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Grammar phrases and verbals/ figure of speech

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Grammar phrases and verbals/ figure of speech

  1. 1. PHRASES
  2. 2. PREPOSITION is a word that relates a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence EXAMPLE  The bus with a flag is ours.  The kitten is playing under the sheets.  He proposed in the dance concert of Beyonce  They watered the plants in the garden.  They are studying in the library.
  3. 3. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE  A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun, which is called the object of the preposition. EXAMPLES 1. Nora dropped her jacket in the floor. 2. The staircase leads to the balcony 3. Hit the ball to me. 4. She drive the car in the steeply road. 5. She was wasted over the night.
  4. 4. A. USINGTHE CORRECT PRONOUN AFTER A PREPOSITION  1. Does this jacket belong to Gloria or (she, her)?  2. Borrow a bike from (he, him) and come along.  3. Only five of (they, them) were allowed in the elevator.  4. The cake was decorated by Damen and (she, her).  5. The chair between Gale and (he, him) was empty.  6. The package was for (we, us).  7. When did you take that picture of Jason and (we, us)?  8. Mail arrived for Mom and (I, me).
  5. 5. IDENTIFYTHE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND THE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION  1. The rumor spread throughout the school during the morning. ___________  2. The parakeet with red-tipped wings escaped from the cage. _____________  3. Before the invention of electric lights, people used candles. _____________  4. The sled sped down the hill and into the snowman. ____________________  5. Do you remember the name of the lead singer for that group?______________________  6. Jennifer laid the crystal bowl on the counter with great care. _______________________
  6. 6.  7. My book is on the table by my bed. ________________________________  8. With the acorn in its mouth the squirrel ran up the tree. _______________  9. What do you think about the quality of television? ____________________  10. The salad consisted of various fruits. ______________________________  11. The perfume smelled like vanilla._________________________________  12. The birds flew high above the treetops. ___________________________
  7. 7. USING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Use each of the given prepositional phrases in a sentence.  1. like a tiger ________________________________________________________  2. up the tree ________________________________________________________  3. near the finish line ________________________________________________________  4. between the houses__________________________________________________
  8. 8. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AS ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. EXAMPLES: • The photo of the cat took first place. • She send the invitation to theWhite Palace • They organize the party in the beach
  9. 9.  An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies, or describes, a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.  An adverb phrase that modifies a verb tells when, where, or how an action takes place. EXAMPLES • The wall was full of art. • Visitors came to the display • She looks fabulous in her evening gown • She often go to the province.
  10. 10. IDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB PHRASES  1. Members of the audience cheered loudly. ____________________  2. Some diners prefer their toast heavy with jam. __________________  3. Only seven of the swimmers finished the race. ____________________  4. The woman at the counter sold Andrea the outfit. _____________  5. The artist at the first easel painted with broad strokes. ____________  6. He sat in the front row beside Imelda. ________________________
  11. 11. 7. A group of students left in the picnic.___________________ 8. Beyond the field, a river flow to the sea.________________ 9.The men’s chorus entertained the visitor throughout the night._______________ 10. She graduated in the University of the Philippines._________ 11.The concert that they have attended was in full blast._____________
  12. 12. USING ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB PHRASES Complete each sentence by finishing the adverb or adjective phrase.  1. My friend ran in the __________________.  2. Today, we practiced drawing in __________________.  3. The leader of our __________________ volunteered to go first.  4. The sourdough bread from __________________ was delicious.  5. We told each other stories during __________________.
  13. 13. VERBALS
  14. 14. VERBAL • A verb-form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective and an adverb. • A verbal plus any complements and modifiers
  15. 15. PARTICIPLE  A verb form that can function a an adjective. • A present participle is formed by adding -ing to a verb. • A past participle is usually formed by adding -d or -ed to a verb. Both can serve either as the main verb in a verb phrase or as an adjective. EXAMPLES: Umeki was resting. He has rested on the couch before. The resting man fell asleep. The rested man woke full of life.
  16. 16. PARTICIPIAL PHRASE  A participial phrase is a group of words that includes a participle and other words that complete its meaning.  Use commas to set off participial phrases that begin a sentence or that give information not essential to the meaning of the sentence. The boy resting on the couch fell asleep. [phrase needed to identify which boy] Dale, resting on the couch, fell asleep. [phrase not needed]
  17. 17. IDENTIFYING PARTICIPLES  1. The cornered bear growled angrily. ___________________________  2. Melvin had boarded the first bus from the terminal.______________________________  3. Lazily we saw the reddened clouds drift over the lake. ____________________________  4. Is a small animal hiding in those leaves? ________________________  5. The yelling fans urge the team forward.______________________  6. The public will see even more recycled sitcoms. _________________________________
  18. 18. IDENTIFYING AND PUNCTUATING PARTICIPIAL PHRASES  Underline/write the participial phrase in each sentence. Add commas where needed. 1. Missy working in her garage perfected her model. 2. Five ears of corn selected for their size lay on the table. 3. The short boy playing the clarinet is my cousin. 4. The scientists searched for birds banded the previous year. 5. Could anyone ignore our high school band playing off-key but loudly?
  19. 19. GERUND A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun. As a noun, a gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence or the direct object of a verb. EXAMPLES: Typing requires skill. We learned typing last year. She loves jogging around the subdivision.
  20. 20. WHERE DOYOU FIND GERUNDS? Gerunds can be the subject ex. Smiling makes me happy. They can be the direct objects ex: Michelle enjoys reading. They can be objects of a preposition ex: She won first place for swimming.
  21. 21. PRACTICE  Bill andTony enjoy running. Traveling gives one a chance to see many incredible sights. Many people get rid of stress by exercising. Elaine and Rita are singing in the concert tonight.
  22. 22. GERUND PHRASE  A gerund phrase is a group of words that includes a gerund and other words that complete its meaning. EXAMPLES: Visiting our relatives is a pleasant activity. Practicing at the keyboard is essential. The crying baby was very tired. She was running for soccer practice. He is the leading director for the movie.
  23. 23. IDENTIFYINGVERB FORMS Write whether the underlined word in each sentence is used as a main verb, adjective,or gerund.  1. Steve was cooking oatmeal for breakfast._______________________________  2. Juggling requires concentration. ________________________________________  3. The standing spectators saw the runners first.___________________________  4. The hardest part is the waiting. _______________________________________  5. Gloria is calling her mother for a ride.___________________________________  6. Tim tripped over the sleeping puppy. _________________________________  7. Shipping is common on the Great Lakes. ____________________________  8. The robot was bumping into obstacles in the lab. _________________________
  24. 24. IDENTIFYING GERUNDS AND GERUND PHRASES Underline each gerund or gerund phrase.Write whether it is used as a subject or direct object.  1. Walking can be good exercise. _____________________________________  2. He enjoyed cooking more than any other hobby. ______________________  3. Sandra enjoys baby-sitting. _______________________________________  4. Littering can harm the environment._________________________________  5. Both candidates support taxing the rich. ______________________________  6. Sorting the clean clothes takes only ten minutes or so. ____________________  7. Breeding fish in tubs may be a solution. ______________________________  8. My lazy brother postponed starting his chores. _____________________________
  25. 25. INFINITIVE An infinitive is formed from the word to and the base form of a verb. It is often used as a noun in a sentence. EXAMPLES: To fly was a dream for many. They tried to fly. The to in an infinitive is not a preposition. A prepositional phrase does not include a verb. Some were taken to hospitals
  26. 26. INFINITIVE PHRASE An infinitive phrase is a group of words that includes an infinitive and other words that complete its meaning. EXAMPLES: 1. TheWright brothers wanted to invent a flying machine. 2. To live life to the fullest is her ultimate motto in life.
  27. 27. IDENTIFYING INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES  1. Do you want to wait in the mall? _________________________________  2. None of the food shipments sent to the cities arrived. _______________  3. To replace the spark plugs is not a difficult job.___________________  4. My grandfather taught me to swim.___________________________  5. Get your tickets to the next thrilling performance of the circus!___________  6. Without a compass, to find our way home will be difficult. ____________ In each sentence, find a phrase beginning with to. If to is a preposition, write the prepositional phrase and label it prepositional phrase. If to is part of an infinitive or infinitive phrase, write the infinitive or infinitive phrase and label it infinitive or infinitive phrase.
  28. 28. IDENTIFYING HOW INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES ARE USED  1. Abraham plans to enter the triathlon. ____________________________  2. To stay awake during Marty’s speech was impossible. ________________  3. Has the band started to play? __________________________________  4. To find the lost child became everyone’s goal. _____________________  5. Sometime in the future, to visit Mars will be an everyday occurrence. ________________  6. Several of the workers wanted to organize a union. __________________ Underline each infinitive or infinitive phrase. Write whether it functions as a subject or direct object.
  30. 30. FIGURE OF SPEECH A figure of speech is a phrase or word having different meanings than its literal meanings. It conveys meaning by identifying or comparing one thing to another, which has connotation or meaning familiar to the audience.That is why it is helpful in creating vivid rhetorical effect.
  31. 31. TYPES OF FIGURES OF SPEECH Simile  It is a type of comparison between things or objects by using “as” or “like.” Personification  It occurs when a writer gives human traits to non-human or inanimate objects. It is similar to metaphors and similes that also use comparison between two objects Metaphor  Metaphor is comparing two unlike objects or things, which may have some common qualities.
  32. 32. Hyperbole uses extreme exaggeration. It exaggerates to lay emphasis on a certain quality or feature.
  33. 33. Irony is used to stress on the opposite meaning of a word.When people are looking to be sarcastic, they employ irony. It is often used to poke fun at a situation that everyone else sees as a very serious matter. • “Gentlemen, you can’t fight in here!This is theWar Room!” • He was so intelligent, that he failed all his
  34. 34.  This puts two words together that seem to contradict each other. Oxymoron involves the usage of contradictory terms to describe an object, situation or incident. • Military intelligence,” • “real phony,” • “civil war,” • “silent yell” • open secret, • tragic comedy • exact estimate • original copies
  35. 35. This figure of speech completely contradicts itself in the same sentence. • War is peace • Ignorance is strength • Freedom is slavery.”
  36. 36.  An apostrophe is used when a person who is absent or nonexistent is spoken to. "Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are. Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky.
  37. 37. This is a contradiction that pits two ideas against each other in a balanced way.
  38. 38.  In a climax, the words are placed in an ascending order, depending on their significance.These words generally revolve around a central theme and are arranged in an increasing order to create a strong impression on the mind of the reader. • "There are three things that will endure: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love." - 1 Corinthians 13:13
  39. 39.  An anticlimax as a figure speech refers to the building up a climax that results in something that cannot really be described as a climax. • On discovering that his friend was murdered, with vengeance on his mind Ravi rushed back to his college, only to find his friend sipping on coffee in the college canteen.
  40. 40. This is a figure of speech in which one thing is meant to represent the whole. EXAMPLES: • “ABCs” for alphabet • “new set of wheels” for car • “9/11” to demonstrate the whole of the tragedy that happened in the United States on September 11, 2001. • England won theWorld Cup in 1966
  41. 41.  In this figure of speech, one word that has a very similar meaning can be used for another. A metonymy is a figure of speech where one word or phrase is used in place of another.With metonymies, a name of a particular thing is substituted with the name of a thing that is closely related to it. • “crown” for “royalty” • “lab coats” for “scientists” • TheWhite House said”
  42. 42.  http://fos.iloveindia.com/