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Boosting Crop Intensification in southern Bangladesh: how surface water irrigation can put into scale?

  1.  Southern Bangladesh accounts for 27% of the area and 21% of the total population (32 million).  About 15% of total cultivable land is either fallow and/or un-cultivated.  Minor irrigation is mainly dependent on extraction of groundwater.  Surface irrigation facilities are limited due to lack of water infrastructure and the relative non-availability of appropriate water lifting devices.  For this reason, an estimated 50% of southern Bangladesh’s farmers currently grow only one rain-fed rice crop per year
  2.  Service providers rent Low Lift Pumps (Centrifugal pumps) from local irrigation management organizations.  Pump availability is limited due to  Lack of wide spread pump and crop output market  Accessibility and affordability issues (mainly cost)  Lack of adequate extension services focused on improved water and agronomic management  Lack of access to credit facilities Surface Water Irrigation – Current Practice and Issues
  3. CSISA-MI working on a strategy to encourage crop intensification through the establishment of public-private partnerships for the deployment of The CSISA-MI Project (Cereal Systems Initiative for South-Asia – Mechanization and Irrigation)  Appropriate water lifting devices  Scale-appropriate agricultural machinery  Improved on-farm management and agronomic practices
  4. Learning from the experience of other Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam and Combodia) – introduce Axial Flow Pumps (AFPs) Long-term aim is to develop them locally to reduce costs and increase accessibility for small farmers.  Appropriate for deltaic environment such as Southern BD  Better performance at low heads
  5. Methodology & Approach We tested the technical efficiency and social acceptability of axial flow pumps before introducing them to farming communities A. Hydro-economic performance assessment of axial flow pumps (AFPs) and centrifugal pumps (CENs)  Tests conducted from BARI, Gazipur.  Hydro analysis included comparison of fuel consumption (l/h), and pump discharge (l/s) at different heads.  Economic analysis included both fixed and variable costs (e.g., costs of full pump set, engine, V-belts etc.).
  6. Testing technical efficiency of axial flow pumps at BARI
  7. B. Field-scale performance assessment of AFPs and CENs  Field demonstrations were conducted in collaboration with international Development Enterprises (iDE) and Rangpur Foundary Limited (RFL).  Mobile demonstrations and several focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to select interested local service providers (LSPs) and potential farmers.  CIMMYT and iDE led technical aspects of the pumps, whereas RFL looked after marketing, accessibility and operational issues such as pricing, after sale services, spare parts, etc.  Locations for pump demonstrations were identified after discussions with RFL dealers, WUAs, and farmer groups in different Upazilas.  In total, 70 LSPs were selected for these field demonstrations.
  8. FGD Conducted for field scale performance of the AFP’s
  9. Awareness Building Through Mobile Demonstration
  10. Field days for Training on AFP at Barisal, Bhola & Patuakhali District
  11.  AFPs produced higher water discharge than CENs. At 1-m head, AFPs discharge was 72% higher than CENs whereas at 2-m and 3-m heads, discharge of AFPs was 55% and 28% higher than CENs, respectively.  The water delivery per unit of fuel for AFPs at 1-m head is 112.4 m3/l, which declined to 91 m3/l and 69 m3/l at 2-m and 3-m head, respectively.  AFP would save about 70 US$/season at 1-m head to 38 US$/season at 3-m head for irrigating boro rice. Results A. Hydro-economic performance assessment
  12. B. Field-scale performance assessment  LSPs generally found the performance of AFPs better than centrifugal pumps in terms of discharge, fuel consumption and operational cost.  The average operational cost of AFPs (labour, maintenance and fuel costs) was lower than centrifugal pumps.  LSPs confirmed that AFPs can save up to 200 BDT (US$ 2.6) daily for boro rice, which is significant saving over a season.  Due to water higher discharge, AFPs took less time to irrigate per unit of land. This way AFPs can provide irrigation service to more farmers than with centrifugal pumps within a specified time.  This makes AFPS commercially more acceptable for LSPs.
  13. Level of satisfaction of LSPs with the axial flow pumps 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Water lifting capacity Ease of operation Availability of spare parts Availability of after sales service Availability of technical services Quality of technical services Seasonal demand for water Service charge recovery Client farmers’ satisfaction Labor Cost involvement Fuel cost Physical Structure No need priming Mobilty Overall Satisfaction Satisfactory Moderately Satisfactory Not Satisfactory
  14. CSISA-MI is working with RFL company to encourage local production of AFPs to solve technical problems and reduce cost.
  15. Supplier (Thai) Dealer s Consu- mers (LSP) RFL Business Model: RFL JUMBO Pump $ ProductProduct Product $ RFL deploys sales team to drive sales through dealer events, demonstration program, other activities RFL provides orientation for dealers in product and business knowledge; dealer incentives Marketing push through billboards, branding of product and outlets, other activities Field Sales Force Product CIMMYT / iDE $ Technical support for RFL in product knowledge and application; technology targeting; and model specifications RFL provides installation and After Sales Services (AFSS) support CREDIT:RICHARD ROSE
  16.  Increased accessibility to agricultural machinery;  Improved on-farm water management and agronomic practices;  Extended surface irrigation facilities through improvements in infrastructure Boosting Crop Intensification in Southwest of BD Increasing accessibility to water lifting devices such as AFPs would enable farmers to grow a higher-yielding and more profitable rabi season crops. 134 LSPs have already replaced CENs with AFPs. However crop intensification in this region would also require
  17. Suggestions for Boosting Crop Intensification • Solve technical problems of AFPs - redefine and modify pump design to assure that the technically best and economically affordable pump will be available within Bangladesh in the near-term future. • Increase affordability of small farmers – reduce cost by encouraging local manufacturing . • Increase access to canal water - irrigation and drainage infrastructure needs to be redesigned, repaired, or even newly constructed. De-silt targeted canals and construct water control structures and pump houses. • Increase farmer participation in water management – establish water user associations (groups) to collect water charges and use them to maintain irrigation and drainage infrastructure at the tertiary level.
  18. Suggestions for Boosting Crop Intensification • Rationalize cropping patterns – encourage farmers to switch to less water demanding crops (such as oilseeds, wheat, millet, sorghum and maize, in addition to more profitable horticultural operations), considering the availability of water. • Increase land productivity – increase availability of appropriate inputs (seed, fertilizer, weed control, etc.). Also make storage facilities to reduce post harvest losses. • Increase involvement of private sector – increase role of private sector in providing much needed irrigation and machinery services and processing and marketing for farmers’ produce..
  19. Demos managed by Barisal Bhola Patuakhali CIMMYT 13 7 7 iDE 15 14 14 Total 28 21 21 Distribution of AFP District Intervention Male Female Total Bhola LSP + Mechanics + Skill development on AFP 100 0 100 Barisal LSP + Mechanics + Skill development on AFP 261 6 267 Patuakhali LSP + Skill Development on AFP 42 1 43 Details of trainings on AFP under Barisal region Field Demonstrations and Trainings
  20. Conclusions • In coastal areas, effective water resources management is a pre-condition for agricultural production, as deltas must be protected against river floods and/or tidal and storm surges. • Increased access to surface water irrigation will encourage double cropping on currently fallow or poorly productive 100,000 ha of land. • AFPs have hydro-economic superiority over CENs. However, their technical and operational problems need to be resolved and costs reduced to make them affordable to service providers at scale. • CSISA-MI works to developing LSP business models and expect that the locally developed AFPs will be more susceptible to local conditions. Once available at scale, they will contribute towards improving food and income security in this otherwise overlooked region.