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11.1
CHAPTER 11:CHAPTER 11:
DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTINGDESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING
BRANDING STRATEGIESBRANDING STRATEGIES
Kevin Lane KellerKevin Lane Keller
Tuck School of BusinessTuck School of Business
Dartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
11.2
Branding strategyBranding strategy
 Branding strategy is critical because it is theBranding strategy is critical because it is the
means by which the firm can help consumersmeans by which the firm can help consumers
understand its products and services andunderstand its products and services and
organize them in their minds.organize them in their minds.
 Two important strategic tools: TheTwo important strategic tools: The brand-productbrand-product
matrixmatrix and theand the brand hierarchybrand hierarchy help to characterizehelp to characterize
and formulate branding strategies by definingand formulate branding strategies by defining
various relationships among brands andvarious relationships among brands and
products.products.
11.3
Branding Strategy or BrandBranding Strategy or Brand
ArchitectureArchitecture
 TheThe branding strategybranding strategy for a firm reflects thefor a firm reflects the
number and nature of common or distinctivenumber and nature of common or distinctive
brand elements applied to the different productsbrand elements applied to the different products
sold by the firm.sold by the firm.
 Which brand elements can be applied to whichWhich brand elements can be applied to which
products and the nature of new and existing brandproducts and the nature of new and existing brand
elements to be applied to new productselements to be applied to new products
11.4
The role of Brand ArchitectureThe role of Brand Architecture
 Clarify: brand awarenessClarify: brand awareness
 Improve consumer understanding and communicateImprove consumer understanding and communicate
similarity and differences between individualsimilarity and differences between individual
productsproducts
 Motivate: brand imageMotivate: brand image
 Maximize transfer of equity to/from the brand toMaximize transfer of equity to/from the brand to
individual products to improve trial and repeatindividual products to improve trial and repeat
purchasepurchase
11.5
Brand-Product MatrixBrand-Product Matrix
 Must define:Must define:
 Brand-Product relationships (rows)Brand-Product relationships (rows)
 Line and category extensionsLine and category extensions
 Product-Brand relationships (columns)Product-Brand relationships (columns)
 Brand portfolioBrand portfolio
1 2 3 4
A
B
C
Products
Brands
11.6
Important DefinitionsImportant Definitions
 Product lineProduct line
 A group pf products within a product category thatA group pf products within a product category that
are closely relatedare closely related
 Product mix (product assortment)Product mix (product assortment)
 The set of all product lines and items that aThe set of all product lines and items that a
particular seller makes available to buyersparticular seller makes available to buyers
 Brand mix (brand assortment)Brand mix (brand assortment)
 The set of all brand lines that a particular sellerThe set of all brand lines that a particular seller
makes available to buyersmakes available to buyers
11.7
Breadth of a Branding StrategyBreadth of a Branding Strategy
 Breadth of product mixBreadth of product mix
 Aggregate market factorsAggregate market factors
 Category factorsCategory factors
 Environmental factorsEnvironmental factors
 Depth of product mixDepth of product mix
 Examining the percentage of sales and profitsExamining the percentage of sales and profits
contributed by each item in the product linecontributed by each item in the product line
 Deciding to increase the length of the product lineDeciding to increase the length of the product line
by adding new variants or items typically expandsby adding new variants or items typically expands
market coverage and therefore market share but alsomarket coverage and therefore market share but also
increases costsincreases costs
11.8
Depth of a Branding StrategyDepth of a Branding Strategy
 The number and nature of different brandsThe number and nature of different brands
marketed in the product class sold by a firmmarketed in the product class sold by a firm
 Referred to asReferred to as brand portfoliobrand portfolio
 The reason is to pursue different marketThe reason is to pursue different market
segments, different channels of distribution, orsegments, different channels of distribution, or
different geographic boundariesdifferent geographic boundaries
 Maximize market coverage and minimize brandMaximize market coverage and minimize brand
overlapoverlap
11.9
Ford Brand PortfolioFord Brand Portfolio
11.10
Designing a Brand PortfolioDesigning a Brand Portfolio
 Basic principles:Basic principles:
 Maximize market coverageMaximize market coverage so that no potentialso that no potential
customers are being ignoredcustomers are being ignored
 Minimize brand overlapMinimize brand overlap so that brands aren’tso that brands aren’t
competing among themselves to gain the samecompeting among themselves to gain the same
customer’s approvalcustomer’s approval
11.11
Brand Roles in the PortfolioBrand Roles in the Portfolio
 FlankersFlankers
 Cash cowsCash cows
 Low-end entry-levelLow-end entry-level
 High-end prestige brandsHigh-end prestige brands
11.12
Brand HierarchyBrand Hierarchy
 A means of summarizing the branding strategyA means of summarizing the branding strategy
by displaying the number and nature ofby displaying the number and nature of
common and distinctive brand elements acrosscommon and distinctive brand elements across
the firm’s products, revealing the explicitthe firm’s products, revealing the explicit
ordering of brand elementsordering of brand elements
 A useful means of graphically portraying aA useful means of graphically portraying a
firm’s branding strategyfirm’s branding strategy
11.13
Brand Hierarchy Tree: ToyotaBrand Hierarchy Tree: Toyota
Toyota
Corporation
Toyota
(Trucks)
Toyota
(SUV/vans)
LexusToyota
Financial
Services
Toyota
(Cars)
Corolla PriusAvalon Celica ECHO Matrix
MR2
Spyder
Camry
CE
S
LE
SE
LE
XLE
Platinum
Edition
XL
XLS
SE
SLE
11.14
Brand Hierarchy LevelsBrand Hierarchy Levels
Family Brand (Buick)
Corporate Brand (General Motors)
Modifier: Item or Model (Ultra)
Individual Brand (Park Avenue)
11.15
Corporate Brand EquityCorporate Brand Equity
 Occurs when relevant constituents hold strong,Occurs when relevant constituents hold strong,
favorable, and unique associations about thefavorable, and unique associations about the
corporate brand in memorycorporate brand in memory
 Encompasses a much wider range ofEncompasses a much wider range of
associations than a product brandassociations than a product brand
11.16
Family BrandsFamily Brands
 Brands applied across a range of productBrands applied across a range of product
categoriescategories
 An efficient means to link common associationsAn efficient means to link common associations
to multiple but distinct productsto multiple but distinct products
11.17
Individual BrandsIndividual Brands
 Restricted to essentially one product categoryRestricted to essentially one product category
 There may be multiple product types offered onThere may be multiple product types offered on
the basis of different models, package sizes,the basis of different models, package sizes,
flavors, etc.flavors, etc.
11.18
ModifiersModifiers
 Signals refinements or differences in the brandSignals refinements or differences in the brand
related to factors such as quality levels,related to factors such as quality levels,
attributes, functions, etc.attributes, functions, etc.
 Plays an important organizing role inPlays an important organizing role in
communicating how different products within acommunicating how different products within a
category that share the same brand name arecategory that share the same brand name are
11.19
Corporate Image DimensionsCorporate Image Dimensions
 Corporate product attributes, benefits or attitudesCorporate product attributes, benefits or attitudes
 QualityQuality
 InnovativenessInnovativeness
 People and relationshipsPeople and relationships
 Customer orientationCustomer orientation
 Values and programsValues and programs
 Concern with the environmentConcern with the environment
 Social responsibilitySocial responsibility
 Corporate credibilityCorporate credibility
 ExpertiseExpertise
 TrustworthinessTrustworthiness
 LikabilityLikability
11.20
Brand Hierarchy DecisionsBrand Hierarchy Decisions
 The number of levels of the hierarchy to useThe number of levels of the hierarchy to use
in generalin general
 How brand elements from different levels ofHow brand elements from different levels of
the hierarchy are combined, if at all, for anythe hierarchy are combined, if at all, for any
one particular productone particular product
 How any one brand element is linked, if at all,How any one brand element is linked, if at all,
to multiple productsto multiple products
 Desired brand awareness and image at eachDesired brand awareness and image at each
levellevel
11.21
Number of Hierarchy LevelsNumber of Hierarchy Levels
 Principle of simplicityPrinciple of simplicity
 Employ as few levels as possibleEmploy as few levels as possible
 Principle of clarityPrinciple of clarity
 Logic and relationship of all brand elementsLogic and relationship of all brand elements
employed must be obvious and transparentemployed must be obvious and transparent
11.22
Levels of Awareness and AssociationsLevels of Awareness and Associations
 Principle of relevancePrinciple of relevance
 Create global associations that are relevant across asCreate global associations that are relevant across as
many individual items as possiblemany individual items as possible
 Principle of differentiationPrinciple of differentiation
 Differentiate individual items and brandsDifferentiate individual items and brands
11.23
Linking Brands at Different LevelsLinking Brands at Different Levels
 Principle of prominencePrinciple of prominence
 The relative prominence of brand elements affectsThe relative prominence of brand elements affects
perceptions of product distance and the type ofperceptions of product distance and the type of
image created for new productsimage created for new products
11.24
Linking Brands Across ProductsLinking Brands Across Products
 Principle of commonalityPrinciple of commonality
 The more common elements shared by products,The more common elements shared by products,
the stronger the linkagesthe stronger the linkages
11.25
Brand Architecture GuidelinesBrand Architecture Guidelines
 Adopt a strong customer focusAdopt a strong customer focus
 Avoid over-brandingAvoid over-branding
 Establish rules and conventions and beEstablish rules and conventions and be
disciplineddisciplined
 Create broad, robust brand platformsCreate broad, robust brand platforms
 Selectively employ sub-brands as means ofSelectively employ sub-brands as means of
complementing and strengthening brandscomplementing and strengthening brands
 Selectively extend brands to establish newSelectively extend brands to establish new
brand equity and enhance existing brand equitybrand equity and enhance existing brand equity
11.26
Corporate Brand CampaignCorporate Brand Campaign
 Different objectives are possible:Different objectives are possible:
 Build awareness of the company and the nature of itsBuild awareness of the company and the nature of its
businessbusiness
 Create favorable attitudes and perceptions of companyCreate favorable attitudes and perceptions of company
credibilitycredibility
 Link beliefs that can be leveraged by product-specificLink beliefs that can be leveraged by product-specific
marketingmarketing
 Make a favorable impression on the financial communityMake a favorable impression on the financial community
 Motivate present employees and attract better recruitsMotivate present employees and attract better recruits
 Influence public opinion on issuesInfluence public opinion on issues
11.27
Using Cause Marketing to BuildUsing Cause Marketing to Build
Brand EquityBrand Equity
 The process of formulating and implementingThe process of formulating and implementing
marketing activities that are characterized by anmarketing activities that are characterized by an
offer from the firm to contribute a specifiedoffer from the firm to contribute a specified
amount to a designated cause when customersamount to a designated cause when customers
engage in revenue-providing exchanges thatengage in revenue-providing exchanges that
satisfy organizational and individual objectivessatisfy organizational and individual objectives
11.28
Advantages of Cause MarketingAdvantages of Cause Marketing
 Building brand awarenessBuilding brand awareness
 Enhancing brand imageEnhancing brand image
 Establishing brand credibilityEstablishing brand credibility
 Evoking brand feelingsEvoking brand feelings
 Creating a sense of brand communityCreating a sense of brand community
 Eliciting brand engagementEliciting brand engagement
11.29
Green MarketingGreen Marketing
 A special case of cause marketing that isA special case of cause marketing that is
particularly concerned with the environmentparticularly concerned with the environment
 Explosion of environmentally friendly productsExplosion of environmentally friendly products
and marketing programsand marketing programs
11.30
Crisis Marketing GuidelinesCrisis Marketing Guidelines
 The two keys to effectively managing a crisis areThe two keys to effectively managing a crisis are
that the firm’s response should be swift and thatthat the firm’s response should be swift and that
it should be sincere.it should be sincere.

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Branding Strategies and Hierarchies

  • 1. 11.1 CHAPTER 11:CHAPTER 11: DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTINGDESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING BRANDING STRATEGIESBRANDING STRATEGIES Kevin Lane KellerKevin Lane Keller Tuck School of BusinessTuck School of Business Dartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
  • 2. 11.2 Branding strategyBranding strategy  Branding strategy is critical because it is theBranding strategy is critical because it is the means by which the firm can help consumersmeans by which the firm can help consumers understand its products and services andunderstand its products and services and organize them in their minds.organize them in their minds.  Two important strategic tools: TheTwo important strategic tools: The brand-productbrand-product matrixmatrix and theand the brand hierarchybrand hierarchy help to characterizehelp to characterize and formulate branding strategies by definingand formulate branding strategies by defining various relationships among brands andvarious relationships among brands and products.products.
  • 3. 11.3 Branding Strategy or BrandBranding Strategy or Brand ArchitectureArchitecture  TheThe branding strategybranding strategy for a firm reflects thefor a firm reflects the number and nature of common or distinctivenumber and nature of common or distinctive brand elements applied to the different productsbrand elements applied to the different products sold by the firm.sold by the firm.  Which brand elements can be applied to whichWhich brand elements can be applied to which products and the nature of new and existing brandproducts and the nature of new and existing brand elements to be applied to new productselements to be applied to new products
  • 4. 11.4 The role of Brand ArchitectureThe role of Brand Architecture  Clarify: brand awarenessClarify: brand awareness  Improve consumer understanding and communicateImprove consumer understanding and communicate similarity and differences between individualsimilarity and differences between individual productsproducts  Motivate: brand imageMotivate: brand image  Maximize transfer of equity to/from the brand toMaximize transfer of equity to/from the brand to individual products to improve trial and repeatindividual products to improve trial and repeat purchasepurchase
  • 5. 11.5 Brand-Product MatrixBrand-Product Matrix  Must define:Must define:  Brand-Product relationships (rows)Brand-Product relationships (rows)  Line and category extensionsLine and category extensions  Product-Brand relationships (columns)Product-Brand relationships (columns)  Brand portfolioBrand portfolio 1 2 3 4 A B C Products Brands
  • 6. 11.6 Important DefinitionsImportant Definitions  Product lineProduct line  A group pf products within a product category thatA group pf products within a product category that are closely relatedare closely related  Product mix (product assortment)Product mix (product assortment)  The set of all product lines and items that aThe set of all product lines and items that a particular seller makes available to buyersparticular seller makes available to buyers  Brand mix (brand assortment)Brand mix (brand assortment)  The set of all brand lines that a particular sellerThe set of all brand lines that a particular seller makes available to buyersmakes available to buyers
  • 7. 11.7 Breadth of a Branding StrategyBreadth of a Branding Strategy  Breadth of product mixBreadth of product mix  Aggregate market factorsAggregate market factors  Category factorsCategory factors  Environmental factorsEnvironmental factors  Depth of product mixDepth of product mix  Examining the percentage of sales and profitsExamining the percentage of sales and profits contributed by each item in the product linecontributed by each item in the product line  Deciding to increase the length of the product lineDeciding to increase the length of the product line by adding new variants or items typically expandsby adding new variants or items typically expands market coverage and therefore market share but alsomarket coverage and therefore market share but also increases costsincreases costs
  • 8. 11.8 Depth of a Branding StrategyDepth of a Branding Strategy  The number and nature of different brandsThe number and nature of different brands marketed in the product class sold by a firmmarketed in the product class sold by a firm  Referred to asReferred to as brand portfoliobrand portfolio  The reason is to pursue different marketThe reason is to pursue different market segments, different channels of distribution, orsegments, different channels of distribution, or different geographic boundariesdifferent geographic boundaries  Maximize market coverage and minimize brandMaximize market coverage and minimize brand overlapoverlap
  • 10. 11.10 Designing a Brand PortfolioDesigning a Brand Portfolio  Basic principles:Basic principles:  Maximize market coverageMaximize market coverage so that no potentialso that no potential customers are being ignoredcustomers are being ignored  Minimize brand overlapMinimize brand overlap so that brands aren’tso that brands aren’t competing among themselves to gain the samecompeting among themselves to gain the same customer’s approvalcustomer’s approval
  • 11. 11.11 Brand Roles in the PortfolioBrand Roles in the Portfolio  FlankersFlankers  Cash cowsCash cows  Low-end entry-levelLow-end entry-level  High-end prestige brandsHigh-end prestige brands
  • 12. 11.12 Brand HierarchyBrand Hierarchy  A means of summarizing the branding strategyA means of summarizing the branding strategy by displaying the number and nature ofby displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements acrosscommon and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products, revealing the explicitthe firm’s products, revealing the explicit ordering of brand elementsordering of brand elements  A useful means of graphically portraying aA useful means of graphically portraying a firm’s branding strategyfirm’s branding strategy
  • 13. 11.13 Brand Hierarchy Tree: ToyotaBrand Hierarchy Tree: Toyota Toyota Corporation Toyota (Trucks) Toyota (SUV/vans) LexusToyota Financial Services Toyota (Cars) Corolla PriusAvalon Celica ECHO Matrix MR2 Spyder Camry CE S LE SE LE XLE Platinum Edition XL XLS SE SLE
  • 14. 11.14 Brand Hierarchy LevelsBrand Hierarchy Levels Family Brand (Buick) Corporate Brand (General Motors) Modifier: Item or Model (Ultra) Individual Brand (Park Avenue)
  • 15. 11.15 Corporate Brand EquityCorporate Brand Equity  Occurs when relevant constituents hold strong,Occurs when relevant constituents hold strong, favorable, and unique associations about thefavorable, and unique associations about the corporate brand in memorycorporate brand in memory  Encompasses a much wider range ofEncompasses a much wider range of associations than a product brandassociations than a product brand
  • 16. 11.16 Family BrandsFamily Brands  Brands applied across a range of productBrands applied across a range of product categoriescategories  An efficient means to link common associationsAn efficient means to link common associations to multiple but distinct productsto multiple but distinct products
  • 17. 11.17 Individual BrandsIndividual Brands  Restricted to essentially one product categoryRestricted to essentially one product category  There may be multiple product types offered onThere may be multiple product types offered on the basis of different models, package sizes,the basis of different models, package sizes, flavors, etc.flavors, etc.
  • 18. 11.18 ModifiersModifiers  Signals refinements or differences in the brandSignals refinements or differences in the brand related to factors such as quality levels,related to factors such as quality levels, attributes, functions, etc.attributes, functions, etc.  Plays an important organizing role inPlays an important organizing role in communicating how different products within acommunicating how different products within a category that share the same brand name arecategory that share the same brand name are
  • 19. 11.19 Corporate Image DimensionsCorporate Image Dimensions  Corporate product attributes, benefits or attitudesCorporate product attributes, benefits or attitudes  QualityQuality  InnovativenessInnovativeness  People and relationshipsPeople and relationships  Customer orientationCustomer orientation  Values and programsValues and programs  Concern with the environmentConcern with the environment  Social responsibilitySocial responsibility  Corporate credibilityCorporate credibility  ExpertiseExpertise  TrustworthinessTrustworthiness  LikabilityLikability
  • 20. 11.20 Brand Hierarchy DecisionsBrand Hierarchy Decisions  The number of levels of the hierarchy to useThe number of levels of the hierarchy to use in generalin general  How brand elements from different levels ofHow brand elements from different levels of the hierarchy are combined, if at all, for anythe hierarchy are combined, if at all, for any one particular productone particular product  How any one brand element is linked, if at all,How any one brand element is linked, if at all, to multiple productsto multiple products  Desired brand awareness and image at eachDesired brand awareness and image at each levellevel
  • 21. 11.21 Number of Hierarchy LevelsNumber of Hierarchy Levels  Principle of simplicityPrinciple of simplicity  Employ as few levels as possibleEmploy as few levels as possible  Principle of clarityPrinciple of clarity  Logic and relationship of all brand elementsLogic and relationship of all brand elements employed must be obvious and transparentemployed must be obvious and transparent
  • 22. 11.22 Levels of Awareness and AssociationsLevels of Awareness and Associations  Principle of relevancePrinciple of relevance  Create global associations that are relevant across asCreate global associations that are relevant across as many individual items as possiblemany individual items as possible  Principle of differentiationPrinciple of differentiation  Differentiate individual items and brandsDifferentiate individual items and brands
  • 23. 11.23 Linking Brands at Different LevelsLinking Brands at Different Levels  Principle of prominencePrinciple of prominence  The relative prominence of brand elements affectsThe relative prominence of brand elements affects perceptions of product distance and the type ofperceptions of product distance and the type of image created for new productsimage created for new products
  • 24. 11.24 Linking Brands Across ProductsLinking Brands Across Products  Principle of commonalityPrinciple of commonality  The more common elements shared by products,The more common elements shared by products, the stronger the linkagesthe stronger the linkages
  • 25. 11.25 Brand Architecture GuidelinesBrand Architecture Guidelines  Adopt a strong customer focusAdopt a strong customer focus  Avoid over-brandingAvoid over-branding  Establish rules and conventions and beEstablish rules and conventions and be disciplineddisciplined  Create broad, robust brand platformsCreate broad, robust brand platforms  Selectively employ sub-brands as means ofSelectively employ sub-brands as means of complementing and strengthening brandscomplementing and strengthening brands  Selectively extend brands to establish newSelectively extend brands to establish new brand equity and enhance existing brand equitybrand equity and enhance existing brand equity
  • 26. 11.26 Corporate Brand CampaignCorporate Brand Campaign  Different objectives are possible:Different objectives are possible:  Build awareness of the company and the nature of itsBuild awareness of the company and the nature of its businessbusiness  Create favorable attitudes and perceptions of companyCreate favorable attitudes and perceptions of company credibilitycredibility  Link beliefs that can be leveraged by product-specificLink beliefs that can be leveraged by product-specific marketingmarketing  Make a favorable impression on the financial communityMake a favorable impression on the financial community  Motivate present employees and attract better recruitsMotivate present employees and attract better recruits  Influence public opinion on issuesInfluence public opinion on issues
  • 27. 11.27 Using Cause Marketing to BuildUsing Cause Marketing to Build Brand EquityBrand Equity  The process of formulating and implementingThe process of formulating and implementing marketing activities that are characterized by anmarketing activities that are characterized by an offer from the firm to contribute a specifiedoffer from the firm to contribute a specified amount to a designated cause when customersamount to a designated cause when customers engage in revenue-providing exchanges thatengage in revenue-providing exchanges that satisfy organizational and individual objectivessatisfy organizational and individual objectives
  • 28. 11.28 Advantages of Cause MarketingAdvantages of Cause Marketing  Building brand awarenessBuilding brand awareness  Enhancing brand imageEnhancing brand image  Establishing brand credibilityEstablishing brand credibility  Evoking brand feelingsEvoking brand feelings  Creating a sense of brand communityCreating a sense of brand community  Eliciting brand engagementEliciting brand engagement
  • 29. 11.29 Green MarketingGreen Marketing  A special case of cause marketing that isA special case of cause marketing that is particularly concerned with the environmentparticularly concerned with the environment  Explosion of environmentally friendly productsExplosion of environmentally friendly products and marketing programsand marketing programs
  • 30. 11.30 Crisis Marketing GuidelinesCrisis Marketing Guidelines  The two keys to effectively managing a crisis areThe two keys to effectively managing a crisis are that the firm’s response should be swift and thatthat the firm’s response should be swift and that it should be sincere.it should be sincere.