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The Structures of
Plant and Animal
Cell
IntroductionIntroduction
• Cells are the basic units of organisms
– Cells can only be observed under microscope
• Two basi...
The cell as the basic unit of lifeThe cell as the basic unit of life
• Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms
• Uni...
mitochondrion
nucleus
glycogen
granule
cell
membrane
cytoplasm
Animal cellAnimal cell
• No cell wall and
chloroplast
• Sto...
OrganellesOrganelles
 very small size – can only be
observed under electron
microscope
 has specific functions
 in cyto...
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
• A.k.a. “ER”
• Connected to nuclear
membrane
• Highway of the cell
• Rough ER: studded with
ribosom...
Ribosome
• Site of protein
synthesis
• Found attached to
rough ER or floating
free in cytosol
• Produced in a part of
the ...
Golgi
Apparatus
• Looks like a
stack of plates
• Stores,
modifies and
packages
proteins
Centriole
• Aids in cell
division
• Usually found only
in animal cells
• Made of
microtubules
Cytoskeleton
• STABILIZES the lipid
membrane
SYSTEM of fibers or
NETWORK of protein
filaments
Strengthens, Supports
Stiffe...
–Made of cellulose
which forms very thin
fibres
–Strong and rigid
–In plant cells only
• Cell wall
Lysosome
– Protect and support
the enclosed
substances
(protoplasm)
– Resist entry of excess
water into the cell
– Give shape to th...
–A dead layer
–Large empty spaces
present between
cellulose fibres
∴freely permeable
• Cell wall
–Lies immediately
against the cell wall
–Made of protein and
lipid ∴Selectively
permeable
• Cell membrane
–A living layer
–Can control the
movement of
materials into and
out of the cell
• Cell membrane
–Contains organelles
and granules :
•e.g. chloroplast
•e.g. mitochondrion
• Cytoplasm
–Jelly-like substance
enclosed by cell
membrane
–Provide a medium for
chemical reactions to
take place
• Cytoplasm
–Contain the green
pigment chlorophyll
•To trap light energy,
to make food by
photosynthesis
• Chloroplast
–Contain starch grains
(products of
photosynthesis)
• Chloroplast
–Rod shape
–For respiration
• Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
– Active cells ( eg.
sperms, liver cells)
have more
mitochondria
• Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
– large central vacuole
– Surrounded by tonoplast
– Contains cell sap
• a solution of chemicals
(sugars, proteins,
mineral...
–Control the normal
activities of the cell
–Bounded by a
nuclear membrane
–Contains thread-like chromosomes
• Nucleus
–Each cell has fixed
number of chromosomes
• Chromosomes carry
genes
–genes control cell characteristics
• Nucleus
Different kinds of plant cellsDifferent kinds of plant cells
Onion Epidermal Cells
Root Hair Cell
root hair
Guard Cells
Different kinds of animal cellsDifferent kinds of animal cells
white blood cell
red blood cell
cheek cells
sperm
nerve cel...
Similarities between plant cellsSimilarities between plant cells
and animal cellsand animal cells
Both have a cell membra...
Differences between plant cellsDifferences between plant cells
and animal cellsand animal cells
Animal cells Plant cells
R...
Animal cells Plant cells
Vacuole small or absent
Glycogen granules as
food store
Nucleus at the centre
Large central vacuo...
~~ ENDEND ~~
The Structures & Functions of Plant and Animal Cell
The Structures & Functions of Plant and Animal Cell
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The Structures & Functions of Plant and Animal Cell

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A presentation about the Structures & Functions of Plant and Animal Cell. Showing their comparison with each other.

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The Structures & Functions of Plant and Animal Cell

  1. 1. The Structures of Plant and Animal Cell
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction • Cells are the basic units of organisms – Cells can only be observed under microscope • Two basic types of cells: Animal Cell Plant Cell
  3. 3. The cell as the basic unit of lifeThe cell as the basic unit of life • Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms • Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only • The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions – e.g. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and root hair cells for water absorption
  4. 4. mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm Animal cellAnimal cell • No cell wall and chloroplast • Stores glycogen granules and oil droplets in the cytoplasm vacuole
  5. 5. OrganellesOrganelles  very small size – can only be observed under electron microscope  has specific functions  in cytoplasm
  6. 6. Endoplasmic Reticulum • A.k.a. “ER” • Connected to nuclear membrane • Highway of the cell • Rough ER: studded with ribosomes; it makes proteins • Smooth ER: no ribosomes; it makes lipids
  7. 7. Ribosome • Site of protein synthesis • Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytosol • Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus
  8. 8. Golgi Apparatus • Looks like a stack of plates • Stores, modifies and packages proteins
  9. 9. Centriole • Aids in cell division • Usually found only in animal cells • Made of microtubules
  10. 10. Cytoskeleton • STABILIZES the lipid membrane SYSTEM of fibers or NETWORK of protein filaments Strengthens, Supports Stiffen the cell
  11. 11. –Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibres –Strong and rigid –In plant cells only • Cell wall
  12. 12. Lysosome
  13. 13. – Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) – Resist entry of excess water into the cell – Give shape to the cell • Cell wall
  14. 14. –A dead layer –Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibres ∴freely permeable • Cell wall
  15. 15. –Lies immediately against the cell wall –Made of protein and lipid ∴Selectively permeable • Cell membrane
  16. 16. –A living layer –Can control the movement of materials into and out of the cell • Cell membrane
  17. 17. –Contains organelles and granules : •e.g. chloroplast •e.g. mitochondrion • Cytoplasm
  18. 18. –Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane –Provide a medium for chemical reactions to take place • Cytoplasm
  19. 19. –Contain the green pigment chlorophyll •To trap light energy, to make food by photosynthesis • Chloroplast
  20. 20. –Contain starch grains (products of photosynthesis) • Chloroplast
  21. 21. –Rod shape –For respiration • Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  22. 22. – Active cells ( eg. sperms, liver cells) have more mitochondria • Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  23. 23. – large central vacuole – Surrounded by tonoplast – Contains cell sap • a solution of chemicals (sugars, proteins, mineral salts, wastes, pigments) • Vacuole
  24. 24. –Control the normal activities of the cell –Bounded by a nuclear membrane –Contains thread-like chromosomes • Nucleus
  25. 25. –Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes • Chromosomes carry genes –genes control cell characteristics • Nucleus
  26. 26. Different kinds of plant cellsDifferent kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  27. 27. Different kinds of animal cellsDifferent kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  28. 28. Similarities between plant cellsSimilarities between plant cells and animal cellsand animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria
  29. 29. Differences between plant cellsDifferences between plant cells and animal cellsand animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present
  30. 30. Animal cells Plant cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen granules as food store Nucleus at the centre Large central vacuole Starch granules as food store Nucleus near cell wall Differences between plant cellsDifferences between plant cells and animal cellsand animal cells
  31. 31. ~~ ENDEND ~~

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