Comparative Analysis Of
American And Japanese Style of
Theory z is an approach based upon a combination of American and Japanese
Development of Theory z :
In the 1970s and 1980s, many United States industries lost market share to
international competitors, particularly Japanese companies. Concerns about the
competitiveness of U. S. companies led some to examine Japanese management
practices for clues to the success enjoyed by many of their industries. This led to
many articles and books purporting to explain the success of Japanese companies. It
was in this atmosphere that Theory Z was introduced into the management lexicon.
Theory z represents a humanistic approach to management. It is a
hybrid approach combining Japanese philosphies with US culture.
According to professor Ouchi theory Z organisations exhibit a strong
homogeneous set of cultural values that are similar to clan structure.
Clan structure is characterized by homogeneity of values, beliefs,
It is based on ouchi’s theory Z approach.
1. Job security
5. Motivation and Target Setting
Long term employment
Consensual decision making
Slow evaluation and promotion
Informal control with formalized measures
Moderately specialized carrier path
It has a mixed result. Some studies suggest that type Z organization
achieve benefits both in terms of employ satisfaction, motivation and
commitment as well as in terms of financial performance. Other
studies conclude that type Z organizations do not outperform other
• Primarily short term Primarily long term
• Individual decision making collective decision making
• Decision flow from top to Decision flows upward
bottom and backward
• Fast decision making but slow decision making but
Slow implementation fast implementation
Individual responsibility Collective responsibility
Emphasis on formal structure Emphasis on informal structure
Common organisation culture Common organisation culture
Organizational change by external Organizational change by internal
change agents change agents
Short term employment Life long employment
Rapid upward movement Slow upward movement
Professionalism Loyalty to the organisation
Specialized career General career
Rewards based on individual Rewards based on group
Substantial difference in pay Small difference in pay increase
Individual motivation Group motivation
Seperation of working and private Confluence of working and
Leader as a decision maker Leader as a group facilitator
Top down communication Bottom up communication
Emphasis on written communication Emphasis on face to face
Control by supervisor Control by peers
Control of individual performance Control of group
Limited use quality control circle Extensive use of quality
The typical Chinese management style can be summarized as parental
style of management.
In China, the ideal boss is a “benevolent father”. He is a parent who
supervises his children on everything that need to be done. He
believes in discipline and attention to details and manages his
people at a micro level. He also spends lots of time caring for the
personal welfare of his employees and regards it as part of his job.
The Chinese style can be very efficient in carrying out critical
missions and get quick results. The direction is set at the top and role
of the employee is simply to execute. This saves time in negotiating
and brain storming.
The Chinese style generally discourages two-way communication and
ownership at the lower level coupling this with the group-oriented chinese
culture where goals and rewards are managed as a group versus
individuals, accountability can get fairly blurry. The parental style can also
used to “micro-managing” and can harbor di-motivation. Western
employees may feel that they are not fully trusted to manage their own
Offenbar haben Sie einen Ad-Blocker installiert. Wenn Sie SlideShare auf die Whitelist für Ihren Werbeblocker setzen, helfen Sie unserer Gemeinschaft von Inhaltserstellern.
Sie hassen Werbung?
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert.
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert, um den neuen globalen Regeln zum Thema Datenschutzbestimmungen gerecht zu werden und dir einen Einblick in die begrenzten Möglichkeiten zu geben, wie wir deine Daten nutzen.
Die Einzelheiten findest du unten. Indem du sie akzeptierst, erklärst du dich mit den aktualisierten Datenschutzbestimmungen einverstanden.