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Day 1 New Tutor Training

  1. Teaching a New Skill Approach your student with respect and the expectation he or she can learn Provide many demonstrations Break the task into small steps Assist if needed Encourage student as he or she works independently 1
  2. Literacy Program Students Most are Latino Most have intermediate skills in native language All are highly motivated 2
  3. Learning Variables Innate ability to learn another language Degree of comfort in making mistakes Contact with English speakers Amount of time to study and practice 3
  4. Learning English with a Purpose Jobs Helping children Health Community GED Citizenship 4
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  6. Session One To personally experience beginning to learn a new language To learn the teaching strategy “chaining” for use with small groups To understand what language really is To learn ESL teaching strategies for developing students’ listening and speaking skills: new vocabulary and basic conversations To understand the importance of the Life Survival Skills to your student and the Literacy Program 6
  7. Session Two To become aware of individual differences in how adult students learn – Learning Channels and Multi-Sensory Teaching To learn to design a lesson plan geared to your student’s needs To become familiar with a variety of teaching materials To become familiar with technology resources for teaching ESL To become familiar with additional Life Survival Skills and how to incorporate them into your lesson plan 7
  8. Session Three • To learn how to teach reading, paying attention to the four components: Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency and Comprehension • To learn strategies for teaching pronunciation and contractions • To learn the teaching strategy of Total Physical Response (TPR) • To become familiar with additional Life Survival Skills 8
  9. Session Four • To learn to use Language Experience to teach reading and writing • To learn some strategies for teaching writing • To become familiar with additional Life Survival Skills • To become aware of cultural sensitivities and differences • To become aware of the need to keep professional boundaries with students • To learn ways to continue to communicate with the Literacy Program staff and fellow volunteers 9
  10. Agenda Session One •Introduction of Trainers and Participants •Overview of Training •Beginning Lesson in an Unfamiliar Language •Total Physical Response •What Is Language? •<<<<< BREAK >>>>> •How to Teach Vocabulary •How to Teach Conversation •Life Survival Skills – Introduction and Emergencies and Safety Signs 10
  11. Materials to Bring Each Session Teaching Adults: An ESL Resource Book Oxford Picture Dictionary Binder with Handouts 11
  12. Major Elements of Language Inner language – the language of thought This is thinking, a mental activity that we do to assimilate our experiences. It’s what we do to make sense of our world. It precedes the development of either receptive or expressive language.
  13. Major Elements of Language Receptive Language – input The ability to receive and understand information coming in via language The ability to understand spoken or written information In learning a new language, it precedes expressive language Expressive Language – output The ability to encode or transform thoughts and ideas into spoken or written language symbols
  14. Functions of Language Vehicle for interpersonal communication Vehicle for thinking Vehicle for transmission of culture
  15. Components of Language Sounds (Phonics) Words Sentences (Syntax) Meaning (Semantics) Social Use and Customs (Pragmatics)
  16. Components of Language Sounds (Phonics) Studying the sound system of language has three aspects:  Hearing – discriminating the individual sounds  Pronouncing the individual sounds of the language  Learning the rules for combining the sounds into words
  17. Components of Language Words Words are made up of one or more basic units of meaning  Meaning units include roots, prefixes, suffixes, plurals, and possessives  There are rules for how these meaning units are put together to form words In English words of more than one syllable, knowing which syllable to stress is an important part of correct pronunciation (clap the stress)
  18. Components of Language Words Contractions – they are very commonly used in English, and so we must call attention to them and teach them Gender – In Spanish, nouns have gender (masculine, feminine) and their modifiers have gender agreement (la casa, el toro); In English, gender is not usually expressed grammatically Verbs – They are the hardest words to master because their forms and/or endings change according to which tense (past, present, future) is used  Example: “She try hard to landing airplane without crash.”
  19. Components of Language Words Exercise Here is a wug. Here are two _____. The man knows how to bip. Yesterday, he _____. Today, he is _____. Tomorrow, he _____.
  20. Components of Language Sentences (Syntax) Syntax can be considered the architectural plan of the language It is the system of rules for arranging words into sentences. As an example of how languages differ  In Spanish, the adjective usually follows the noun it modifies (la casa bonita).  In English, the adjective comes before the noun (the pretty house).
  21. Components of Language Meaning (Semantics) At the simplest level, semantics refers to a single word. At a very complex level, semantics involves the interaction of words within a given context such as in the use of metaphor or myth. Additionally, some words have figurative meanings or multiple meanings.
  22. Components of Language Social Use and Customs (Pragmatics) Pragmatics is a set of sociolinguistic rules one knows and uses in determining who says what to who, how, why, and when. “Pragmatics is the use of language to express one’s intentions and get things done in the world.” According to some experts, language can ONLY be understood within its social context.
  23. Components of Language Four Principles of Good Pragmatic Language Quantity  Be informative but not overly dominant Quality  Be truthful and accurate Relevance  Maintain connection with the topic Manner  Understand and comply with patterns of turn taking and presenting ideas in a logical order
  24. Components of Language Exercise: Which component does each of the following examples represent? 1) Your student says, “The cow is eat grass” instead of “The cow is eating grass.” 2)Your student says “jes” instead of “yes.” 3)Your student asks you, “how are you?” as you are leaving. 4)Your student looks confused when you ask her to “hang on a sec.” 5)Your student says, “The dog brown bit me” instead of “The brown dog bit me.”
  25. STEPS FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY 1. Begin by using Shhhh & Listen signs. 2. Pronounce the word showing the object or picture three times. 3. Use the Repeat sign. 4. Pronounce the word showing the object or picture three more times. Each time the student repeats the word. 5. Practice the word using the object or picture. “This is a _____ .” “What is this?” Student answers. REPEAT THE ABOVE STEPS WITH THE NEXT NEW VOCABULARY WORD. 6. Review both new words using the objects and pictures. “ This is a _____ . What is this?” Students answer and repeat the words. 7. Quiz the students by alternating the new words with pictures, objects and questions to check for understanding. Repeat Review Practice Praise
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  27. Writing a Dialogue Choose a dialogue that is useful for your student. A dialogue gets your student started in conversation in a particular setting. A dialogue should consist of approximately three simple exchanges. You’ll be teaching the dialogue orally. Your student won’t see the written form. Before teaching the dialogue, teach the vocabulary you’ll be using. 29
  28. 30 Steps in Teaching Conversation 1. Tutor recites whole dialogue (both parts) 3 times. As you say both parts, physically move back and forth between the two imaginary speakers or in some way indicate the two separate parts. 2. Tutor says each line and student repeats (3 times). Use the stop and beckon gestures to indicate when your student should speak and listen. 3. Practice dialogue, tutor taking 1st role and learner taking 2nd role. If necessary, mouth or whisper the lines to prompt your student. Use props if appropriate. 4.Tutor and learner reverse rolls. (Optional) 5.Remember to praise your student!
  29. Homework Teaching Adults: An ESL Resource Book pages 58 – 63 Create a phone dialogue for your student to use for calling to cancel a lesson. You’ll bring this with you when you first meet. 31
  30. 32 (phone number)  I answer the phone.   Hello Hello, this is Maria.   I’m sorry.  I cannot  come to class this  week.  I will see you  next week.
  31. I am not home.  My husband  answers the phone. Hello Hello, this is Maria.  Is  Krissen there? No, she’s not here right now. Can I take a message? Yes, please tell her that I  cannot come to class this  week. Okay, I’ll let her know. Thank you.  Good-bye. Good-bye
  32. I’m not home and the machine  answers. Hi. You’ve reached the home of Dave and Krissen. Please leave a message. Hello, this is Maria.  I’m sorry.   I cannot come to class this  week.  I’ll see you next week.  
  33. Tutor Objectives for Literacy Training – Session One To personally experience beginning to learn a new language To learn the teaching strategy “chaining” for use with small groups To understand what language really is To learn ESL teaching strategies for developing students’ listening and speaking skills: new vocabulary and basic conversations To understand the importance of the Life Survival Skills to your student and the Literacy Program 35
  34. Homework 1. Write a dialog/phone conversation for your student to use when calling you to tell you that he/she can’t attend the next class. 36
  35. 37 Answer the following three review questions: Vocabulary: What are the steps for teaching a new vocabulary word? Conversation: What are the steps for teaching a new conversation? Life Survival Skills: Name the four Life survival Skills for which there are assessments and Resource Binders.
  36. 38 Watch a tutoring session on YouTube.
  37. 39 Read: Teaching Adults, An ESL Resource Book Introduction to ESL Tutoring/What is Language?: pp. 7-10, 13-27 Vocabulary/TPR: pp. 37-50, Conversation: pp. 60-65 The reading homework assignments in  Teaching Adults, an ESL Resource  Book are designed to reinforce the  lessons in the training.  In addition, for  more ideas and extensions of  techniques you will use in your  tutoring, we strongly suggest that you  read the rest of the book before  beginning to tutor.  It’s a great resource,  full of ideas.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. 25 minutes Students work in groups to come up with a definition; remind not to use mobile devices to look up Groups share definitions; find commonalities
  2. Our students are thinking—just because they may be silent or may not understand what we say, doesn’t mean they’re not thinking or that they’re stupid
  3. Our job is twofold—to help enable them to express what they’re thinking and to expand what they know via reading and listening
  4. Increasing in complexity, believed that brain processes in this order
  5. Discriminating-e.g. cat has three sounds—have to be able to hear them and produce them Adult students will have an accent Pronunciation—will have great difficulty hearing and learning to pronounce sounds that are new to them and not in their native language Example: /Ʒ/ sound doesn’t exist in many languages; replace with /j/, and with vowel error, mayor and measure are pronounced the same in Chinese; I can’t say the Chinese “yu” properly Vowels are the most difficult; don’t demand perfection! In Spanish, “a” always is pronounced like the “ah” in “father.” However, in English “a” has 3 different pronunciations: cat, father, paper. Specific exercises to practice differences (cut-cat) is the best way to teach Rules—This is the study of phonics; can be appropriate for some students and tutors
  6. Meaning units—cat vs. cats—s means plural (rule). Person vs. people—doesn’t follow the rules Native speakers have automatic understanding of word endings and plurals, but you need to teach this to non-native speakers; with intermediate students, you may also teach simple, basic word beginnings such as “un,” “mis,” “re,” “dis” (important vs. unimportant, available vs. unavailable) Syllable stress – We hear words in syllable chunks, not individual sounds; ex. MOther, not moTHER—teach students to clap the stress; try saying the word the incorrect way; call like you would call a dog
  7. In teaching individual words to your student: 1) contractions: teach this in the beginning since it’s how we speak; 2) gender: point out this difference if just learning depending on student’s native language (Spanish)—usually not an issue; 3) Verbs: hardest words to master the correct usage b/c forms change according to tense, student example: “she try hard to landing airplane without crash.” This is natural for native speakers
  8. Each language has an accepted sequence of stringing words together into a statement Examples: In Chinese, to say “Yesterday, I went hiking in the mountains” sentence order would be “I yesterday in the mountains go hiking.” Leads to errors in word order
  9. This is where idioms, slang, and gestures come in. See eye to eye, keep a straight face, hang out, hold on Students won’t understand these meanings if you use them, or may have questions if they hear it from someone else; may try to say some from their own language
  10. Pragmatics is very important—you have a role to explain some social uses to your student It’s knowing how long to talk, when it’s your turn, etc Examples: in our culture, punctuality is important—call if you’re late Never use the word “stupid” with a Spanish speaking student (how stupid of me…) When to use formal vs. informal language (how’s it going? Vs. hello) Addressing an elder: calling someone old is respectful in China but definitely not here Chinese also will call someone “fat” without meaning it as insult, or will tell you if you’ve gained weight Ex. Of Li Xiang inviting me upstairs—social code is to invite someone in and you decline the invitation
  11. Morphology Phonology Pragmatics Semantics Syntax