Development of Geographical Knowledge and Concept: Ancient Age The development of geographical knowledge and concepts in the ancient age was a gradual process that evolved over several civilizations and cultures. Although ancient civilizations did not have access to the advanced technology and tools we have today, they made significant contributions to our understanding of the world around them. Here are some key aspects of geographical knowledge and concepts in the ancient age: Early Mapping: Ancient civilizations developed rudimentary maps to represent their surroundings. These early maps were often based on a combination of direct observation, oral tradition, and mythological beliefs. The Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans were among the civilizations that created maps using simple representations of landforms, rivers, and other geographic features. Exploration and Trade: Ancient civilizations were engaged in trade and exploration, which expanded their knowledge of distant lands. Phoenicians, for example, were skilled sailors who explored and established trading routes across the Mediterranean Sea. Their travels and interactions with other cultures contributed to the exchange of geographical information. Earth's Shape and Size: Ancient Greek philosophers made significant strides in understanding the shape and size of the Earth. Pythagoras (6th century BCE) proposed a spherical Earth, while later scholars like Eratosthenes (3rd century BCE) accurately calculated the Earth's circumference. Natural Phenomena: Ancient civilizations sought to explain natural phenomena and observed patterns in the environment. The Egyptians, for instance, developed a flood prediction system for the Nile River based on their observations of annual floods. The Greeks studied the movement of celestial bodies and developed theories about the Earth's relationship with the sun, moon, and stars. Environmental Determinism: Many ancient societies believed that physical geography influenced human behavior and the development of civilizations. For example, the ancient Chinese concept of Feng Shui emphasized the harmonious relationship between humans and their environment, while Greek philosophers like Hippocrates proposed that climate and geography influenced the temperament and characteristics of different peoples. Geographical Writings: Various ancient texts and manuscripts contained geographical knowledge and descriptions of the known world. Notable examples include the writings of Herodotus (Greek historian, 5th century BCE), Strabo (Greek geographer, 1st century BCE), and Ptolemy (Greco-Roman mathematician and geographer, 2nd century CE). These works provided valuable insights into the geography, topography, and customs of different regions. Land Surveying: Ancient civilizations developed techniques for land surveying, primarily for agricultural purposes. The Egyptians used surveying techniques to demarcate boundaries and measure fields.