVXMH UH]XOWDQWQL QHL]UD]LWL VNXS D NRRUGLQDWX L]QRVD WHåLãWD GDMH NDR þYUVWXL]OD]QX YULMHGQRVW 3RVWXSDN PDNVLPXPD UDþXQD PDNVLPXP UH]XOWDQWQRJ QHL]UD]LWRJVNXSD L QMHJD X]LPD NDR þYUVWX L]OD]QX YULMHGQRVW 8 VOXþDMX NDGD LPD YLãH ORNDOQLKPDNVLPXPD X]LPD VH QMLKRYD VUHGQMD YULMHGQRVW 3ULPMHQH QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH 1HL]UD]LWD ORJLND VH PRåH SULPMHQMLYDWL X VYLP SRGUXþMLPD UDþXQDOVWYD SRVHEQRWDPR JGMH MH SRWUHEQR REXKYDWLWL QHL]YMHVQRVW L QHVLJXUQRVW VXVWDYD 2SüHQLWR SRVWRMHGYD RVQRYQD QDþLQD XSRUDEH QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH•Ã QHL]UD]LWD ORJLND X QDG]RUX SURFHVD L VXVWDYD•Ã QHL]UD]LWD ORJLND X VHOHNWLUDQMX RFMHQMLYDQMX SRGDWDND 0HWRGH L DODWL UD]YLMHQL ]D WD SRGUXþMD ]DKWLMHYDMX YHOLNH SUHLQDNH GD EL VHPRJOL NRULVWLWL X SRGUXþMX LQWHUHVD RYRJ UDGD 6DPD DQDOL]D L SULODJRGED DODWDRPRJXüXMX GXEOML SRJOHG QD ]DKWMHYH VXVWDYD WH QD XWMHFDM SRMHGLQLK LQWXLWLYQLKSUDYLOD QD UDG VXVWDYD 2VQRYQD SULPMHQD QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH MH X SRGUXþMX XSUDYOMDQMD L QDG]RUD WM XSRGUXþMX XSUDYOMDQMD JUHãNDPD 7X VH UDGL R L]GYDMDQMX QHWRþQLK LQIRUPDFLMDWUDQ]LMHQWQLK SRMDYD X PUHåL WH JHQHULUDQMX L DQDOL]L QHNLK VORåHQLK YHOLþLQD SRSXWLQGHNVD ]GUDYOMD LOL LQGHNVD VWDQMD 7DNYD SULPMHQD ]DKWMHYD XJUDGQMX QHL]UD]LWLK DODWDX VXþHOMH XSUDYOMDþNRJ L QDG]RUQRJ VXVWDYD 2VLP RYH RVQRYQH SULPMHQH PRJXüD MH SULPMHQD QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH X XSUDYOMDQMXVLJXUQRãüX UDþXQDOQLK VXVWDYD X GHWHNFLML GRJD DMD L SURFMHQL VWDQMD VLJXUQRVWL 1HL]UD]LWR XSUDYOMDQMH 1HL]UD]LWR XSUDYOMDQMH MH SRVWXSDN NRG NRMHJ VH L]QRV XSUDYOMDþNLK YHOLþLQDL]UDþXQDYD SRWSXQR LOL GMHORPLþQR SULPMHQRP QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH 1D RVQRYL VNXSDXOD]QLK YHOLþLQD SULPMHQRP SUDYLOD QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH UDþXQD VH L]QRV MHGQH LOL YLãHL]OD]QLK YHOLþLQD 7DNDY WLS XSUDYOMDQMD RELþQR VH NRULVWL X NRQWUROL SURFHVD NRG NRMLKQLMH PRJXüH GDWL SRWSXQL PDWHPDWLþNL RSLV 1HL]UD]LWD ORJLND RYGMH JHQHULUDNRQWLQXLUDQH YHOLþLQH X SUDYLOX
  83. 83. NRMH VH L]UDYQR XOD]H X XSUDYOMDQL VXVWDY 2ELþQR VH
  84. 84. UDGL R XSUDYOMDþNLP VXVWDYLP ED]LUDQLP QD PLNURUDþXQDOLPD PDOH VQDJH 3URFHVL]UDþXQDYDQMD VH ]ERJ EU]LQH L XþLQNRYLWRVWL L]YRGL WDEOLþQR 0RJXü MH L UDG VDGLVNUHWQLP L]OD]QLP YHOLþLQDPD 3RVWRMH DODWL NRML RPRJXüXMX JUDGQMX WDNYLK VXVWDYD NUR] JUDILþND VXþHOMD 3ULWRPH VH X]LPDMX X RE]LU VSHFLILþQRVWL SRMHGLQLK PLNURUDþXQDOQLK VXVWDYD D PRJXüH MHJHQHULUDQMH NRGD ]D FLOMQH VXVWDYH X] WHVWLUDQMH VLPXODFLMH L DQDOL]H 7DNYL VX DODWL $%)OH[ NRPSDQLMH 5RFNZHOO $XWRPDWLRQ WH 6LH)X]] NRPSDQLMH 6LHPHQV 2ED DODWD VXUDVSRORåLYD X SUREQLP YHU]LMDPD RJUDQLþHQLK PRJXüQRVWL 52.B 6,()B 1HL]UD]LWR L]GYDMDQMH GRJD DMD 1HL]UD]LWR L]GYDMDQMH GRJD DMD MH SRVWXSDN NRML VH ]DVQLYD QD NODVLILNDFLMLPH X]DYLVQLK UH]XOWDWD 8] SRPRü QHL]UD]LWH ORJLNH QDVWRML VH L]GYRMLWL RQH SRMDYHNRMH X RGQRVX QD ]DGDQH NULWHULMH SUHGVWDYOMDMX GRJD DM 7HKQLNH NRMH VH WX NRULVWH QDVWRMH UDþXQVNL XNORQLWL ãXP L] SRGDWDND WH QDNRQWRJD QD RVQRYL WDNR SULODJR HQH SURPMHQH SUDüHQLK YHOLþLQD GRQLMHWL RGOXNX 1DMYLãHVH NRULVWH SULODJR LYDQMD VUHGQMH YULMHGQRVWL HQJO H[SRQHQWLDOO PDSSHG SDVWDYHUDJH
  85. 85. NRMH X]LPDMX X RE]LU QL] SUHWKRGQLK UH]XOWDWD 6,/(B 6WDQGDUGQR VHNRULVWL IRUPXOD 6L
  86. 86. 6L
  87. 87. 7 [L
  88. 88. G7
  89. 89. 7 G7
  90. 90. 7 MH YUHPHQVND NRQVWDQWD SRPDND G7 MH UD]PDN RþLWDYDQMD YULMHGQRVWL [ MH L]QRV SUDüHQH YDULMDEOH X WUHQXWNX L 1D RYDNR L]UDþXQDWX YULMHGQRVW VH SULPMHQMXMH XVSRUH LYDQMH VD XOD]QRPYDULMDEORP 7DNR GRELYHQD UD]OLND NRULVWL VH NDR XOD] X QHL]UD]LWRJ HNVSHUWD 0RJXüHVX L GUXJH PHWRGH 2YLVQR R SUDüHQLP YDULMDEODPD PRJXüH MH XVSRUH LYDQMH VDRELþQRP VUHGQMRP YULMHGQRãüX LOL QHNLP GUXJLP VWDWLVWLþNLP YHOLþLQDPD =DQLPOMLYRMH QHL]UD]LWR EURMHQMH ]QDþDMQLK GRJD DMD 3UDüHQL GRJD DML YH]DQL X] XOD]QX YHOLþLQXRSLVXMX VH EURMDþHP þLML VH L]QRV QHL]UD]LWRP ORJLNRP SUHYRGL X þYUVWX YULMHGQRVW =DXOD]QX YHOLþLQX ; GHILQLUDPR GYLMH OLQJYLVWLþNH PH XYDULMDEOH GHVLRBVHBGRJD DM LQLMHBVHBGHVLRBGRJD DM WH EURMDþ VD SRþHWQRP QHXWUDOQRP YULMHGQRVWL RELþQR 1RYX YULMHGQRVW EURMDþD UDþXQDPR X VYDNRM GRKYDWX QRYH YULMHGQRVWL ; SUHPD PD[ GHVLRBVHBGRJD DM;
  91. 91. QLMHBVHBGHVLRBGRJD DM;
  92. 92. %URMDþ VH X RYRP VOXþDMX SRQDãD NDR SULODJR HQD VUHGQMD YULMHGQRVW DOL EROMHRSLVXMH GRJD DMH 1MHJRYD YULMHGQRVW PRåH GDOMH ELWL WUHWLUDQD NDR ELOR NRMD GUXJDL]YHGHQD SUDüHQD YHOLþLQD DOL VH RELþQR QMHJRYD YULMHGQRVW LQWHUSUHWLUD L]UDYQR SUHNRQHL]UD]LWLK SUDYLOD $XWRPDWVNR SULODJR LYDQMH SDUDPHWDUD QHL]UD]LWRJ VXVWDYD X UDGX 6WUXNWXUD QHL]UD]LWRJ VXVWDYD GDQD MH SUDYLOLPD X ED]L ]QDQMD 3UL WRPH VHSUDYLOD JUDGH LQWXLWLYQR QD RVQRYL LQWHUDNFLMH VD VWUXþQMDNRP 6DP REOLNSULSDGQRVQLK IXQNFLMD L WHåLQVNL XWMHFDM SRMHGLQLK SUDYLOD VX SUL WRPH XYHOLNHSURL]YROMQL L SRGORåQL SURPMHQDPD NUR] XþHQMH 52.B .RULãWHQMHP WHKQLND QHXUDOQLK PUHåD PRJXüH MH SRVWLüL XþHQMH QHLUD]LWRJVXVWDYD 6DP SRVWXSDN ]DKWMHYD DODWH NRML PRJX RG ]DGDQLK XOD]D L LVSUDYQLKYULMHGQRVWL L]OD]D PLMHQMDWL VNXS SUDYLOD VYH GRN VH QH GRELMH SRWUHEQR SRGXGDUDQMHXOD]QLK L L]OD]QLK YULMHGQRVWL 52.B 6,()B 8 RYRP UDGX QLVX VH PRJOLNRULVWLWL DODWL VSRVREQL ]D XþHQMH

×