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UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD
COLLEGE OF NURSING
MASTER PROGRAM/ FIRST TRIMESTER
2022-2023
Prepared by:
‫شكاره‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫علي‬
‫اسماعيل‬ ‫انور‬
‫حبيب‬ ‫انور‬
‫رفاك‬ ‫علي‬
‫علي‬ ‫زهراء‬
‫هللا‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫غفران‬
‫شرشاب‬ ‫عقيل‬
Supervised by:
Dr.Widad Kamel
a statement of predicted relationship between the
independent and dependent variables
Research studies : may have one or more hypothesis as
needed to test all aspect of the research problem.
Example
-cigarette smoking is related to lung cancer.
-high speed is related to traffic accidents.
PURPOSES OF HYPOTHESES:
▪ They lend objectivity to scientific investigations by
pinpointing a specific part of a theory to be tested.
▪ Theoretical propositions can be tested in the real world,
and then advance knowledge by supporting or failing to
support theory would be gained.
▪ Guide the research design and dictate the type of statistical
analysis to be used with the data.
▪ Provide the reader with an understanding of the researcher
expectations a bout the study before data collection begins.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
HYPOTHESIS:
❖Conceptual clarity: Hypothesis should consist of clearly
defined & understandable concepts.It should be stated in
very terms,the meaning & implication of which cannot be
doubted.
❖Empirical referents: Research must have an ultimate
empirical referent. No usable hypothesis can embody moral
judgments.
❖Objectivity: Hypothesis must be objective, which facilitates
objectivity in data collection & keeps the research activity
free from researcher value - judgment.
❖Specificity: It should be specific, not general, & should
explain the expected relations between variables. For
example, regular yoga reduces stress.
❖Relevant: The hypothesis should be relevant to the problem
being studied as well as the objectives of the study.
❖Testability: Hypothesis should be testable &should not be a
moral judgment. It must be directly/indirectly observable &
measurable. Therese archer can set up a situation that
permits one to assess if it is true or false.
Sources
of
Hypothesis
Theoretical or
Conceptual
frameworks
Previous
research
Real- life
experiences
Academic
literature
1-Theoretical or conceptual frameworks:
➢ The most important sources of hypotheses are
theoretical or conceptual frameworks developed for the
study.
➢ Through a deductive approach these hypotheses are
drawn from theoretical or conceptual frameworks for
testing them.
➢ For example, Roy’s adaptation Model is used in a
research study,where a hypothesis can be drawn from a
concept of the theoretical mode that ‘patient’s
adaptation to a chronic illness depends on availability
of social support for them.
2- Previous research:
❑ Findings of the previous studies may be used for
framing the hypotheses for another study.
❑ For example, in a small sample descriptive study,a
researcher found that a number of patients admitted with
coronary artery disease had increased body mass index.
❑ In another research study,a researcher may use this
finding to formulate a hypothesis as ‘Obese patients have
increased risk for development of coronary artery
disease’.
3- Real-life experiences:
➢ Real-life experiences also contribute in the
formulation of hypotheses for research studies.
➢ For example, Newton had a life-changing experience
of the falling of an apple & formulated a hypothesis that
earth attracts all the mass towards its center, through
several researchers were conducted before generating
a law of central gravity.
4- Academic literature :
➢Academic literature is based on formal theories,
empirical evidences, experiences, observation, &
conceptualizations of academicians.
➢ These literatures may serve as good sources for
formulating hypotheses for research studies.
TYPE OF HYPOTHESIS
1-Simple hypothesis :- the relation between one
independent and one dependent variable
Example :- birth weight is lower among infants of alcoholic
mothers than among infants of nonalcoholic mothers.
2-Complex hypothesis :- two or more independent variable
, two or more dependent variable or both
Example :- more postpartum depression and feelings of
inadequacy are reported by women who give birth by
cesarean section than those how deliver vaginally
3- Associative hypothesis: It reflects a relationship
between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings
without manipulation.
This hypothesis is used in correlational research studies
4- Causal hypothesis:
➢ It predicts the cause-and-effect relationship between two
or more dependent & independent variables in
experimental or interventional setting, where independent
variable is manipulated by research to examine the effect
on the dependent variable.
➢ The causal hypothesis reflects the measurement of
dependent variable to examine the effect of dependent
variable, which is manipulated by the researcher(s).
➢ For examples, prevalence of pin site infection is lower in
patients who receive pin site care with hydrogen proxidide
as compared to patients who receive the pin site care with
Betadine solution.
5-Directional hypothesis : predict a relationship between
variable , predicts the direction of relationship
Example: people who smoke are more likely to develop
lung cancer than those who do not smoking.
6-Non-Directional hypothesis:
Predicts a relationship between variable ,does not predict
the direction of the relationship .
Example:- there is a relationship between serotonin levels
and anxiety in hospitalized patient.
7-Null hypothesis :
May read (H0)
Predicts no relationship between variables.
8-Research hypothesis :
May read as (H1)
State expected relationship between variables
1. Covers all aspects of the search so that it is not
randomly selected.
2. To be drafted or denied or proven or exiled and other to
be formulated so that they are small, easy to understand
and easy to identify their variables.
3. The predictions of the hypothesis formulated should be
clear and specific
4. Nature of relationship between Dependent and
independent variables
5. Subject in population being studied Should be stated
using declarative sentence and present tense
FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS
researchers might draw a hypothesis
❖ Personal experiments: The researcher's observation in a
field, the development of new outputs specific theory to
previous scientific research.
For example, prior research has shown that stress can
impact the immune system.So a researcher might
hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be
more likely to contract a common cold after being
exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress
levels.“
❖ Logic: so that the hypothesis is based on
rational foundations and is thus formulated in
a way that justifies its issuance.
❖ Intuition and guesswork: a natural
phenomenon that helps to realize the
relationships between different variables
THE DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESES:
How do I go about developing hypotheses?
▪ Two basic processes are Induction and Deduction.
1-An Inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on
observed relationships.
(Observation →Pattern→ Hypothesis→ Theory)
▪ For example: a nurse might notice that presurgical
patients who ask a lot of questions relating to pain.
The nurse could then formulate a hypothesis, such as the
following, Patients who are stressed by fears of pain will
have more difficulty in deep breathing and coughing after
their surgery than patients who are not stressed.
2-A deductive hypotheses:
have as a starting point theories that are applied to
particular situations, through deductive reasoning, a
researcher can develop hypotheses based on general
theoretical principles.
(Theory→ hypothesis →observation →confirmation)
▪ For example: All human beings have red and white blood
cells.
John Doe is a human being Therefore, John Doe has red
and white blood cells.
▪ In this simple example, the hypothesis is that John Doe
does, in fact,have red and white blood cells, a deduction
that could be verified.
WORDING OF HYPOTHESIS
❑ A good hypothesis is worded in simple, Clear concise
language.
❑ Although it is cumbersome to include conceptual or
operational definitions of terms directly in the
hypothesis statement
❑ Written in the present tense.
❑ Contain all the variable.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Statistical hypothesis testing
is a process of disproof. It cannot be demonstrated directly
that the research hypothesis is correct. But it is possible to
show that the null hypothesis has a high probability of
being incorrect, and such evidence lends support to the
research
1. provides objective criteria for deciding whether
hypothesis are supported by empirical evidence.
2. allows researchers to make objective decisions about
study results.
3. Researchers need such a mechanism for deciding
which results likely reflect chance sample differences
and which reflect true population differences.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Type I and Type II Errors
▪ Researchers make a Type I error by rejecting a null hypothesis
that is, in fact, true. For instance, if we decided that online
support effectively promoted breastfeeding when, in fact, group
differences were merely due to sampling error, we would be
making a Type I error—a false-positive conclusion.
▪ If we decided that differences in breastfeeding were due to
sampling fluctuations, when the intervention actually did have
an effect, we would be making a Type II error—a false-negative
conclusion
STATICALLY TEST
▪ T- Tests) for small sample)
▪ Chi-Squared Test
▪ Z.Test(for large sample) specified population
▪ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
References:
▪ Fundamental of Nursing Research/Rose Marie
nieswiadomy._6th ed.p.cm.
▪ Nursing Research Principles and Methods/ Denise
F.Polit, Cheryl Tatano Beck._ 7th ed. 2007.
▪ Nursing research Astudy and learning tools/ Veta
H.Massey.P.Cm.
END OF CHAPTER
Withmybestwishes

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research (hypothesis).pdf

  • 1. UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD COLLEGE OF NURSING MASTER PROGRAM/ FIRST TRIMESTER 2022-2023 Prepared by: ‫شكاره‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫علي‬ ‫اسماعيل‬ ‫انور‬ ‫حبيب‬ ‫انور‬ ‫رفاك‬ ‫علي‬ ‫علي‬ ‫زهراء‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫غفران‬ ‫شرشاب‬ ‫عقيل‬ Supervised by: Dr.Widad Kamel
  • 2. a statement of predicted relationship between the independent and dependent variables Research studies : may have one or more hypothesis as needed to test all aspect of the research problem. Example -cigarette smoking is related to lung cancer. -high speed is related to traffic accidents.
  • 3. PURPOSES OF HYPOTHESES: ▪ They lend objectivity to scientific investigations by pinpointing a specific part of a theory to be tested. ▪ Theoretical propositions can be tested in the real world, and then advance knowledge by supporting or failing to support theory would be gained. ▪ Guide the research design and dictate the type of statistical analysis to be used with the data. ▪ Provide the reader with an understanding of the researcher expectations a bout the study before data collection begins.
  • 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS: ❖Conceptual clarity: Hypothesis should consist of clearly defined & understandable concepts.It should be stated in very terms,the meaning & implication of which cannot be doubted. ❖Empirical referents: Research must have an ultimate empirical referent. No usable hypothesis can embody moral judgments. ❖Objectivity: Hypothesis must be objective, which facilitates objectivity in data collection & keeps the research activity free from researcher value - judgment.
  • 5. ❖Specificity: It should be specific, not general, & should explain the expected relations between variables. For example, regular yoga reduces stress. ❖Relevant: The hypothesis should be relevant to the problem being studied as well as the objectives of the study. ❖Testability: Hypothesis should be testable &should not be a moral judgment. It must be directly/indirectly observable & measurable. Therese archer can set up a situation that permits one to assess if it is true or false.
  • 7. 1-Theoretical or conceptual frameworks: ➢ The most important sources of hypotheses are theoretical or conceptual frameworks developed for the study. ➢ Through a deductive approach these hypotheses are drawn from theoretical or conceptual frameworks for testing them. ➢ For example, Roy’s adaptation Model is used in a research study,where a hypothesis can be drawn from a concept of the theoretical mode that ‘patient’s adaptation to a chronic illness depends on availability of social support for them.
  • 8. 2- Previous research: ❑ Findings of the previous studies may be used for framing the hypotheses for another study. ❑ For example, in a small sample descriptive study,a researcher found that a number of patients admitted with coronary artery disease had increased body mass index. ❑ In another research study,a researcher may use this finding to formulate a hypothesis as ‘Obese patients have increased risk for development of coronary artery disease’.
  • 9. 3- Real-life experiences: ➢ Real-life experiences also contribute in the formulation of hypotheses for research studies. ➢ For example, Newton had a life-changing experience of the falling of an apple & formulated a hypothesis that earth attracts all the mass towards its center, through several researchers were conducted before generating a law of central gravity.
  • 10. 4- Academic literature : ➢Academic literature is based on formal theories, empirical evidences, experiences, observation, & conceptualizations of academicians. ➢ These literatures may serve as good sources for formulating hypotheses for research studies.
  • 11. TYPE OF HYPOTHESIS 1-Simple hypothesis :- the relation between one independent and one dependent variable Example :- birth weight is lower among infants of alcoholic mothers than among infants of nonalcoholic mothers. 2-Complex hypothesis :- two or more independent variable , two or more dependent variable or both Example :- more postpartum depression and feelings of inadequacy are reported by women who give birth by cesarean section than those how deliver vaginally
  • 12. 3- Associative hypothesis: It reflects a relationship between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings without manipulation. This hypothesis is used in correlational research studies
  • 13. 4- Causal hypothesis: ➢ It predicts the cause-and-effect relationship between two or more dependent & independent variables in experimental or interventional setting, where independent variable is manipulated by research to examine the effect on the dependent variable. ➢ The causal hypothesis reflects the measurement of dependent variable to examine the effect of dependent variable, which is manipulated by the researcher(s). ➢ For examples, prevalence of pin site infection is lower in patients who receive pin site care with hydrogen proxidide as compared to patients who receive the pin site care with Betadine solution.
  • 14. 5-Directional hypothesis : predict a relationship between variable , predicts the direction of relationship Example: people who smoke are more likely to develop lung cancer than those who do not smoking. 6-Non-Directional hypothesis: Predicts a relationship between variable ,does not predict the direction of the relationship . Example:- there is a relationship between serotonin levels and anxiety in hospitalized patient.
  • 15. 7-Null hypothesis : May read (H0) Predicts no relationship between variables. 8-Research hypothesis : May read as (H1) State expected relationship between variables
  • 16. 1. Covers all aspects of the search so that it is not randomly selected. 2. To be drafted or denied or proven or exiled and other to be formulated so that they are small, easy to understand and easy to identify their variables. 3. The predictions of the hypothesis formulated should be clear and specific 4. Nature of relationship between Dependent and independent variables 5. Subject in population being studied Should be stated using declarative sentence and present tense
  • 17. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS researchers might draw a hypothesis ❖ Personal experiments: The researcher's observation in a field, the development of new outputs specific theory to previous scientific research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system.So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels.“
  • 18. ❖ Logic: so that the hypothesis is based on rational foundations and is thus formulated in a way that justifies its issuance. ❖ Intuition and guesswork: a natural phenomenon that helps to realize the relationships between different variables
  • 19. THE DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESES: How do I go about developing hypotheses? ▪ Two basic processes are Induction and Deduction. 1-An Inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on observed relationships. (Observation →Pattern→ Hypothesis→ Theory) ▪ For example: a nurse might notice that presurgical patients who ask a lot of questions relating to pain. The nurse could then formulate a hypothesis, such as the following, Patients who are stressed by fears of pain will have more difficulty in deep breathing and coughing after their surgery than patients who are not stressed.
  • 20. 2-A deductive hypotheses: have as a starting point theories that are applied to particular situations, through deductive reasoning, a researcher can develop hypotheses based on general theoretical principles. (Theory→ hypothesis →observation →confirmation) ▪ For example: All human beings have red and white blood cells. John Doe is a human being Therefore, John Doe has red and white blood cells. ▪ In this simple example, the hypothesis is that John Doe does, in fact,have red and white blood cells, a deduction that could be verified.
  • 21. WORDING OF HYPOTHESIS ❑ A good hypothesis is worded in simple, Clear concise language. ❑ Although it is cumbersome to include conceptual or operational definitions of terms directly in the hypothesis statement ❑ Written in the present tense. ❑ Contain all the variable.
  • 22. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Statistical hypothesis testing is a process of disproof. It cannot be demonstrated directly that the research hypothesis is correct. But it is possible to show that the null hypothesis has a high probability of being incorrect, and such evidence lends support to the research 1. provides objective criteria for deciding whether hypothesis are supported by empirical evidence. 2. allows researchers to make objective decisions about study results. 3. Researchers need such a mechanism for deciding which results likely reflect chance sample differences and which reflect true population differences.
  • 23. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Type I and Type II Errors ▪ Researchers make a Type I error by rejecting a null hypothesis that is, in fact, true. For instance, if we decided that online support effectively promoted breastfeeding when, in fact, group differences were merely due to sampling error, we would be making a Type I error—a false-positive conclusion. ▪ If we decided that differences in breastfeeding were due to sampling fluctuations, when the intervention actually did have an effect, we would be making a Type II error—a false-negative conclusion
  • 24. STATICALLY TEST ▪ T- Tests) for small sample) ▪ Chi-Squared Test ▪ Z.Test(for large sample) specified population ▪ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
  • 25. References: ▪ Fundamental of Nursing Research/Rose Marie nieswiadomy._6th ed.p.cm. ▪ Nursing Research Principles and Methods/ Denise F.Polit, Cheryl Tatano Beck._ 7th ed. 2007. ▪ Nursing research Astudy and learning tools/ Veta H.Massey.P.Cm.