1. Name: - Md Sahil Ali
Registration number. : - 11917075
Course Code: - ENG134
Submitted to: - Dr. Gowher Ahmad
Roll no. : - RU101B56
Topic: - What do you understand by the
term phonetics? What are speech
sounds, discuss them with the help of
2. What do you understand by the term
Speech sounds are known as phonemes. A sound is outlined
because the smallest a part of voice communication that creates
a distinction in that means. after you clicked on the sound
Chart, did you notice that some sounds ar portrayed with single
letters and a few phonemes ar portrayed with 2 letters? keep in
mind that a phoneme isn't identical as a letter!
Phonemes are speech sounds. Letters ar accustomed represent
sounds. This may be particularly necessary after we begin
enumeration the phonemes in words. for instance, the word
book has four letters, however 3 phonemes: /b/-/oo/-/k/. As
we have a tendency to move through this module, keep this in
Phonemes (speech thusunds) ar portrayed in writing by
inserting the letter(s) accustomed represent the sound between
slashes — so, for example: the sound that you just say at the
start of the word pot is portrayed by /p/.
Phonetics is that the study of human sounds and synchronic
linguistics is that the classification of the sounds at intervals the
system of a specific language or languages.
• Acoustics is split into 3 varieties per the assembly
(articulatory), transmission (acoustic) and perception (auditive)
• 3 classes of sounds should be recognized at the outset: phones
(human sounds), phonemes (units that distinguish which
means in an exceedingly language), allophones (non-distinctive
3. • Sounds are divided into consonants and vowels. the previous
is defined per 1) place, 2) manner of articulation and 3) voice
(voiceless or voiced). For vowels one uses a reference system
referred to as a vowel quadrangle at intervals that actual vowel
values area unit set.
• Phono tactics deals with the combos of sounds doable and
wherever sounds will occur in an exceedingly linguistic unit.
• the most important structure for the organization of sounds is
that the linguistic unit. It consists of Associate in Nursing onset
(beginning), a rhyme (everything when the beginning) which
may be sub-divided into a nucleus (vowel or vowel-like center)
and a finale (right-edge).
• Prosody thinks about with options of words and sentences
higher than the extent of individual sounds, e.g. stress, pitch,
intonation. Stress is often contrastive in English.
• The unaccented syllables of English show characteristic
phonetic reduction and words containing this area unit referred
to as weak forms.
Speech of Sound
Children youngsters with sounds and vocalisations from birth.
Their “speech” begins with early, involuntary sounds, and
develops into refined sequences of movements - victimisation
the lips, tongue, and manufacturing all of the sounds in words
Speech could be a powerful tool for communication. To foster
early communicators and language users, educators observe
children’s development of: Vocalisations or generally referred
4. to as ‘cooing’ (sounds that pave the thanks to verbal
communication) speech sounds (like /b/ /d/ /a/ /s/), and
phonology (the rules of our sound system).
By victimization this focus, educators will facilitate youngsters
to explore totally different vocalisations and speech sounds. this
could any develop their vocal communication. Often,
youngsters use sounds with gestures to speak early needs and
desires. Children’s recognition and use of speech sounds area
unit necessary for early word learning and sure-fire nonverbal
and verbal communication with adults and alternative
What are those twenty vowels?
Here is that the account your queries. The 5 letters a,e,i,o,u are
the 5 vowel letters and that we get twenty vowel sounds from
these five vowel letters.
20 vowels are more divided in 2 elements
1. Monophthongs (12).
2. Diphthongs (8).
12 monophthongs and eight diphthongs are twenty vowel
Monophthongs are known as pure vowels as they need single
sound in their pronunciation.
12 Monophthongs are more divide in 2 elements Long vowels
(5) and short vowels (7).
5. These are the symbols for long vowels with numerous examples
to know their pronunciation.
The two dots with these symbols denote longer pronunciation.
These sounds are pronounced in longer means that's why
they're known as Long vowels.
How children learn speaking?
Children use the language they hear from adults to find out
concerning however sounds work. They then begin imitating
sounds and words themselves, paving the manner for verbal
communication. Educators will facilitate encourage vocal
communication, by taking part in back-and-forth interactions
and sound play with youngsters.
6. This is wherever educators and youngsters taking turns act
victimization verbal and nonverbal language, and interacting by
imitating every other’s actions and sounds.
In the early months of life, kids already begin to recognise the
distinct sounds of the language(s) they're hearing, and show
preferences towards those languages (Kuhl, 2010: Ted Talk).
this can be as a result of a robust method in children’s brains,
that happens simply by being attentive to countless language.
By doing this, kids find out about however their language’s
audio system (phonology) works. kids begin to provide speech
sounds themselves at completely different ages. However,
generally developing kids sometimes follow an identical
sequence once developing consonant sounds.
Emerging from one year; consistent production at three years
/m/, /b/, “y” as in ‘you’, /n/, /w/, /d/, /p/, /h/.
Emerging from three years; consistent production at five 5
/t/, /k/, “ng” as in ‘running’, /g/, /f/, /v/, “ch” as in ‘chew’, “j”
as in ‘jump’.
Emerging from five years; consistent production at seven.5
“sh” as in ‘sheep’, /s/, “th” as in ‘think’, “th” as in ‘that’, /r/, /z/,
/l/ as in ‘light’, “zh” as in ‘measure’.
By acoustics is supposed the science of speech sounds, their
production by suggests that of lips, tongue, palate, and vocal
chords, their acoustic qualities, their combination into syllables
7. and different sound teams, and at last amount, stress and
The forty four English sounds fall under 2 categories:
consonants and vowels. Below could be a list of the forty four
phonemes together with their International sound alphabet
symbols and a few samples of their use. Note that there's no
such factor as a definitive list of phonemes due to accents,
dialects and also the evolution of language itself. thus you'll
discover lists with additional or but these forty four sounds.
1. /b/ b, bb big, rubber
2. /d/ d, dd, ed dog, add, filled
3. /f/ f, ph fish, phone
4. /g/ g, gg go, egg
5. /h/ h hot
6. /j/ j, g, ge, dge jet, cage, barge, judge
7. /k/ c, k, ck, ch, cc, que cat, kitten, duck, school, occur,
8. /l/ l, ll leg, bell
9. /m/ m, mm, mb mad, hammer, lamb
10. /n/ n, nn, kn, gn no, dinner, knee, gnome
English has twenty four consonant sounds. Some consonants
have voice from the voice box and a few do not. These
8. consonants square measure voiced and voiceless pair’s /p/ /b/,
/t/ /d/, /k/ /g/, /f/ /v/, /s/ /z/, /θ/ /ð/, /ʃ/ /ʒ/, /ʈʃ/ /dʒ/. These
consonants square measure voiced /h/, /w/, /n/, /m/, /r/, /j/,
There square measure twenty four consonant sounds in most
English accents, sent by twenty one letters of the regular
English alphabet (sometimes together, e.g., ch and th).
THE CONSONANTS OF ENGLISH
/p/ pair, cup
/b/ bad, crab
/t/ tall, hit
/d/ dark, head
/k/ cab, lack
/g/ good, tag
/f/ fine, wife
/v/ very, above
/θ/ thing, both
/ð/ this, father
/s/ saw, house
/z/ zap, goes
/ʃ/ shape, push
9. / / pleasure, beige
/h/ her, ahead
/tʃ/ cherry, match
/ / judge, raj
/m/ man, team
/n/ nail, tan
/ŋ/ ring, singer
/l/ let, tall
/r/ right, scary
/w/ wet, away
/j/ you, soya