DISASTER MANAGEMENT :
Disaster Management can be defined as the
organization and management of resources and
responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects
of emergencies, in
particular preparedness, response and recovery in order
to lessen the impact of disasters.
Types of disaster :
• Natural Disaster :A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural
processes of the Earth. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property , and
typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the
affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.
Meteorological disasters : This disaster is caused by extreme weather, e.g. rain, drought, snow,
extreme heat or cold, ice, or wind. Violent, sudden and destructive to the environment related to,
produced by, or affecting the earth's atmosphere, especially the weather-forming processes.
Topographical disaster : Are the type of disaster which include internal earth processes or are tectonic in
origin. Such disaster includes earthquake, tsunamis, rock slide etc.
Environmental disaster :An environmental disaster or ecological disaster is a catastrophic
event regarding the environment due to human activity. This distinguishes it from the concept of
a natural disaster. It is also distinct from intentional acts of war such as nuclear bombings.
Types of disaster :
• Manmade Disasters : Man-made disasters can include hazardous material spills, fires,
groundwater contamination, transportation accidents, structure failures, mining accidents,
explosions and acts of terrorism. There are actions that we can take to prepare to react
appropriately to these events. The key to acting appropriately to these man-made threats is to
find out what you need to do and what you need to have in advance of a man-made emergency
and to prepare to respond appropriately.
Technological Disaster : A technological disaster is a catastrophic event that is caused by either
human error in controlling technology or a malfunction of a technology
system. Technology based disasters are as serious as natural disasters.
Industrial disaster : Danger originating from technological or industrial accidents, dangerous
procedures, infrastructure failures or certain human activities, which may cause the loss of life or injury,
property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Social disaster : Social vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to
withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due in
part to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities
required to achieve a desired goal. It is the first and
foremost activity to achieve desired results. It involves the
creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological
aspects that require conceptual skills. There are even a
couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning
well. As such, planning is a fundamental property of
intelligent behavior. An important further meaning, often
just called "planning" is the legal context of permitted
Need of disaster management & planning
A disaster is an unplanned event in which the needs of the affected community
outweigh the available resources. A disaster occurs somewhere in the world almost
daily, but these events vary considerably in scope, size, and context. Large-scale
disasters with numerous casualties are relatively unusual events. Certain widely
publicized disasters, including events such as the terrorist attacks on September 11,
2001, Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing, have
focused people’s attention on disaster planning and preparedness. Disasters are
becoming more frequent, and the number of persons affected is also increasing.
This greater morbidity is attributable not only to the greater number of events, but
also to population dynamics, location, and susceptibilities.
While these incidents have led to an increase in general disaster awareness, the
relative infrequency of major catastrophes affecting defined populations leads to a
certain degree of complacency and underestimation of the impact of such an event.
In the wake of a large-scale event, public attention focuses on disaster planning and
preparedness and the resources dedicated to improving response and resiliency
• SWOT Analysis is a method used to evaluate the strengths, weakness, opportunities &
threats concerned with disasters. It involves enumerating the objectives of disasters
management authorities and then ascertaining the internal and external feature that
may hinder or help in achieving the stated objectives.
• The three levels at which it should be done are as follow :
Hazard and vulnerability analysis
• Hazard recognition helps in ascertaining the areas that are affected bi disaster, the
probability of occurrence of disaster and the severity of disaster. There are various
dimensions of vulnerability according to the availability of assets which a community
Identifying crisis situations :
• Crisis is a unwanted situation that takes people by surprise ans poses a threat to the
community at a large. The time to take a decision for responding to this type of
situation is usually very short, because of which the situation gets out of control and
results in huge losses of both human and property.
• The three phase of crisis management are as follow :
Pre-crisis phase : where the focus is on the identification of the crisis, its prevention
and preparation for combating the situation.
Crisis response phase : when the community has to response to the crisis.
Post-crisis phase : where in the stakeholder review the situation and ascertain the
reason of occurrence of crisis. This phase is specially helpful because it gives insights to
be better prepare for next crisis.
Capability assessment :
• Foe effective managing disasters, an assessment of capability is required. Capability
assessment helps in getting a realistic view of the quality and the quantity of the
available resources for mitigation disaster and responding to disasters. The resources
which need assessment are :
Equipment & materials