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Introduction to the Algae
Habit and habitat of all aquatic alage
Types , terrestrial, airial, aquatic,zero
Life Cycle of clymadomonas

Introduction to the Algae
Habit and habitat of all aquatic alage
Types , terrestrial, airial, aquatic,zero
Life Cycle of clymadomonas

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Algae

  1. 1. Algae
  2. 2. Submitted To: Submitted By: Department : Roll No : Zoology (GPCSF) am. Naghma Shehzadi Ahmad Raza 151835 Course code :301 Course Title : Diversity of Plants(Botany)
  3. 3. Aquatic Algae: They are found in ponds, lakes, ditches, streams, running water and oceans (volvox,chara).
  4. 4. Terrestrial Algae: They are found growing on moist shady soil or rocks (Vaucheria and Nostoc).
  5. 5. Cryophytes: They are found in mountain peaks covered with snow. They impart color to mountains(Chlamydomonas).
  6. 6. Aerophytes: They are adopted for aerial mode of life and occur in tree trunk and moist soil.
  7. 7. Thermophytes: These algae occurs in hot springs. They can tolerate upto 85℃(Haplosiphon).
  8. 8. Zoospores: They are motile spores. They are spherical in certain cases they are kindney shaped.
  9. 9. Aplanospores: They are non-motile spores. These are that zoospores that failed to develop flagella(Vaucheria).
  10. 10. Exsospores: Cell wall ruptures at distal end and spores are cut off from the exposed protoplast.
  11. 11. Endospores In some cases the protoplast divides to form spherical units which secrete new wall these are called endospores.
  12. 12. Tetraspores: Four non-motile spores per sporangium in members of Phycophyta. Monospores: A single non.motile Batrachospermum.
  13. 13. Akinetes: In memranes of Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, the vegetative cell round off and the Original parent wall becomes extremely thick to form akinetes.
  14. 14. Hypospores: In certain algae, e.g., Chlamydomonas aplanospores secrete thick wall to become hypo spore.
  15. 15. The algae exhibit a wide variety of thallus organization.The range of thallus organization is from unicells,colonial,filamentous and heterotrichous plant body
  16. 16. Structure of Algae Cell The algal thalli are formed of two types of cells. i.Prokaryotic Cell ii.Eukaryotic Cell
  17. 17. >Fusion of two haploid cells. >Deploid zygot. >Gametes involved might be isogemetes or hetrogemetes. >Smaller or active gemetes (male gametes ) >larger or passive gametes ( female gametes)
  18. 18. Isogamous Sexual Reproduction If two gametes similar and size and structure fuse to form the zygote it is called isogamy and the sexual reproduction is known as isogamous sexual reproduction. Heterogamous Sexual Reproduction If two gametes dissimilar in size and structure fuse to form zygote it is called heterogamy and the sexual reproduction is known as heterogamous sexual reproduction. it have two types (i) Anisogamy (ii) Oogamy
  19. 19. Economic Importance Some of the economic importance are given below; > Mentioned in Chinese poetic literature about 600 B.C. Beneficial Aspect of Algae Role as a primary producers: They provides food and energy to equatic life.They produce oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Source of Food: They are the main source of food. More than 100 species belonging to green-,brown-. Red-algae for humans because of presence of proteins (Monostorma, Ulva, Codium and Chlorella). Brown algae having the highest value of food production. Fucus and Ascophyllum ar usd as fooder for animals/ Industrial Use: They are videly used in industrial level. As……. Agar-Agar Gelling agent from seaweed: a powdered seaweed extract. Use: gelling agent, thickener.
  20. 20. Algae as fodder for cattle: Rhodymenia palmata is used as food for sheep in Narvey. Laminaria saccharina, Pelvitia, Ascophyllum, etc. species are used as food for cattle. Algae as fertilizers: Blue-green algae are treated as bio-fertilizers from olden days. Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina, etc. are used as fertilizers to rice fields. All these algae fix the atmospheric nitrogen. Cultivation of Spirulina is gaining importance as feed for fish, poultry and cattle. Algae in Pisi culture: Sea algae are used as food for fishes. So they play an important role in Pisi culture. Some green-algae, diatoms, some blue-green algae are used as food material to fishes. These are also making the water clean, by realizing Oxygen. Algae in reclamation of alkaline or usar soils: Our country has more number of alkaline soils or sterile soils. Blue-green algae like Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina are used to modify these soils in to fertile soils. Because they fixed nitrogen in to soil. Nearly they fixed 400kg. of nitrogen per year. Soil erosion is also reduced by these algae.
  21. 21. Algae in industry Iodine industry is mainly depended upon algae. Algae belonging to Phaeophyceae, like Laminaria, Ecklonia, Eisenia, etc. are used in the industry to prepare iodine. Phyllophora is used to prepare iodine in Russia. Antibiotics Antibiotic Chlorellin, obtained from Chlorella is effective against a number of pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from Cladophora, Lyngbya can kill pathogenic Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium. Laminaria is used as one of the modern tools for abortion. Seaweeds have beneficial effect on gall bladders, pancreas, kidneys, uterus and thyroid glands. Role of algae in sewage disposal Some species like Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Pondorhina, Euridina, etc. are living in sewage water. They are mainly useful to clean the water by releasing oxygen. They also modify the carbonate material in the water into N, P, K fertilizers.

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