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  1. 1. English presentation BIOMASS ENERGY
  2. 2. Exhibitors Néné Aïssata Diaw Aminétou Fall Emile Michel Latyr Faye Aminata Ndiomé Ndiaye Michel Mamadou Ngom Teacher : Mr Diop
  3. 3. Plan I. Introduction to Biomass Energy II. The Concept of Bioenergy III. Advantages and Disadvantages IV. Perspectives
  4. 4. I. Introduction to biomass energy • Energy context Energy and environment form up a binomium that can hardly be separated? Our world is facing several problems nowadays such as accelerated demographic growing, lack of sufficient food and health for all the inhabitants, environmental disasters including global warming, energetic crisis, some among all. From this group, energy and environment problems are quite considerable and are linked in many ways. For example the use of fossil-derived energetics has become in a serious problem due to the prodction of greenhouse gases and the subsequent global warming effect. From the other hand, production of goods for human life has led to the generation of liquid, solid and gaseous residues which contaminate all kind of matrixes (water, air, soil pollution ). Many of these residues are biomass and can be employed to produce energy.
  5. 5. • Biomass People have used biomass energy—energy from living things—since the earliest “cave men” first made wood fires for cooking or keeping warm. Biomass is organic, meaning it is made of material that comes from living organisms, such as plants and animals. The most common biomass materials used for energy are plants, wood, and waste. These are called biomass feedstocks. Biomass energy can also be a non-renewable energy source. Biomass contains energy first derived from the sun: Plants absorb the sun’s energy through photosynthesis, and convert carbon dioxide and water into nutrients (carbohydrates).
  6. 6. II. The concept of bioenergy Producing bioenergy consists of transforming the energy contained in organic matter to facilitate its use as a source of energy. The energy from these organisms can be transformed into usable energy through direct and indirect means. Biomass can be burned to create heat (direct), converted into electricity (direct), or processed into biofuel (indirect). The energy exploitation of biomass can lead to the production of bioenergy in many forms: solids : wood pellets, densified logs, wood chips and biochar; liquids : ethanol, pyrolytic oil, cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel; gas : biogas and renewable natural gas.
  7. 7. Main technology routes for biomass to energy transformation
  8. 8. Mobile biomass power unit based on Rankine cycle 50 kWe in the Amazon region Mobile biomass power unit based on Rankine cycle 50 kWe in the Amazon region
  9. 9. Types of Fixed bed gasifiers Source Adapted
  10. 10. Biomass downdraft gasifier
  11. 11. III. Advantages and disadvantages 1. Advantages of biomass Its renewability Many biomass fuels can grow back after usage. As such, if we maintain resources through replanting and replenishment programs, it is possible to make biomass last longer than any current fossil fuels. It is carbon neutral Biomass only rejects in the atmosphere what was absorbed by plants during their lifecycles. Later, new plants can re-absorb that same quantity of carbon causing a neutrality. Very accessible Just like sun and water, biomass fuels can nearly be found anywhere on Earth and thus we have less risks of running out of this fuel, unlike fossil fuels which are today starting to become rarer and will be unavailable in a few decades. However, we must use biomass with responsibility to preserve that abundance.
  12. 12. Waste reduction Since a lot of our wastes are plants and biodegradables, biomass can make a use of it and allow us to get rid of it in a productive and benefice way. Furthermore, due to the fact that those wastes that would usually sit in landfills and potentially endanger local wildlife, biomass offers a way to protect environment. It is not expensive in comparison to fossil fuels Products like oil and gas require equipment’s such as pipes, drills, as well as experts, scientists and technologies that at the end elevate the cost to new levels whereas biomass is a lot less expensive. It is because of its accessibility and easiness of production. This also applies to clients who see their energy bills reducing with the use of biomass energy. It is versatile Biomass fuels can be used for many things: we can produce biodiesel for cars and other vehicles, wood can produce heat, also the steam that we can obtain from some biomasses can power energy turbines.
  13. 13. We are less dependent of fossil fuels Fossil fuels are majorly responsible for climate change and other pollutions. By replacing them with biomass, which far surpasses them in terms of abundance, we reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Even better, if some of them, like oil, are not used for fuel, they can serve another purpose.q
  14. 14. 2) Disadvantages of this source of energy As it has advantages, biomass energy also has disadvantages. -First, biomass production plants need a very large area to operate and store which is limiting for any urban areas. When biomass plants grow their own matter they require even more space which means a higher cost food surrounding landscape. That said, these technologies for creating biomassenergy is improving all the time, so the need for such a lot of space could change. -Biofuel isn’t as efficient as fossil fuels and in some cases uses more energy to actually burn the organic matter that it ends up producing. It often has to be blended with petrol and diesel to bring its efficiency up to speed. This alone means that biomass isn’t available to use in a large scale as it is. -In addition, thanks to methane gases that are contained within animal waste, biomass isn’t squeaky clean, in fact far from it. Methane is arround 30 times more potent for global warming than carbon dioxyde. Burning natural materiel like wood also emit un-encironmentally friendly pollutions such as nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide into yhe atmosphere. Despite biomass being carbon neutral,
  15. 15. it is still releasing carbon dioxide into the air which puts it behind carbon zero technologies like wind. -Using wood to create biomass means increased demand, which in turn can lead to deforestation. Despite waste wood being,in plentifful supply, there’s concerns about the requirement for more being met by deforestation . When biomass production plants grow monoculture crops, which streaps nutrient from the soil and removes biodiversity. When algae is used to produce biomass, it relies upon phosphors fertilizers that damage water supply for the surrounding area. -Biomass construction plants don’t come cheap. The harvest : transportation and storage of organic matter can be costly and go beyond what other renewable sources need such as solar power. Regardless, biomass is still less expensive to harvest than it is to mine for fossil fuels.
  16. 16. IV. Perspectives Senegal The ministry of mines and geology organized in corporation with ministry of petroleum and energy, the permanent secretariat of COS-PETROGAZ, the COROPES and the ECP an event called “Conference-Exposition MSGBC OIL, Gaz and Power “. It was a way to promote renewable energies and investments in sector of energy. This event made in place 1,2 and 3 December of the 2021 year in a Mondial context of energetic transition. Also, we had good returns about the domain of clean energies. It is One of the first conference energy in Africa that is reunited the whole energy chain. Partners like Europe, north America and Asia will be standing up at this meeting. NB: MSGBC= Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry. Subjects like Biomass and other types of clean energy are brought up in this meeting.
  17. 17. Senegal is aiming to boost the availability of biofuels for SMEs active in sub- Saharan Africa’s agro-industry sector, following the launch of its BioStar project earlier this year. The goal of the project is to expand energy access in rural areas by generating energy from residual biomass produced by agribusiness companies. The project involves financing in excess of $12.7 million (7.2 billion CFA francs) from the European Union and French Development Agency, and is being implemented in both Senegal and neighboring Burkina Faso. “BioStar is a project geared towards research and development, capacity building and professional diploma-based training on priority issues, such as access to energy, innovation in agribusiness transformation, the profitability of SMEs, the circular economy, climate change and rural employment,” noted Younoussa Mballo, Technical Counselor at Senegal’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
  18. 18. Thanks for your kind attention !!!

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