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Antwerp Management School Alumni Internet of Things Meetup June 24th 2015

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Antwerp Management School Alumni Internet of Things Meetup June 24th 2015

The 24th of June, we had a very stimulating Antwerp Management School M² alumni event. We were happy and proud to receive about 52 participants. 38 of them were ‘smart Meetup people’ from IoTBE.org and IoT Ghent. We thank the meetup initiatives for their support.

Prof. Dr. Jan Verelst gave a 1 hour keynote “How can 'Normalized Systems' establish a sustainable business case for any endeavor in the Internet of Things?”

You can imagine that this presentation was no “walk in the park”, however Jan succeeded brilliantly in guiding the diverse audience in a journey to accommodate change.

Looking forward to seeing you at our next event.

The 24th of June, we had a very stimulating Antwerp Management School M² alumni event. We were happy and proud to receive about 52 participants. 38 of them were ‘smart Meetup people’ from IoTBE.org and IoT Ghent. We thank the meetup initiatives for their support.

Prof. Dr. Jan Verelst gave a 1 hour keynote “How can 'Normalized Systems' establish a sustainable business case for any endeavor in the Internet of Things?”

You can imagine that this presentation was no “walk in the park”, however Jan succeeded brilliantly in guiding the diverse audience in a journey to accommodate change.

Looking forward to seeing you at our next event.

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Antwerp Management School Alumni Internet of Things Meetup June 24th 2015

  1. 1. How can 'Normalized Systems' help to establish a sustainable business case for any endeavor in the IoT? Prof. dr. Herwig Mannaert Prof. dr. Jan Verelst
  2. 2. 2 Departement Beleidsinformatica
  3. 3. 3 Contents • Introduction • IoT • Normalized Systems - NS Principles - NS Theory • Conclusions
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. 5 IoT - Opportunities • Omnipresent focus on the many possibilities - Smart Home - Smart City - Industrial IoT - …
  6. 6. 6 IoT - Challenges • “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a funny phenomenon. While the phrase connotes ‘interconnectedness,’ the truth is that these new gadgets, applications, interfaces, and systems aren’t nearly as interconnected as we expect them to be. (…) The optimization and integration of devices remains cumbersome and disjointed, and as connected “things” venture further and further away from traditional technologies for which some level of support is already provided, toward products and packages like Internet-powered toothbrushes, crock-pots, and home security systems, the support gap will only grow.” • Source: Paul Weichselbaum, Who Provides Tech Support for the Internet of Things?, https://hbr.org/2014/12/who-provides- tech-support-for-the-internet-of-things
  7. 7. 7 IoT - Challenges Modular structure Complexity * Change * Integration
  8. 8. 8 Modules • ”A module is a part of a system or program. A module: - Has an interface, consisting of: • the name of the module, which describes the function/responsibility of the module, and which is used to call the module. • the (input-)parameters of the module • the return-value of the module - Contains a list of instructions • data (variables, constants, data structures...) • processes (functions, procedures, calculations...)”
  9. 9. 9 Modules - Coupling • Coupling is a measure of the dependencies between modules
  10. 10. 10 Modules - Cohesion • Cohesion is a measure of how strongly the elements in a module are related • Good design= Low coupling and high cohesion!
  11. 11. 11 Modules – advantages Complexity Reduction Reuse Evolvability
  12. 12. 12 Example: Minimize Coupling !
  13. 13. Normalized Systems
  14. 14. 14 About NS Theory • A theoretical framework investigating Modular Structures under Change - Based on Systems Theoretic concepts •  Completely independent of any framework, programming language, package, … • Has shown to be able to deal with the challenge of increasing complexity - E.g. hardware, Internet, space industry… - Initial scope: Modular Structures in Software Architectures - Publications: book, >50 conference proceedings, (invited) lectures at different universities… - Education: undergraduate, postgraduate…
  15. 15. 15 The Dream: Doug Mc Ilroy “expect families of routines to be constructed on rational principles so that families fit together as building blocks. In short, [the user] should be able safely to regard components as black boxes.” uit: McIlroy, Mass Produced Software Components, 1968 NATO Conference on Software Engineering, Garmisch, Germany.
  16. 16. 16 The Reality: Manny Lehman The Law of Increasing Complexity Manny Lehman “As an evolving program is continually changed, its complexity, reflecting deteriorating structure, increases unless work is done to maintain or reduce it.” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 68, nr. 9, september 1980, pp. 1068.
  17. 17. 17 NS Theory consists of 2 parts • NS Principles: explain why evolvability is currently limited, and decreasing over time (Lehman’s Law of Increasing Complexity) • NS Elements: explain how software architectures can be built that are much more evolvable
  18. 18. Step 1: NS Principles The need for fine-grained modular structures
  19. 19. 19 NS Principles • Modularity x Change  Combinatorial Effects (CE) ! - CE = (hidden) coupling or dependencies, increasing with size of the system ! - NS Principles identify CE at seemingly orthogonal levels • SoC: Which tasks do you combine in a single module ? - “An action entity can only contain a single task.” • DVT: How do you combine a data and action module ? - “Data entities that are received as input or produced as output by action entities, need to exhibit version transparency.” • AVT: How do you combine 2 modules ? - “Action entities that are called by other action entities, need to exhibit version transparency.” • SoS: How do you combine modules in a workflow ? - “The calling of an action entity by another action entity needs to exhibit state keeping.”
  20. 20. 20 NS Principles: Fine-grained Modular Structure E.g. SoC: a module can know only 1 technology  for every technology, a different module is required !
  21. 21. Step 2: NS Elements How to control large numbers of fine- grained modules, in theory and practice ?
  22. 22. 22 Controlling Complexity can be done… Other disciplines have mastered the structured assembly of large numbers of fine-grained static modules… e.g. hardware !
  23. 23. 23 Building using NS Elements Requirements Con- nector Work- flow TriggerActionData NS Application = n Instances of Elements Elements 1) Elements + 2) Apply Expansion parameters + 3) Apply Customizations
  24. 24. 24 NS Elements v1.1 Structuur Standaard Functionaliteit - element caching -deep link details - tree structuren - grafische voorstellingen met iconen - mekaar aansturende picklists - import/export naar xml en csv - taal en statusrepresentatie + Encaps Remote Access Persist Service … …
  25. 25. 25 Security CCC
  26. 26. 26 Regeneration NS Separate Integrate Harvesting Injection App Skeleton V1.1 (Extensions: 20%) App Skeleton V1.2 (Extensions:10%) App Skeleton V1.3 (Extensions: 5%) CURRENT
  27. 27. Conclusion
  28. 28. 28 Conclusion Current Step 1: Principles Step 2: Elements Step 3: Meet-in- The-Middle Lehman Fine-grained Expansion Aggregate Reusable And Evolvable Building Blocks  DETERMINISM !
  29. 29. 29 Conclusions • NS in the context of IoT - Technical • Assess (software) architecture on coupling and fine- grainedness • Consider cross-cutting concerns such as security • Especially in integration efforts - Business model • Consider evolvability aspects, i.e. unprecedented change • Be aware of Lehman-challenges !
  30. 30. 30 More info ? • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normalized_Syst ems • 29/10/2015: Avond rond Beleidsinformatica - Launch 2nd Edition Good luck with your IoT initiatives !
  31. 31. 31 Short Bibliography • Mannaert Herwig , Verelst Jan, Ven Kris.- The transformation of requirements into software primitives : studying evolvability based on systems theoretic stability Science of computer programming - ISSN 0167-6423 - 76:12(2011), p. 1210-1222 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.scico.2010.11.009 http://hdl.handle.net/10067/911120151162165141 [c:irua:91112] Mannaert Herwig , Verelst Jan, Ven Kris.- Towards evolvable software architectures based on systems theoretic stability Software practice and experience - ISSN 0038- 0644 - 42:1(2012), p. 89-116 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/spe.1051 http://hdl.handle.net/10067/934050151162165141 [c:irua:93405] Huysmans Philip, Oorts Gilles, De Bruyn Peter, Mannaert Herwig , Verelst Jan.- Positioning the normalized systems theory in a design theory framework Lecture notes in business information processing - ISSN 1865-1348 - 142(2013), p. 43-63 http://hdl.handle.net/10067/1089110151162165141 [c:irua:108911]

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