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Belt conveyor and Haulage system in the mine

A theoretical study of belt and haulage system of transportation in the underground mine.

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Belt conveyor and Haulage system in the mine

  1. 1. DISTINGUISH THE MINE PERFORMANCE BY CONVEYOR BELT AND HAULAGE SYSTEM OF TRANSPORTATION A mini project Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for award of Bachelor of Technology and in Mining Engineering By Anurag Kumar Jha Exam Roll no.-511214025 SESSION 2015-2016 DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEEING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SHIBPUR HOWRAH-711103
  2. 2. Section 1.01 Department of Mining Engineering INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SHIBPUR (An Institute of National Importance) ii CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation titled “DISTINGUISH THE MINE PERFORMANCE BY CONVEYOR BELT AND HAULAGE SYSTEM OF TRANSPORTATION ” being submitted by Anurag Kumar Jha (Roll No.-511214025) to the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering and Science Technology, Shibpur, in partial fulfilment of requirements for award of dual degree of Bachelor of Technology and Master of Technology in Mining Engineering is a record of bona fide work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in this document has not been submitted anywhere else for award of any other degree or diploma. Date. ___________________________________ (<Dr. N. C. DEY>) Associate/ Assistant/ Professor in Mining Engineering
  3. 3. iii Acknowledgements We are thankful to Dr. N. C. DEY, Professor, Department of Mining Engineering IIEST, SHIBPUR for his constant supervision, guidance, motivation and support at every stage of this project work. We would also like to convey our sincere gratitude and indebtness to the faculty and staff members of Department of Mining Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, for their help at different times. We would also like to extend our sincere thanks to Dr. Indarnath Sinha, Dr. Pratik Dutta, for their help in providing the necessary information for the dissertation work. Last but not the least, our sincere thanks to all our friends who have extended all sorts of help for completion of this work. (Anurag kumar jha) IV Sem Dual (BTech-Mtech) Degree Programme in Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Howrah-- 711103
  4. 4. iv Table of Contents DISTINGUISH THE MINE PERFORMANCE BY CONVEYOR BELT AND HAULAGE SYSTEM OF TRANSPORTATION.........................................................................................1 CERTIFICATE..........................................................................................................................ii Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................. iii Table of Contents......................................................................................................................iv Abstract.....................................................................................................................................vi List of Figures..........................................................................................................................vii List of Tables ......................................................................................................................... viii Abbreviations and Acronyms Used ..........................................................................................ix Chapter-1 Introduction...............................................................................................................1 Chapter-2 Transport System In Underground Mines.................................................................3 2.1 Teansport System.................................................................................................................3 2.1.1 Rope Haulage................................................................................................................3 2.1.2 CONVEYOR SYSTEM OF HAULAGE ................................................................................3 2.2 Underground Transport Arrangement..................................................................................3 2.3 Direct Rope Haulage............................................................................................................3 2.3.1 Direct Rope Double Drum Balanced Haulage..............................................................4 3.4 End Less Haulage ................................................................................................................5 3.5 Main and Tail rope haulage .................................................................................................7 3.6 Tail rope haulage..................................................................................................................8 3.7 Gravity haulage or self acting incline ..................................................................................8 3.8 Safety Devices in Haulage...................................................................................................8 3.9 Belt conveyor.......................................................................................................................8 3.9.1 Selection of belt conveyor ............................................................................................9
  5. 5. v 3.9.2 Factors For Designing Of Belt Conveyor ...................................................................10 3.9.3 Loop Take Up Arrangement Of Tensioning Device For Belt Conveyor....................10 Chapter-4 Observations ...........................................................................................................12 Chapter-5 Conclusions.............................................................................................................14 References................................................................................................................................15 Appendices.................................................................................................................................1
  6. 6. vi Abstract Transportation system is a measure part of mining activity at any type of mining method. Selection of proper type of transportation system in any coal mines gives better production efficiency as well as better productivity. It may reduce the labour charge and requirement of man. It can also increase the production per shift. Selection of transportation system is mainly depends upon the requirement of coal, condition of coal seam, condition of roof and floor of gallery, depth of seam, man power, mechanization of mines and mining method also.
  7. 7. vii List of Figures Sl No. Name Page 1 Track layout of direct rope haulage 14 2 Endless rope haulage 15 3 Main and tail rope haulage 16 4 Layout of face gate and trunk conveyor in coal mine 18
  8. 8. viii List of Tables
  9. 9. ix Abbreviations and Acronyms Used
  10. 10. 1 Chapter-1 Introduction Transport development followed two distinct routes in each of the major functions namely the movement of ore /coal, persons, material and equipment. Ore/coal transport has either been by locomotive hauled mine cars belt conveyor or rubber tired trucks. The transport of persons materials and equipment has either been by rail mounted tracks systems or trackless systems/movable vechicles. Each system described above is still widely popular for those various specific region. The consideration of transport system for ore and coal, persons, materials, and equipment and major factors in the decision to use drifts and or shafts for a mine
  11. 11. 2
  12. 12. 3 Chapter-2 Transport System In Underground Mines 2.1 Teansport System 2.1.1 Rope Haulage i) Direct rope haulage (1) Tail rope haulage ii) Endless rope haulage (1) Over-rope (2) Under-rope iii) Main and tail rope haulage iv) Gravity haulage 2.1.2 CONVEYOR SYSTEM OF HAULAGE i) Belt conveyor ii) Cable belt conveyor iii) Chain conveyor (1) Scraper chain conveyor (2) Armoured chain conveyor (3) Gate end loader (4) Mobile stage loader (5) Pick-aback conveyor iv) Plate conveyor v) Disc conveyor 2.2 Underground Transport Arrangement It is divided into following category 1) Main haulage The main haulage arrangement is that which operates between winding shaft/incline and the main underground loading points. At the main loading point, the loads are collected from one, two or more districts. 2) Gathering haulages The gathering haulage arrangement is that which operates between the working faces and the main loading points 3) Secondry haulage In a large mine, where the working faces are far from the main loading point, an intermediate transport arrangement operates and it is known as secondary haulage 2.3 Direct Rope Haulage It is a simplest system employing in the mine ,consists of one pulling rope and one haulage drum for hauling minerals in tubs ir mine cars up a gradient which is generally stipper than 1 in 10. The haulage engine is situated at the top of an incline roadway and
  13. 13. 4 the train of tubsis attached to one end of the rope, the end being fixed to the haulage drum. The empty tubs attached to the end of the haulage rope travel on the down gradient by their own weight and do not require power from the haulage engine. The drum shafts is therefore provided with a jow clutch to disengage it from the engine. A slip ring motor with drum controller is used. Advantage (1) The rope speed is generally 8-12 km/h and the system can operate between any point of the haulage plane and the haulage engine (2) It can, therefore, cope with the haulage requirements of an advancing working face. (3) Only one haulage track is required (4) The system can also serve branch roads if the gradient is suitable for down-the-gradient movement of empties by gravity. For this reason, the branch road deviating at an angle of not more than 400 off the main road is convenient Disadvantage (1) High peak power demand as load starts its journey up the gradient (2) Severe braking duty on the downward run. (3) High haulage speed demanding high standard of track maintenance (4) Not suitable for mild inclination of roads. (5) A derailment is associated with heavy damage because of high speed 2.3.1 Direct Rope Double Drum Balanced Haulage It is a modification of direct rope haulage, two drums are provided so that when a train of full tubs is being hauled out bye, a set of empty tubs is lowered inbye. Both the drums are fitted with clutches and are mounted on the same shaft, weight of the rope and the tubs are balanced and only the unbalanced load for the engine is mineral. This results in a reduced peak power demand and easer breaking , the system gives higher output in each trip of the rope brings the loads and there is regular delivery of the loaded tubs. The system requires wider roads for the haulage.
  14. 14. 5 2.1 Track Layout Of Direct Rope Haulage (E-track of empties and F-track of loaded) 3.4 End Less Haulage In this system there are two parallel tracks side by side. One for loaded tubs and the another for empty tubs and the endless rope passing from driving drum locared at outbye end of the haulage road to the inbye end and back again via a tension bogey. The tubs loaded as well as empties are attached to the rope with regular interval with the help of clips so that the entire rope length has tubs on it at intervals. Only one end of the tub is attached to the rope at a time. But where lashing chain is used for attachment the normal practice is to attach a set of tubs and the attachment or detachment is performed by stopping the rope if however clips are used for single tubs they can be attached or detached when the rope is in motion. The gradient of haulage road is mild and rarely exceeds 1 in 6. The rope speed ranges between 3 km/h and 7 km/h and the haulage is slow moving. The rope moves in one direction only.
  15. 15. 6 2.2 End Less Rope Haulage There are two types of endless rope haulage. 1. Over rope type In over rope type the haulage rope passes over the tub or set a tubs. 2. Under rope type In under rope type it passes beneath the tub or set of tubs. Advantage i) Because of slow speed, less wear and tear. ii) Accident from derailed tubs does not cause much damage due to slow speed. iii) Motor of less power required. iv) It does not place heavy demand on the power supply. Disadvantage i) It requires wide road for two tracks. ii) It is not suitable for sleep gradient iii) Load on the rope is larger and a rope of larger cross-section is required. iv) Large no of tubs and clips are required as rolling stock. v) If a break-down of any tub occurs the whole system comes to a standstill.
  16. 16. 7 vi) It can not serve a main road and a branch road simultaneously unless elaborate arrangements are made to course the rope to the branch line with the help of deflection pulleys. 3.5 Main and Tail rope haulage In main and tail rope haulage, the hauling engine is provided with two separate drums one for the main rope, which haul the full train out and one for the tail which haul for the empty train in. When one drum is in gear, the other revolves freely on the shaft but controlled when necessary, by the brake to keep the rope taut. The main rope is approximately equal to the length of the plane and the tail ropes twice this length. In this type of haulage only one track is required and it is suitable for undulating roadways where it is impossible and undesirable to maintain the double track required for endless rope haulage. It can readily negotiate curves and it is convenient for working branches. It operates at fairlyhigh speeds and with long trains and if a derailment occurs,the resulting damage and delay likely to be considerable. 2.3 Main And Tail Rope Haulage Advantage i) This system of haulage is suitable for undulating roadways, where it is impossible or undesirable to maintain the double track . ii) Unlike endless rope haulage, this system requires one track. iii) Less maintenance cost for one track compare to two tracks. iv) Can readily negotiate curve.
  17. 17. 8 v) It is convenient for working branches. vi) It operates at fairly high speed. Disadvantage i) As it operates at fairly high speed, more wear and tear. ii) Derailment can cause more harms to man and machine. iii) Long length of rope is required causing more cost of maintenance. iv) It became very difficult to manage the system properly. 3.6 Tail rope haulage It is situated at the lower level and the empties are hauled up the sloping track. The haulage rope passes to the train of empty tubs via a deflection pulley located at the top of the roadway. The loads travel by gravity down the gradient but as the rope is attached to them; their descent is controlled by the haulage driver. 3.7 Gravity haulage or self acting incline It is located at the top of the inclined roadway and is employed to lower by gravity the loads attached to one end of the rope which passes round the vertical jig pulley. Only single track is required for the operation but at the mid way of the road where the loads and empties meet, double track or a bye-pass is essential. This haulage operates without any motor or external source of power and consists of a cast iron pulley of 1.3 m to 2 m diameter having a brake path on the side and a strap brake. 3.8 Safety Devices in Haulage i) Stop blocks ii) Buffers iii) Back catches iv) Pointer plates v) Drop war wick vi) Age croft device vii)Back stays viii) Runway switches ix) Jazz rails x) Retarders xi) Approach warning device 3.9 Belt conveyor The belt conveyor is basically an endless belt in a straight line stretched between two drums, one driving the system and the other acting as a return drum. In coal mines and other mines of stratified deposits, where the underground mineral if won by longwall method, the transport media which often consists of conveyor.
  18. 18. 9 2.4 Layout Of Face, Gate And Trunk Conveyors In A Coal Mine The system of transport by belt conveyor consists of the following:- i) A flat endless belt which moves continuously and carries at its top surface the material to be conveyed. ii) The idlers which support the belt. iii) The structure of channel iron on which the idlers are mounted. iv) The tensioning arrangement for keeping the belt in proper tension. v) The drums at the discharge and tail end over which the belt passes. vi) The drive head which comprises the electric motor, coupling, gearing and snub pulleys. 3.5(b)-Arrangement of a belt conveyor 3.9.1 Selection of belt conveyor
  19. 19. 10 There are following factors that decide the selection of belt conveyor (a) Amount of material to be conveyed (b) Continuity of operation needed (c) Size of lumps (d) Distance of transportation (e) Environmental allowance (f) Gradient (g) Method of coal winning, i.e. Longwall or Bord and Pillar (h) Capital Available Advantages:- (a) A continuous supply of material (b) Low operating cost than road transportation system (c) High rate and speed of supply (d) Bunding can be done to get fair grade (e) More efficiency and low cost Limitations of belt conveyor:- There are following limitation of belt conveyor- (a) It cannot be used for long distances (b) It requires high one time capital investment (c) It cannot handle the Lumps of big size (d) Place should be dry enough where it will installed and air velocity should not be high (e) It cannot be operates at high inclinations 3.9.2 Factors For Designing Of Belt Conveyor i) The average tonnage (t/h), peak rate (t/min) and frequency of peak rates. ii) Characteristics of the material i.e.  Density  Maximum lump size  Nature of material- dry, wet, sticky, dusty  Chemical action on belt iii) Graphical layout of conveyor profile and motive power available (i.e. electric motor). iv) Operating conditions - hours of working, climatic conditions etc. v) Suitability of a belt conveyor & width and speed of belt. vi) Belt shape vii)Power and layout required 3.9.3 Loop Take Up Arrangement Of Tensioning Device For Belt Conveyor Tensioning of the belt is necessary to prevent excessive sagging of the belt or belt in good contact with the driving drum. There are following arrangement for the tensioning of the belt-
  20. 20. 11 (i) Automatic take ups (ii) Gravity take ups (iii)Take up pulley with counter weight (iv)Counter weighted loop take (v) Counterweighted wheel mounted tail end pulley (vi)Power take ups (vii) Electric motorized winch and load cell loop take up (viii) Electric motorized winch and load cell loop take up (ix)Hydraulically loop takes up (x) Rigid or manual take ups (xi)Screw take up (xii) Jack take up (xiii) Winch take up
  21. 21. 12 Chapter-4 Observations The study of many overland conveyor (OLC) vs. truck haulage reveal some basic and new facts: 1) Belt conveyor is more time and effort saving so it saves the costs. However , it is inconvenient to move, which the advantage of trucks. 2) The problem with haulage no matter the tonnage class size is that they are only fifty percent efficiency. 3) Conveyors have a very high cost per foot of installation in thousands of dollars per foot and they requires replacement idlers belting, motor, pulleys, gear boxes, chain drives, high or medium voltage electricity to power them, emergency stop systems from end to end and labor to main tail them as well as labor to install conveyor extensions. A conveying system of any ype requires primary and secondary crossing system and or conveyor belt feeder/breakers to load them as well. Adding more to the purchase cost operational cost. 4) Penalizing the conveyor with ore size reduction is also a fallacy. The rock is going to be crushed in any case in order to processed. One can argue about crusher maintenance in remote areas. Still these facts are assessed during the feasibility phase. 5) Breakeven point for OLC is a transport circuit that must convey 2 million tons per annum over more than one kilo meter or the total multiplier of tons and kilo meters. This is further dependent on local fuel costs and terrain difficulty. Some countries subsidize their diesel fuel that artificially lowers the truck penalty that is now changing. 6) Conveyors can often be routed in a more direct path than the road haulage thereby reducing the kilo meter penalty. The path may include bridges over rivers, roads, railroads, etc. 7) Conveyors can negotiate rough terrain to 18 degrees or more making for shorter paths or that would require tunnel by trucks. 8) Conveyors are more efficient with fuel usage than trucks especially with the payload of an empty truck return haul. 9) Conveyor designs have become more efficient with new rubber compounds and new design methods that lower rolling energy by 50% or more than many suppliers of rubbers from 5 years ago. Trucks have not seen such improvements in rolling losses. A case in point is the Curragh 20km single flight overland that transports 2500 t/h. It is light and fast (7.5 m/s). It is very light for the tons conveyed due to efficient use of sheet metal components for is idler and belt support and wind shielding. IN 2007, it was the fastest operating belt conveyor in Australia. Speed lowers the conveyor system width which is the most capital intensive parameter. Some have disparaged the
  22. 22. 13 design and been wrong in their assessment. It's 5 m carry side and 10 m return idler spacing is proven to be appropriate when the plant has been properly operated. 10) New research into more efficient belt conveyor operations is proving that further cost effective gains are possible compared to trucks and trains. More difficult terrain, stronger belts, lower belt strength as measured by the necessary Safety Factor, lower rolling resistance designs, and lower metal mass per km all point to ongoing improvements over truck and trains. 11) New conveyor configurations can be found with better trough shapes, pipe, and semi pipe designs are now a reality where high lifts and sharp curvatures are required that add to belt conveyor transport efficiency. 12) studies of +100km conveyors does demonstrate the ability for long and efficient transport compared with train haulage. Risk analysis then becomes an important factor in the “what if “scenarios.
  23. 23. 14 Chapter-5 Conclusions There are various advantage and disadvantage of both of the method of transportation of material. But we can chose any one by our requirement because where belt conveyor has lot of maintenance and installing cost but it will give us lot of production who save our time and labour cost where as if we can not interested in the huge production than truck haulage best option but we should try belt conveyor with advanced technology who will give us production in long distance. It will save the effort and other labour work. If we want to supply the material in long path way than haulage is more efficient belt conveyor is not sufficient. And if we want to handle big size lump conveyor is not adequate for it. Belt conveyor can not operate at high inclination and the place should be enough clean and dry. Land and weather are good grounds for eliminating either choice. The question should be "Do you want the stuff or not?" If the answer is yes then the economics is out of the window. You have to have it so be prepared to pay for it. Trucks need good dry ground to travel and plenty of it. Conveyors also need an acceptable right of way and can only negotiate a route within set limits. Truck CAPEX is not so small andthe OPEX is higher than for conveyors, provided you don't slit a belt into 2.
  24. 24. 15 References
  25. 25. 1 Appendices

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