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MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY: CAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSET

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MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY: CAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSET

  1. 1. 9.1 CHAPTER 9:CHAPTER 9: MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY:MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY: CAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSETCAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSET Kevin Lane KellerKevin Lane Keller Tuck School of BusinessTuck School of Business Dartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
  2. 2. 9.2 Qualitative Research TechniquesQualitative Research Techniques  Free associationFree association  What do you like best about the brand? What are itsWhat do you like best about the brand? What are its positive aspects?positive aspects?  What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages?What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages?  What do you find unique about the brand? How is itWhat do you find unique about the brand? How is it different from other brands? In what ways is it thedifferent from other brands? In what ways is it the same?same?
  3. 3. 9.3 Free AssociationsFree Associations LEVI’S 501 High quality, long lasting, and durable Blue denim, shrink-to-fit cotton fabric, button-fly, two-horse patch, and small red pocket tag Feelings of self-confidence and self-assurance Comfortable fitting and relaxing to wear Honest, classic, Contemporary, approachable, independent, and universal Appropriate for outdoor work and casual social situations Western, American, blue collar, hard-working, traditional, strong, rugged, and masculine BENEFITS ATTRIBUTES Symbolic Usage ImageryUser Imagery Brand Personality Functional Product-Related Experiential
  4. 4. 9.4 Qualitative Research TechniquesQualitative Research Techniques  Projective techniquesProjective techniques  Diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions andDiagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions and feelings of consumers when they are unwilling orfeelings of consumers when they are unwilling or otherwise unable to express themselves on theseotherwise unable to express themselves on these mattersmatters
  5. 5. 9.5 Projective TechniquesProjective Techniques  Consumers might feel that it would be sociallyConsumers might feel that it would be socially unacceptable to express their true feelingsunacceptable to express their true feelings  Projective techniques are diagnostic tools toProjective techniques are diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions and feelings ofuncover the true opinions and feelings of consumersconsumers  Examples:Examples:  Completion and interpretation tasksCompletion and interpretation tasks  Comparison tasksComparison tasks
  6. 6. 9.6 New approach: ZMETNew approach: ZMET  Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation TechniqueZaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)(ZMET)  ZMET is “a technique for elicitingZMET is “a technique for eliciting interconnected constructs that influence thoughtinterconnected constructs that influence thought and behavior.”and behavior.”
  7. 7. 9.7 ZMETZMET  The guided conversation consists of a series of stepsThe guided conversation consists of a series of steps that includes some or all of the following:that includes some or all of the following:  Story tellingStory telling  Missed imagesMissed images  Sorting taskSorting task  Construct elicitationConstruct elicitation  The most representative pictureThe most representative picture  Opposite imagesOpposite images  Sensory imagesSensory images  Mental mapMental map  Summary imageSummary image  VignetteVignette
  8. 8. 9.8 Brand Personality and ValuesBrand Personality and Values  Brand personalityBrand personality refers to the human characteristicsrefers to the human characteristics or traits that can be attributed to a brand.or traits that can be attributed to a brand.  The Big FiveThe Big Five  Sincerity (down-to-earth, wholesome, and cheerful)Sincerity (down-to-earth, wholesome, and cheerful)  Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to-Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to- date)date)  Competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful)Competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful)  Sophistication (upper class and charming)Sophistication (upper class and charming)  Ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough)Ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough) Jennifer Aaker, 1997Jennifer Aaker, 1997
  9. 9. 9.9 Identifying Key Brand PersonalityIdentifying Key Brand Personality AssociationsAssociations BUSHBUSH KERRYKERRY  CoffeeCoffee Dunkin’ DonutsDunkin’ Donuts StarbucksStarbucks  TechnologyTechnology IBMIBM AppleApple  AutoAuto FordFord BMWBMW  RetailRetail KmartKmart TargetTarget  Fast FoodFast Food McDonald’sMcDonald’s SubwaySubway 2004 U.S. presidential election, random sample of undecided voters
  10. 10. 9.10 Experiential MethodsExperiential Methods  By tapping more directly into their actual home, work,By tapping more directly into their actual home, work, or shopping behaviors, researchers might be able toor shopping behaviors, researchers might be able to elicit more meaningful responses from consumers.elicit more meaningful responses from consumers.  Advocates of the experiential approach have sentAdvocates of the experiential approach have sent researchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to seeresearchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to see how they approach their days, given business travelershow they approach their days, given business travelers Polaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelingsPolaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelings when in hotel rooms, and conducted “beeper studies”when in hotel rooms, and conducted “beeper studies” in which participants are instructed to write down whatin which participants are instructed to write down what they’re doing when they are paged.they’re doing when they are paged.
  11. 11. 9.11 Quantitative Research TechniquesQuantitative Research Techniques  AwarenessAwareness  ImageImage  Brand responsesBrand responses  Brand relationshipsBrand relationships
  12. 12. 9.12 AwarenessAwareness  RecognitionRecognition  Ability of consumers to identify the brand (and itsAbility of consumers to identify the brand (and its elements) under various circumstanceselements) under various circumstances  RecallRecall  Ability of consumers to retrieve the actual brandAbility of consumers to retrieve the actual brand elements from memoryelements from memory  Unaided vs. aided recallUnaided vs. aided recall
  13. 13. 9.13 AwarenessAwareness  Corrections for guessingCorrections for guessing  Any research measure must consider the issue of consumersAny research measure must consider the issue of consumers making up responses or guessing.making up responses or guessing.  Strategic implicationsStrategic implications  The advantage of aided recall measures is that they yieldThe advantage of aided recall measures is that they yield insight into how brand knowledge is organized in memoryinsight into how brand knowledge is organized in memory and what kind of cues or reminders may be necessary forand what kind of cues or reminders may be necessary for consumers to be able to retrieve the brand from memory.consumers to be able to retrieve the brand from memory.  The important point to note is that the category structure thatThe important point to note is that the category structure that exists in consumers’ minds—as reflected by brand recallexists in consumers’ minds—as reflected by brand recall performance—can have profound implications for consumerperformance—can have profound implications for consumer choice and marketing strategy.choice and marketing strategy.
  14. 14. 9.14 ImageImage  Ask open-ended questions to tap into theAsk open-ended questions to tap into the strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brandstrength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations.associations.  These associations should be rated on scales forThese associations should be rated on scales for quantitative analysis.quantitative analysis.
  15. 15. 9.15 Brand ResponsesBrand Responses  Research in psychology suggests that purchaseResearch in psychology suggests that purchase intentions are most likely to be predictive of actualintentions are most likely to be predictive of actual purchase when there is correspondence between thepurchase when there is correspondence between the two in the following categories:two in the following categories:  Purchase IntentionsPurchase Intentions  Action (buying for own use or to give as a gift)Action (buying for own use or to give as a gift)  Target (specific type of product and brand)Target (specific type of product and brand)  Context (in what type of store based on what prices andContext (in what type of store based on what prices and other conditions)other conditions)  Time (within a week, month, or year)Time (within a week, month, or year)
  16. 16. 9.16 Brand RelationshipsBrand Relationships  Behavioral loyaltyBehavioral loyalty  Brand substitutabilityBrand substitutability  Other brand resonance dimensionsOther brand resonance dimensions  For example, in terms of engagement, measuresFor example, in terms of engagement, measures could explore word-of-mouth behavior, onlinecould explore word-of-mouth behavior, online behavior, and so forth in depthbehavior, and so forth in depth
  17. 17. 9.17 Comprehensive Models ofComprehensive Models of Customer-Based Brand EquityCustomer-Based Brand Equity  Brand dynamicsBrand dynamics  Equity enginesEquity engines  Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset ValuatorYoung & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator (BAV)(BAV)
  18. 18. 9.18 Brand DynamicsBrand Dynamics  The Brand Dynamics model adopts aThe Brand Dynamics model adopts a hierarchical approach to determine the strengthhierarchical approach to determine the strength of relationship a consumer has with a brand.of relationship a consumer has with a brand.  The five levels of the model are:The five levels of the model are:  PresencePresence  RelevanceRelevance  PerformancePerformance  AdvantageAdvantage  BondingBonding
  19. 19. 9.19 Equity EnginesEquity Engines  This model delineates three key dimensions of brandThis model delineates three key dimensions of brand affinityaffinity——the emotional and intangible benefits of athe emotional and intangible benefits of a brandbrand——as follows:as follows:  Authority:Authority: The reputation of a brand, whether as a long-The reputation of a brand, whether as a long- standing leader or as a pioneer in innovationstanding leader or as a pioneer in innovation  Identification:Identification: The closeness customers feel for a brand andThe closeness customers feel for a brand and how well they feel the brand matches their personal needshow well they feel the brand matches their personal needs  Approval:Approval: The way a brand fits into the wider social matrixThe way a brand fits into the wider social matrix and the intangible status it holds for experts and friendsand the intangible status it holds for experts and friends
  20. 20. 9.20 Young & Rubicam’s Brand AssetYoung & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator (BAV)Valuator (BAV)  There are five key components of brand health in BAVThere are five key components of brand health in BAV —the five pillars.—the five pillars.  Each pillar is derived from various measures that relateEach pillar is derived from various measures that relate to different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptionsto different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptions and that together trace the progression of a brand’sand that together trace the progression of a brand’s development.development.  DifferentiationDifferentiation  EnergyEnergy  RelevanceRelevance  EsteemEsteem  KnowledgeKnowledge
  21. 21. 9.21  240,000+ consumers240,000+ consumers  Up to 181 categoriesUp to 181 categories  137 studies137 studies  40 countries40 countries  8 years8 years  56 different brand56 different brand metricsmetrics  Common methodologyCommon methodology BrandAsset® Valuator (BAV)BrandAsset® Valuator (BAV)
  22. 22. 9.22 Four Primary AspectsFour Primary Aspects How Brands Are BuiltHow Brands Are Built Knowledge • The culmination of brand building efforts; acquisition of consumer experience Esteem • Consumer respect, regard, reputation; a fulfillment of perceived consumer promise Relevance • Relates to usage and subsumes the five Ps of marketing; relates to sale Differentiation • The basis for consumer choice; the essence of the brand, source of margin
  23. 23. 9.23 Room to grow... Brand has power to build relevance. D > R 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Differentiation Relevance Healthy Brands Have GreaterHealthy Brands Have Greater Differentiation than RelevanceDifferentiation than Relevance Examples: Harley Davidson Yahoo! AOL Williams-Sonoma Ikea Bloomberg Business News
  24. 24. 9.24 R > D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Differentiation Relevance Uniqueness has faded; price becomes dominant reason to buy. Brands with greater Relevance than DifferentiationBrands with greater Relevance than Differentiation Are in Danger of Becoming CommoditiesAre in Danger of Becoming Commodities Examples: Exxon Mott’s McDonald’s Crest Minute Maid Fruit of the Loom Peter Pan (peanut butter)
  25. 25. 9.25 E > K 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Esteem Knowledge Brand is better liked than known. More Esteem than Knowledge Means, “I’dMore Esteem than Knowledge Means, “I’d like to get to know you better”like to get to know you better” Examples: Coach leatherwear Tag Heuer Calphalon Movado Blaupunkt Pella Windows Palm Pilot Technics
  26. 26. 9.26 K > E 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Esteem Knowledge Brand is better known than liked. Too Much Knowledge Can Be Dangerous:Too Much Knowledge Can Be Dangerous: “I know you and you’re nothing special”“I know you and you’re nothing special” Examples: Plymouth TV Guide Spam Woolworths Chrysler Maxwell House National Enquirer Sanka
  27. 27. 9.27 BrandAsset® Valuator Leading Brand Strength Differentiation Relevance Lagging Brand Stature Esteem Knowledge A Two-Dimensional Framework for DiagnosingA Two-Dimensional Framework for Diagnosing Brands: The Power GridBrands: The Power Grid
  28. 28. 9.28 Power Leaders New Niche/ Unrealized Potential Declining Leaders Unfocused BRANDSTRENGTH (DifferentiationandRelevance) BRAND STATURE (Esteem and Knowledge) Eroded Brand Health Is Captured on theBrand Health Is Captured on the PowerGridPowerGrid Base: USA Total Adults BAV 2000
  29. 29. 9.29 BRAND STATUREBRAND STATURE BRANDSTRENGTHBRANDSTRENGTH Base: USA Total Adults BAV 1999Base: USA Total Adults BAV 1999 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 100100 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 100100 PlymouthPlymouth BazookaBazooka Ivory SnowIvory Snow PertPert RolaidsRolaids KedsKeds Howard JohnsonHoward Johnson TWATWA GreyhoundGreyhound Arizona Iced TeaArizona Iced Tea AeropostaleAeropostale Newman’s OwnNewman’s Own Sundance ChannelSundance Channel DreamWorksDreamWorks Bloomberg BusinessBloomberg Business NewsNews CDnowCDnow IKEAIKEA Coca-ColaCoca-Cola Ocean SprayOcean Spray NikeNike Pepperidge FarmPepperidge Farm M&MsM&Ms DisneyDisney Jeopardy!Jeopardy! HallmarkHallmark San PellegrinoSan Pellegrino Sun MicrosystemsSun Microsystems WiredWired Quest TelecommQuest Telecomm NokiaNokia iVillage.comiVillage.com NetGrocerNetGrocer IridiumIridium USA 1999 PowerGrid SampleUSA 1999 PowerGrid Sample
  30. 30. 9.30 Y&R Resonance ResearchY&R Resonance Research Usage Loyalty (60%) Attachment (30%) Community Engagement Resonance ACE (10%) 15% Base: 2001 BAV Data
  31. 31. 9.31 0 50 100 0 50 100 Brand Stature BrandStrength Attached Loyal Community Resonance Engaged Non-Loyals Resonance Engaged Community Attached Loyal Users Non-Loyal Users Base: BAV USA Adults 2001 Differentiation Y&R Resonance Research with BAVY&R Resonance Research with BAV
  32. 32. 9.32 Average U.S. Packaged Goods BrandAverage U.S. Packaged Goods Brand Proportion of Consumers Consumer Loyalty 7% Bonded 32% Advantage 35% Performance 43% Relevance 76% Presence 38% 19% 17% 13% 20%
  33. 33. 9.33 Commonalty Between the Basic BAVCommonalty Between the Basic BAV Model and the CBBE FrameworkModel and the CBBE Framework  BAV’s knowledge relates to CBBE’s brand awarenessBAV’s knowledge relates to CBBE’s brand awareness and familiarity.and familiarity.  BAV’s esteem relates to CBBE’s favorability of brandBAV’s esteem relates to CBBE’s favorability of brand associations.associations.  BAV’s relevance relates to CBBE’s strength of brandBAV’s relevance relates to CBBE’s strength of brand associations (as well as perhaps favorability).associations (as well as perhaps favorability).  BAV’s energy relates to CBBE’s favorability ofBAV’s energy relates to CBBE’s favorability of associations.associations.  BAV’s differentiation relates to CBBE’s uniqueness ofBAV’s differentiation relates to CBBE’s uniqueness of brand associations.brand associations.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • The largest worldwide brand study, enabling Y&R to speak to the issue on the agenda, Brands and Financial Performance, but also enabling me to speak about brands the way consumers do. It’s helpful to think about Brands as you think about Relationships--
    how brands are built
    how they progress
    how they can go sour
    and how to re-build damaged ones
    I’m going to talk about the
  • So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance…
    (refer to the slide)
    If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance…
    (refer to the slide)
    If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance…
    (refer to the slide)
    If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance…
    (refer to the slide)
    If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • OK, so here’s the cheat sheet.
    I’m Miss Lonelyhearts and I’m checking out what you’re telling me about the brands.
    I want to know about Brand Strength and Brand Stature and what they tell me about pursuing the relationship further.

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