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PRESENTED BY:
ANUBHA PAL
ROLL. NO. 01
M.SC. NURSING 1ST YEAR
SNGNC, IGMC, SHIMLA
INTRODUCTION:
Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's
constant adjustment and adaptation in response to
stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining
an inner equilibrium called homeostasis.
The word "health" refers to a state of complete
emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to
help people maintain this optimal state of health.
Contd.
Health is not merely the condition of being free from
illness, injury or pain, it is your overall state of wellness
on all levels of your being: physical, social, emotional,
mental and spiritual. Some of the factors that influence
health are environmental, behavioral, social, cultural,
economic, and political. Poverty, regardless of whether it
is due to lack of knowledge and information, low income
levels, lack of access to basic services or poor
environments, is a major cause of poor health status.
DEFINITION:
As defined by World Health Organization (WHO), it is a
"State of complete physical, mental, and social well
being, and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity."
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
Health is multifactorial. The factors which influence
health lies within the individual and externally in the
society in which she/ he lives. It is truism to say that
what man is and and to what the diseases he may fall
victim depends upon the combination of two set of
factor- his genetic factors and the environmental factor
to which he is exposed. These factors may interacts and
these interactions may be health promoting or
deleterious. Thus, conceptually, the health of individual
and the whole community may be considered to be the
result of many interactions.
1. Biological Determinants
The physical and mental traits of every
human being are to some extent determined
by the nature of his gene at the moment of
conception. A number of diseases are now
known to be of genetic origin, e.g.
Chromosomal anomalies, errors of
metabolism, mental retardation, some types
of diabetes etc. The state of health therefore
depends partly on the genetic constitution of
man. Nowadays, medical genetics offers
hope for the prevention and treatment of a
wide spectrum of diseases, thus the prospect
of better medicine and longer, healthier life.
Contd.
A vast field of knowledge has yet to be exploited. It plays a
particularly important role in genetic screening and gene
therapy.
Thus, from the genetic stand point, health may be defined as
that “state of the individual which is based upon the absence
from the genetic constitution of such gene as correspond to
character that take the form of serious defect and derangement
and to the absence of any aberration in the respect of the total
amount of chromosome material in the karyotypes or stated in
positive terms, from the presence in the genetic constitution of
the gene that corresponds to the normal characterization and to
presence of normal karyotype.
2. Behavioural and Socio-Cultural Conditions
The term “lifestyle” is rather a
diffuse concept often used to
denote “the way people live”,
reflecting a whole range of social
values, attitude and activities. It is
composed of cultural and
behavioural pattern and life long
personal habit that have developed
through processes of socialization.
Lifestyles are learnt through social
interaction with the parents, peer
groups, friends and siblings and
through school and mass media.
Contd.
Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyles. A
considerably evidences have been accumulated which
indicates that there is an association between health and
lifestyle of individuals. Many current day health
problem especially in the developed countries are
associated with lifestyles changes. In developing
countries such as India where traditional lifestyle still
persists, risks of illness and death are connected with
lack of sanitation, poor nutrition, personal hygiene,
elementary human habits, customs and cultural patterns.
Contd.
It may be noted that not all the lifestyle factors are
harmful. There are many that can actually promote health.
Examples include adequate nutrition, enough sleep,
sufficient physical activity, etc.
Health is the consequence of both the individual’s lifestyle
and a factor in determining it.
3. Environment
Environment is classified as “internal” and “external”.
The internal environment of man pertain to “each and
every component part, every tissue, organs and organ-
system and their harmonious functioning within the
system”
The external environment consist of those things to which
man is exposed after conception. It can be divided into
physical, biological and psychosocial components, any or
all which can affect the health of a man and his
susceptibility to illness.
Contd.
Biological: disease producing agent (e.g.
bacteria, virus, fungi), intermediate host
(e.g. mosquito, sand fly), vector (e.g. house
fly), reservoir (e.g. pig in JE).
Physical: Air, water, light, noise, soil, climate,
altitude, radiation housing, waste etc.
Psychosocial: psychosocial make up of
individual and structure and functioning of
society. E.g. habit, beliefs, culture, custom,
religion etc
Contd.
It is an established fact
that environment has a
direct impact on physical ,
mental and social well
being of those living in it.
If environment is
favourable to the
individual, he can make
full use of his physical
and mental capabilities.
4. Socio Economic Conditions
Socio Economic Conditions
have long been known to
influence human health. For
the majority of the world’s
people, health status is
determined primarily by their
level of socio economic
development e.g. education,
occupation, political system
and income.
Contd.
The world map of illiteracy closely coincides with the
maps of poverty, malnutrition, ill health, high infant and
child mortality rates. The very state of being employed in
productive work promotes health, because the
unemployed usually show a higher incidence of ill-health
and deaths. There can be no doubt that economic progress
has positive impact factor in reducing morbidity,
increasing life expectancy and improving the quality of
life
Contd.
 Income:
Rich people have a capacity to seek better medical care.
So they are healthy. But rich people are inactive and
sedentary. So they are prone for heart diseases, diabetes
and obesity.
 Education:
Education especially female education has an influence on
health. Education helps people to understand the
importance of clean environment and maintaining good
health.
Contd.
 Occupation: Employment provides income.
Employed people enjoy good health. Due to lack of
income unemployed people do not have access to health
care.
 Political System:
Health is also related to country’s political system. Often
the main obstacle to the implementation of health
technologies are not technical, but rather politics.
5. Health services
Health and family welfare services cover
a wide spectrum of personal and
community services for treatment of
diseases, prevention of disease and
promotion of health. The purpose of
health services is to improve the health
status of population. For example,
immunization of children can influence
the incidence/prevalence of particular
disease. Provision of safe water can
prevent mortality and morbidity from
water-borne diseases.
6. Aging of the Population
By the year 2020, the world will have more than
one billion people aged sixty or over and more
than two-thirds of them living in developing
countries. A major concern of rapid population
aging is the increased prevalence of chronic
diseases and disabilities both being condition
that tend to accompany the aging process and
deserve special attention.
7. Gender
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2010)
recognizes that gender is an important
determinant of health in two dimensions:
1. Gender inequality leads to health risks for
women and girls globally; and
2. Addressing gender norms and roles leads
to a better understanding of how the social
construction of identity and unbalanced
power relations between men and women
affect the risks, health-seeking behavior
and health outcomes of men and women in
different age and social groups.
8. Other Factors
 Better IEC system
 Rural development
 Increased wages
 Family support systems
 Inter-sectoral coordination between— Depts. of education ,
agriculture, civil, labor, environment, social welfare.
References
 Park K . “ Park’s textbook of preventive and social
medicine” 22nd edition, published by Banarsidas
Bhanot, page no. :17-19
 http://www.preservearticles.com/health/six-essential-
factors-that-influences-your-health/5347
 https://www.slideshare.net/harikafle944/concept-of-
health-and-disease-23768464
 https://www.who.int/sdhconference/resources/draft_bac
kground_paper15_cambodia.pdf
Health determinants

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Health determinants

  • 1.
  • 2. PRESENTED BY: ANUBHA PAL ROLL. NO. 01 M.SC. NURSING 1ST YEAR SNGNC, IGMC, SHIMLA
  • 3.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION: Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis. The word "health" refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to help people maintain this optimal state of health.
  • 5. Contd. Health is not merely the condition of being free from illness, injury or pain, it is your overall state of wellness on all levels of your being: physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual. Some of the factors that influence health are environmental, behavioral, social, cultural, economic, and political. Poverty, regardless of whether it is due to lack of knowledge and information, low income levels, lack of access to basic services or poor environments, is a major cause of poor health status.
  • 6. DEFINITION: As defined by World Health Organization (WHO), it is a "State of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
  • 7. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH Health is multifactorial. The factors which influence health lies within the individual and externally in the society in which she/ he lives. It is truism to say that what man is and and to what the diseases he may fall victim depends upon the combination of two set of factor- his genetic factors and the environmental factor to which he is exposed. These factors may interacts and these interactions may be health promoting or deleterious. Thus, conceptually, the health of individual and the whole community may be considered to be the result of many interactions.
  • 8.
  • 9. 1. Biological Determinants The physical and mental traits of every human being are to some extent determined by the nature of his gene at the moment of conception. A number of diseases are now known to be of genetic origin, e.g. Chromosomal anomalies, errors of metabolism, mental retardation, some types of diabetes etc. The state of health therefore depends partly on the genetic constitution of man. Nowadays, medical genetics offers hope for the prevention and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases, thus the prospect of better medicine and longer, healthier life.
  • 10. Contd. A vast field of knowledge has yet to be exploited. It plays a particularly important role in genetic screening and gene therapy. Thus, from the genetic stand point, health may be defined as that “state of the individual which is based upon the absence from the genetic constitution of such gene as correspond to character that take the form of serious defect and derangement and to the absence of any aberration in the respect of the total amount of chromosome material in the karyotypes or stated in positive terms, from the presence in the genetic constitution of the gene that corresponds to the normal characterization and to presence of normal karyotype.
  • 11. 2. Behavioural and Socio-Cultural Conditions The term “lifestyle” is rather a diffuse concept often used to denote “the way people live”, reflecting a whole range of social values, attitude and activities. It is composed of cultural and behavioural pattern and life long personal habit that have developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyles are learnt through social interaction with the parents, peer groups, friends and siblings and through school and mass media.
  • 12. Contd. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyles. A considerably evidences have been accumulated which indicates that there is an association between health and lifestyle of individuals. Many current day health problem especially in the developed countries are associated with lifestyles changes. In developing countries such as India where traditional lifestyle still persists, risks of illness and death are connected with lack of sanitation, poor nutrition, personal hygiene, elementary human habits, customs and cultural patterns.
  • 13. Contd. It may be noted that not all the lifestyle factors are harmful. There are many that can actually promote health. Examples include adequate nutrition, enough sleep, sufficient physical activity, etc. Health is the consequence of both the individual’s lifestyle and a factor in determining it.
  • 14. 3. Environment Environment is classified as “internal” and “external”. The internal environment of man pertain to “each and every component part, every tissue, organs and organ- system and their harmonious functioning within the system” The external environment consist of those things to which man is exposed after conception. It can be divided into physical, biological and psychosocial components, any or all which can affect the health of a man and his susceptibility to illness.
  • 15. Contd. Biological: disease producing agent (e.g. bacteria, virus, fungi), intermediate host (e.g. mosquito, sand fly), vector (e.g. house fly), reservoir (e.g. pig in JE). Physical: Air, water, light, noise, soil, climate, altitude, radiation housing, waste etc. Psychosocial: psychosocial make up of individual and structure and functioning of society. E.g. habit, beliefs, culture, custom, religion etc
  • 16. Contd. It is an established fact that environment has a direct impact on physical , mental and social well being of those living in it. If environment is favourable to the individual, he can make full use of his physical and mental capabilities.
  • 17. 4. Socio Economic Conditions Socio Economic Conditions have long been known to influence human health. For the majority of the world’s people, health status is determined primarily by their level of socio economic development e.g. education, occupation, political system and income.
  • 18. Contd. The world map of illiteracy closely coincides with the maps of poverty, malnutrition, ill health, high infant and child mortality rates. The very state of being employed in productive work promotes health, because the unemployed usually show a higher incidence of ill-health and deaths. There can be no doubt that economic progress has positive impact factor in reducing morbidity, increasing life expectancy and improving the quality of life
  • 19. Contd.  Income: Rich people have a capacity to seek better medical care. So they are healthy. But rich people are inactive and sedentary. So they are prone for heart diseases, diabetes and obesity.  Education: Education especially female education has an influence on health. Education helps people to understand the importance of clean environment and maintaining good health.
  • 20. Contd.  Occupation: Employment provides income. Employed people enjoy good health. Due to lack of income unemployed people do not have access to health care.  Political System: Health is also related to country’s political system. Often the main obstacle to the implementation of health technologies are not technical, but rather politics.
  • 21. 5. Health services Health and family welfare services cover a wide spectrum of personal and community services for treatment of diseases, prevention of disease and promotion of health. The purpose of health services is to improve the health status of population. For example, immunization of children can influence the incidence/prevalence of particular disease. Provision of safe water can prevent mortality and morbidity from water-borne diseases.
  • 22. 6. Aging of the Population By the year 2020, the world will have more than one billion people aged sixty or over and more than two-thirds of them living in developing countries. A major concern of rapid population aging is the increased prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities both being condition that tend to accompany the aging process and deserve special attention.
  • 23. 7. Gender The World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) recognizes that gender is an important determinant of health in two dimensions: 1. Gender inequality leads to health risks for women and girls globally; and 2. Addressing gender norms and roles leads to a better understanding of how the social construction of identity and unbalanced power relations between men and women affect the risks, health-seeking behavior and health outcomes of men and women in different age and social groups.
  • 24. 8. Other Factors  Better IEC system  Rural development  Increased wages  Family support systems  Inter-sectoral coordination between— Depts. of education , agriculture, civil, labor, environment, social welfare.
  • 25. References  Park K . “ Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine” 22nd edition, published by Banarsidas Bhanot, page no. :17-19  http://www.preservearticles.com/health/six-essential- factors-that-influences-your-health/5347  https://www.slideshare.net/harikafle944/concept-of- health-and-disease-23768464  https://www.who.int/sdhconference/resources/draft_bac kground_paper15_cambodia.pdf