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Principles of teaching.structure of subject matter content.2015

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Principles of teaching.structure of subject matter content.2015

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Structure of Subject Matter Content
Cognitive
Skills
Affective

Report in Principles of Teaching 1 course subject
TUPC, 2015

Structure of Subject Matter Content
Cognitive
Skills
Affective

Report in Principles of Teaching 1 course subject
TUPC, 2015

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Principles of teaching.structure of subject matter content.2015

  1. 1. Selection and Organization of Content The Structure of Subject Matter Content Christopher H. Punzalan 2015 BTTE 5 Principles of Teaching 1
  2. 2. Think about this…
  3. 3. Subject Matter matter presented for consideration in discussion, thought, or study the substance of a discussi on, book, writing, etc., as distinguished from its form or style.
  4. 4. Subject Matter Content Elements Cognitive Skills Affective
  5. 5. The Structure of Subject Matter Content Cognitive  Facts  Concepts  Principles  Hypotheses  Theories  Laws Skill  Thinking skills  Manipulative skills Affective  Realm of values and attitudes
  6. 6. COGNITIVE Facts Concepts Principles Hypotheses Theories Laws
  7. 7. Facts Fact is an idea or action that can be verified. Basic unit of cognitive subject matter content Example: names and dates of important activities population of the Philippines
  8. 8. Concepts Concept is a categorization of events, places, people, ideas. Example: Furniture -> chairs, tables, tables, beds, and desks. Swim -> breast stroke, crawl, butterfly
  9. 9. Principles the relationship(s) between and among facts and concepts. arrived at when similar research studies yield similar results time after time Example: Number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children.
  10. 10. Hypotheses educated guesses about relationships (principles) Example: For lower division undergraduate students, study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension.
  11. 11. Theories refer to a set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human learning, development, and behavior. explains why these principles are true. Example: Piaget’s theory on cognitive development
  12. 12. Laws firmly established, thoroughly tested principle or theory Example: Thorndike’s law of effect Law on the conservation of matter and energy Law of supply and demand Law of gravity
  13. 13. SKILLS Manipulative skills Thinking Skills Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Problem solving Metaphoric thinking Critical thinking Creative thinking
  14. 14. Manipulative Skills for courses / subjects that are dominantly skill –oriented Computer Home Economics and Technology Physical Education Music The learning of these manipulative skills begin with simple manipulation and ends up in expert and precise manipulation.
  15. 15. Thinking Skills the skills beyond recall and comprehension They are skills concerned with the application of what was learned,  (in problem-solving or in real life) evaluation, critical and creative thinking and synthesis. Thinking Skills  Divergent thinking  Convergent thinking  Problem solving  Metaphoric thinking  Critical thinking  Creative thinking
  16. 16. Divergent Thinking Includes the following and its characteristics  Fluent thinking  generation of lots of ideas  thought flow is rapid  thinking of the of the most possible ideas  Flexible thinking  variety of thoughts in the kinds of ideas generated  different ideas from those usually presented  Original thinking  differs from what’s gone before  thought production is away from the obvious and is different from the norm  Elaborative thinking  embellishes on previous ideas or plans (Torres, 1994)  Uses prior knowledge to expand and add upon things and ideas
  17. 17. Convergent Thinking It is narrowing down from many possible thoughts to end up on a single best thought or an answer to a problem.
  18. 18. Problem Solving Made easier when the problem is well-defined. “The proper definition of a problem is already half the solution” Can be solved by using :  algorithm – following specific, step by step instructions  heuristic strategy – general problem solving strategy, for a solution - experience based techniques
  19. 19. Effective Problem Solving Strategies Provide worked-out examples of algorithms being applied Help students understand why particular algorithms are relevant and effective in certain situations When a student’s application of algorithm yields an incorrect answer, look closely at the specific steps the student has taken until the trouble spot is located.
  20. 20. For teaching heuristics: Give students practice in defining ill-defined problems Teach heuristics that students can use where no algorithms apply Examples of real-life heuristic that people use as a way to solve a problem or to learn something:  Educated guess Common sense  Availability heuristic  Working backward  Familiarity heuristic
  21. 21. For teaching both algorithm and heuristics: Teach problem-solving strategies within the context of specific subject areas (not as a topic separate from academic content) Provide scaffolding for difficult problems Have students solve problems in small groups
  22. 22. Metaphoric Thinking Also called “Analogic thinking” Uses analogic thinking A figure of speech where a word is used in a manner different from its ordinary designation to suggest or imply a parallelism or similarity Example: Teaching is lighting a candle. The learner’s mind is a “blank slate”.
  23. 23. Critical Thinking Involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth. (Beyer, 1985) It takes a variety of forms Verbal reasoning Argumentative analysis Hypothesis testing Decision making
  24. 24. Creative Thinking Involves producing something that is both original and worthwhile For Creative thinking we must develop:  Awareness  Curiosity  Imagination  Fluency  Flexibility  Originality  Elaboration  Perseverance
  25. 25. AFFECTIVE Three-level approach to teaching Values Cognitive Skill
  26. 26. Values and Attitudes Values can be taught They are both taught and caught. Values have : Cognitive dimension Affective dimension Behavioral dimension Affective component is concerned with values and attitudes. When we teach values, we connect facts, skills and concepts to the life of students.
  27. 27. How can we teach values? Deutero-learning : Your student learns by  being exposed to the situation,  acquainting himself with a setting  following models  pursuing inspirations  copying behavior “YOUR CRITICAL ROLE AS MODELS IN AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM CANNOT BE OVEREMPHASIZED” Positive reinforcing good behavior Teaching cognitive component of values in the classroom
  28. 28. Lesson Plan Sample
  29. 29. Reference Ormrod, 2000 Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Ph.D. Professor of Psychological Sciences McKee Hall jormrod@comcast.net Areas of Specialization: Learning and cognition Study strategies Pedagogy
  30. 30. Thank you! PUNZALAN 2015

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • While our subject matter content comes in three domains, these domains should not be treated as though there was a clear dividing line among them.

    In short, subject matter content is an integration of facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories, and laws, thinking skills, manipulative skills, values and attitudes.
  • Our subject matter content includes cognitive, skill and affective components. The cognitive component is concerned with facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories and laws. The skill component refers to thinking skills as well as manipulative skills while the affective component is the realm of values and attitudes.
  • The cognitive component includes teaching learners with facts, with concepts, with principles, with theories, with hypothesis and laws.
  • Facts are the basic unit of cognitive subject matter content. From facts, we go higher to concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories and laws. It is, therefore, necessary that the facts that we begin with are updated and accurate.
  • Concept is a categorization of events, places, people, ideas.
    Example: The concept furniture includes objects as chairs, tables, beds, and desks.
    The concept swim encompasses different actions like breast stroke, crawl, butterfly that involve propelling oneself through water.
  • Principle is the relationship(s) between and among facts and concepts.
    These are arrived at when similar research yield similar results time after time.
    Example:
    Number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children.
  • Hypotheses are educated guesses about relationships (principles).
    Example:
    For lower division undergraduate students, study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension.

  • Theories refer to a set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human learning, development, and behavior.
    These explain why these principles are true.
    Example:
    Piaget’s theory on cognitive development
    Jean Piaget (Jan Pyajy) 1896 – 1980
    -mollusk researcher
    - wanted to investigate children’s development
    - 10 years to perfect his theory
    - his theory influences schools, teachings and education all over the world
    * universal theory
    * acknowledge that interaction between child and environment
    * defined children as “lone scientists”
    “Children have all the cognitive mechanisms to learn on their own, and the interaction with their environment allows them to do so.”

    Vygotsky’s theory
    - pioneer in Psychology
    - theories focuses on the transfer of knowledge
    - his theory is considered to be the most important of it’s kind
    Emphasized the role of teachers in cognitive development and the need of support of MKOs.
    * ZPD 2 levels : 1) Present level of development – child's capability w/o help
    2) Potential level of development – potentially be capable of w/ help of MKOs (More Knowledgeable Others)
    * Scaffolding – appropriate support provided by the MKOs (adult)
    - progression of different levels of help


  • Theories refer to a set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human learning, development, and behavior.
    These explain why these principles are true.
    Example:
    Piaget’s theory on cognitive development
    Jean Piaget (Jan Pyajy) 1896 – 1980
    -mollusk researcher
    - wanted to investigate children’s development
    - 10 years to perfect his theory
    - his theory influences schools, teachings and education all over the world
    * universal theory
    * acknowledge that interaction between child and environment
    * defined children as “lone scientists”
    “Children have all the cognitive mechanisms to learn on their own, and the interaction with their environment allows them to do so.”

    Vygotsky’s theory
    - pioneer in Psychology
    - theories focuses on the transfer of knowledge
    - his theory is considered to be the most important of it’s kind
    Emphasized the role of teachers in cognitive development and the need of support of MKOs.
    * ZPD 2 levels : 1) Present level of development – child's capability w/o help
    2) Potential level of development – potentially be capable of w/ help of MKOs (More Knowledgeable Others)
    * Scaffolding – appropriate support provided by the MKOs (adult)
    - progression of different levels of help


    Learners seem to acquire general belief systems –”Personal Theories” – about how the world operates.
    Children have their own personal theories about things and happenings in the world.
    These personal beliefs may not necessarily be accurate beliefs.
    Much is demanded on you, on us as teachers, in order that these misconceptions get corrected. Other than correcting these misconceptions, you, we, ought to promote effective construction of knowledge.
  • There are courses that are dominantly skill –oriented like Computer, Home Economics and Technology, Physical Education, Music and the like.
    In the biological and physical sciences manipulative skills such as focusing the microscope, mounting specimens on the slide, operating simple machines and other scientific gadgets, mixing chemicals are also taught.
    What are other manipulative skills that you can think of?
  • These refer to the skills beyond recall and comprehension.
    They are skills concerned with the application of what was learned, (in problem-solving or in real life) evaluation, critical and creative thinking and synthesis.
  • Divergent thinking. This includes the following and its characteristics
    Fluent thinking is characterized by the generation of lots of ideas. e.g. Pinoy Henyo in Eat Bulaga. Thought flow is rapid. It is thinking of the of the most possible ideas.
    Flexible thinking is characterized by a variety of thoughts in the kinds of ideas generated. Different ideas from those usually presented flow from flexible thinkers.
    Original thinking is thinking that differs from what’s gone before. Thought production is away from the obvious and is different from the norm.
    Elaborative thinking embellishes on previous ideas or plans (Torres, 1994). It uses prior knowledge to expand and add upon things and ideas.
  • Convergent thinkers can narrow down many possible thoughts and end up on a single best thought or an answer to a problem.
  • Problem Solving is made easier when the problem is well-defined. It is doubly difficult when the problem is ill-defined. When it is ill-defined, then the first thing to teach our students is to better define the problem. Here are some techniques (Ormrod, 2000)
    - break large problems into well-defined ones
    - distinguish information needed
    - identify techniques to find needed information
    Problems can be solved by using an algorithm or a heuristic strategy.
    Algorithm
    Solving a problem with the use of algorithm means following specific, step by step instructions.
    Example: assemble the dismantled parts of a new toy by following the “how to assemble” instructions.
    Fortunately or unfortunately, not all problems are solved by the use of algorithms.
    Heuristics
    When there is no algorithm for solving a problem, we use heuristics, general problem solving strategy, for a solution.
    These are informal, intuitive , speculative strategies that sometimes lead to an effective solution and sometimes do not.
  • How can we help our students acquire effective problem-solving strategies?
    Ormrod 2000 cites a number situations in which they can be used.
    - Provide worked-out examples of algorithms being applied
    - Help students understand why particular algorithms are relevant and effective in certain situations
    - When a student’s application of algorithm yields an incorrect answer, look closely at the specific steps the student has taken until the trouble spot is located.
  • For teaching heuristics:
    - Give students practice in defining ill-defined problems
    - Teach heuristics that students can use where no algorithms apply

    Ways to Use Heuristics In Everyday Life
    Here are some examples of real-life heuristics that people use as a way to solve a problem or to learn something:
    "Consistency heuristic" is a heuristic where a person responds to a situation in way that allows them to remain consistent.
    "Educated guess" is a heuristic that allows a person to reach a conclusion without exhaustive research. With an educated guess a person considers what they have observed in the past, and applies that history to a situation where a more definite answer has not yet been decided.
    "Absurdity heuristic" is an approach to a situation that is very atypical and unlikely – in other words, a situation that is absurd. This particular heuristic is applied when a claim or a belief seems silly, or seems to defy common sense.
    "Common sense" is a heuristic that is applied to a problem based on an individual’s observation of a situation. It is a practical and prudent approach that is applied to a decision where the right and wrong answers seems relatively clear cut.
    "Contagion heuristic" causes an individual to avoid something that is thought to be bad or contaminated. For example, when eggs are recalled due to a salmonella outbreak, someone might apply this simple solution and decide to avoid eggs altogether to prevent sickness.
    "Availability heuristic" allows a person to judge a situation on the basis of the examples of similar situations that come to mind, allowing a person to extrapolate to the situation in which they find themselves.
    "Working backward" allows a person to solve a problem by assuming that they have already solved it, and working backward in their minds to see how such a solution might have been reached.
    "Familiarity heuristic" allows someone to approach an issue or problem based on the fact that the situation is one with which the individual is familiar, and so one should act the same way they acted in the same situation before.
    "Scarcity heuristic" is used when a particular object becomes rare or scarce. This approach suggests that if something is scarce, then it is more desirable to obtain.
    "Rule of thumb" applies a broad approach to problem solving. It is a simple heuristic that allows an individual to make an approximation without having to do exhaustive research.
    "Affect heuristic" is when you make a snap judgment based on a quick impression. This heuristic views a situation quickly and decides without further research whether a thing is good or bad.  Naturally, this heuristic can be both helpful and hurtful when applied in the wrong situation.
    "Authority heuristic" occurs when someone believes the opinion of a person of authority on a subject just because the individual is an authority figure. People apply this heuristic all the time in matters such as science, politics, and education.
    By reviewing these heuristic examples you can get an overview of the various techniques of problem solving and gain an understanding of how to use them when you need to solve a problem in the future. 
  • For teaching both algorithm and heuristics:
    - Teach problem-solving strategies within the context of specific subject areas (not as a topic separate from academic content).
    - Provide scaffolding for difficult problems – for example by breaking them into smaller and simpler problems, giving hints about possible strategies, or providing partial solution.
    - Have students solve problems in small groups, sharing ideas about problem-solving strategies, modelling various approaches for one another, and discussing the merits of each approach.
    Problem solving involves both divergent and convergent thinking. Divergent thinking enables you to generate a diverse assortment of possible solutions to a problem. From the diverse possible solutions, you arrive at the best possible answer.
  • Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth.
    It takes a variety of forms -
    Verbal reasoning:
    - an example is evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral or written language.
    - you employ this when you evaluate the reliability and the truth of advertisements that bombarded you everyday.
    Argument analysis:
    - you are engaged in this critical thinking process when you discriminate between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion.
    - example: the ground is wet so it must have rained last night. When you analyze the given argument and determine whether or not the reason logically support the argument.
    Hypothesis testing:
    - it is evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions.
    - a question you will ask when you are engaged in hypothesis testing: “Did I make use of an appropriate method to measure a particular outcome?”
    Decision making:
    - we are engaged in critical thinking when we weigh the pros and cons of each proposed alternative approach.
  • Creative thinking
    This type of thinking involves “producing something that is both original and worthwhile. (Sternberg, 2003).
    It is original thinking, one type of divergent thinking. It is the process of brining something new into birth.
    It is seeing new relationships and the use of imagination and inventiveness.

    What creative thinking behavior should be developed?
    Awareness – the ability to notice the attributes of things in the environment so as to build a knowledge base that is the beginning of all other forms of creative thinking./
    Curiosity- the ability and inclination to wonder about things and mentally explore the new, novel, unique ideas.
    Imagination- the ability of speculate about things that are not necessarily based on reality
    Fluency – The ability of produce a large quantity of ideas
    Flexibility – the ability to look at things from several different perspectives or view points
    Originality – the ability to produce new, novel, unique ideas
    Elaboration – the ability to add in to an ideal; to give details; build groups of related ideas; or expand on ideas
    Perseverance – the ability to keep trying to find an answer; to seek a task through completion
  • In the three-level approach to teaching, values are at the utmost priority. It is because it is in the teaching of values that the teaching of facts, skills, and concepts become connected to the life of the students, thus acquiring meaning.
    Without the values –level of teaching, we contribute to the development of persons who have big heads but tiny hearts.
    We contribute to the formation of “intellectual giants” but “emotional dwarfs”.

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