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Chapter 8

  1. 1. “No man is an island,” said John Donne. A person is a social being, born into a group, and lives in a social group. Even the so-called loners or the monks of the Middle Ages associated and participated with their fellow monks.John Donne
  2. 2. —are essential to a person’s existence. One is born into a family, is raised up in a family, plays in the neighborhood, goes to school, worship with others and joins a work group and the other associations. From the group, one acquires personal habits, values, attitudes, and ambitions. Social groups not only influence people’s lives but also affect the structure of the society.
  3. 3. —consist of two or more people who interact over time, have a sense of identity and belonging, and have norms that make them act differently from nonmembers. —Sociologist observe that regularity and uniformities in a group and analyze how the behavior of individual is affected by the patterned ways of the group.
  4. 4. —are a collection of people who just happen to be in the same place at the same time. —They are basically unstructured. Occasionally, they may look at each other and leave a sigh of complaint, but they are not concerned with the feelings and attitudes of others.
  5. 5. —is a collection of people who share a particular characteristic. They do not necessarily interact with one another and have nothing else in common. —These people may be similar in any important way like biological features and so we make distinctions on the basis of age, sex, or race.
  6. 6. —is a group of people who think of themselves as belonging to an identifiable social unit. The difference between a group and a collectivity is that a collectivity does not have a regular pattern of interaction among members. —Temporary groups like crowds, masses, public, and social movements also interest sociologist. There are clusters of people interacting with each other but the interactions are passing or short-lived.
  7. 7. —is a concept that social scientist has developed for the scientific study of society, culture, and personality is social organization. Sociologists use the concept “organization” in two somewhat different ways. It is used to connote a relationship among people, and secondly, a kind of particular social system called formal organization.
  8. 8. • Recurrent connection between sets of activities and the repeated tendency for one type of social activity to follow regularly after another. A system of norms and values govern the social activities. • Control: Some persons control the behavior of others, and a system of sanctions maintains orderly behavior. • Differentiation in statuses and roles on the basis of sex, age, and ability which may be observed in the activities of different types of people. • Repeated activities and behavior.
  9. 9. —People who are in close proximity or who share common experiences around some cultural interest or who have objectives in common tend to interact and form groups in order to satisfy their affectional or economics needs, have a sense of belonging and achieve security, or to further their political ambitions or obtain recognition.
  10. 10. —is considered to be an important basic concept in sociology. A variety of definitions explain it as a social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships, including parents and children, teachers and students, employers and employees. It is regulated via defined norms and common values.
  11. 11. —is a component of social organization. It refers to the results of actions that occur in relation to a particular structure and includes the results of the activities of individuals occupying particular statuses.
  12. 12. —The basic element of the Filipino social structure is kinship. It is through this structural unit of society that much local authority, rights and obligations, and modes of interactions are expressed, defined, ordered, and systemized. Interpersonal and intergroup movements of people or groups in and out of the barrios and towns are in most cases, largerly determined by kinship. Group alliances are likewise formed on this basis.
  13. 13. • Primary Groups tend to be small and are characterized by emotional intimacy among members. —The concept “primary group” was introduced by Charles Cooley. —Cooley calls primary groups the “nursery of human nature” as these groups shape our personality and develop a self-concept. • Secondary Groups tend to be larger and meet primarily for the purpose of accomplishing some kind of task. Charles Cooley
  14. 14. • Gemeinschaft describes an ideal type of small community. In these communities, social ties are highly valued and group values and norms regulate the community. • Gesellschaft is a German word that translates to society-association. This type of social organization occurs in large cities and focuses on individual needs over community needs. In these larger, more industrial communities, money and material goods become more important than social ties.
  15. 15. • In-group is a group to which we belong and to which we feel a sense of loyalty. • Out-group is a one to which we don’t belong and to which we don’t feel a sense of loyalty. • Informal and Formal Groups are also classified according to the form of organization, that is, according to the ways members relate to one another. These are the informal groups and the formal groups or formal organization. In some ways, informal and formal organizations correspond to the primary- secondary and Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft types.
  16. 16. —is a type of formal organization in which a rational approach is used to handle large tasks. Weber believed that as societies modernize, they become more rational, resulting in the creation of bureaucracies. As they industrialize, they grow larger, which means that the tasks to be accomplished become more numerous and complex. Max Weber
  17. 17. • Positions and offices are clearly defined and in principle, exist independent of the incumbent or the person occupying the position. The performance of roles by the incumbent during official hours are according to contract. • The personal are selected on the basis of technical or professional qualification and expert training and competence through competitive examination. • Security of tenure and the pursuit of a career with promotion in the hierarchy is assured. Promotions based on seniority and merit, through slow, occur periodically to maintain morale and competent performance. Tenure is secure as long as there is no gross misconduct in the performance of one’s role in the office.
  18. 18. —provide the models we use for appraising and shaping our attitudes, feelings, and actions. A reference group may or may not be our membership group. A reference group provides both normative and comparative functions.
  19. 19. • This unit analyzes such major social institutions as the family, education, religion, the economy and work, government, and health care. Major questions include how institution are organized, how inequality is reproduced and/or challenged in institutions, how institutions change, and how they vary across and within different societies/cultures.
  20. 20. • Common reciprocating attitudes and their conventionalized behavior patterns. Within the social institutions are cluster of established and accepted behavior patterns through which the needs of the group are adequately maintained and satisfied. Out of these patterns may develop affection, love, cooperation, loyalty, and obedience - feeling expressed by individuals in their roles. • Cultural objects of symbolic value which represent social institutions. These symbols give sentimental meaning to the behavior of the individual. Among them are the wedding ring for marriage, the cross for the church, and the flag for the state or the school.
  21. 21. • Cultural objects possessing utilitarian value which satisfy the wants of the individuals. Among these are the house for the family, pews for the church, buildings for the state, and desks for the schools. In a way, cultural objects satisfy the wants of the individual. • Oral or written language symbols or traditions. These give the description, ideological systems, and specifications of the patterns of interrelationships. They are handed down from generation to generation.
  22. 22. —A society represents a geographical aggregate and has boundaries, similar government, and a common culture. The society exists in a natural environment to which its members must adapt if it is to survive. It satisfies the basic needs for food, shelter, and security and eventually, the need for a stable social order. The society imposes on the group members and shapes their personalities. In turn members also try to shape and change the patterned forms of interaction and social relationship.
  23. 23. • Society is external to the individual. The norms, beliefs, and values or culture of the society precede the individuals who are born into or join the society. The culture persists even after individuals have died or left. • The members perceive society and its experiences as a constraint upon their lives.

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