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Introduction To Computer

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
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Introduction To Computer

  1. 1. Slide 1 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A computer is a device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions at speed millions and even billion of times faster them human beings can. Computer is an electronic machine which is use for data processing. The output which comes after processing data through computer is known as Information. What is Computer?
  2. 2. Slide 2 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Why Computers?
  3. 3. Slide 3 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Zero th generation (1642 to 1945) First Generation (1945 to 1955) Second generation (1955 to 1965) Third generation (1966 to 1970) Fourth generation (1971 to 1980) Fifth generation (1980 to present)
  4. 4. Slide 4 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Mechanical calculators was developed as computing device.
  5. 5. Slide 5 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers In 1946 first electronic computer ENAIC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator ) was developed by Mr. J.Presper Eckert and Mr. John Manuchly at University of Pennsylvania. It uses 18,000 vacuum tubes and its cast was $500,000. Its weight was 30 tons and occupied a 30 by 50 foot space. It produced large amount of heat. Its speed was very slow.
  6. 6. Slide 6 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers
  7. 7. Slide 7 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers In this second generation vacuum tubes was replaced by transistors. Speed / performance of this generation computers was improved in comparison to first generation computers. Size, price , and heat produced reduced by using transistors.
  8. 8. Slide 8 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers
  9. 9. Slide 9 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers In this third generation transistors was replaced by IC’s (Integrated Circuits i.e fabrication of thousands electronic components on single silicon chip ). Using this drastic reduction in the size of computers. Speed / performance was high in comparison to third generation. Heat produced by computers was reduced.
  10. 10. Slide 10 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers
  11. 11. Slide 11 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers In this generation IC’s are replaced by LSI (Large Scale Integrated Circuits : more number of electronic components on silicon chip) These are low cast, small size and high performance in comparisons to third generation computers
  12. 12. Slide 12 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers In this generation LSI are replaced by VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits) Size and cost of these computers is very less and performance is very high
  13. 13. Slide 13 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers A computer can be divided into two main categories: 1. Hardware 2. Software Hardware is basically anything that you can touch with your fingers. For computer hardware to work it must follow a set of instructions that is supplied to it as software.
  14. 14. Slide 14 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Hardware refers to the computer’s physical components, • Computer Case • CPU (central processing unit...Pentium chip) • Monitor • Keyboard & Mouse • Disk Drive, Zip Drive, CD-ROM, DVD, • Hard Drive • Memory (RAM) • Speakers • Printer
  15. 15. Slide 15 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers The term software refers to the set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task. 1. System Software 2. Application Software 3. Utility Software Application Software System Software (OS) Hardware
  16. 16. Slide 16 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 1. System Software/Operating System System Software are used to control all components of computer and serves as an interface between user and hardware. 1. Control all Components of Computer 2. Interface b/w user and Hardware
  17. 17. Slide 17 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 2. Application Software Application software is used or design for the specific purpose of the user. for example MS-WORD MS-POWER POINT MS-EXCEL Acdsee Corel Draw Paint Game MS-ACCESS
  18. 18. Slide 18 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 3. Utility Software Utility Software is used to remove any problem or solve a complex situation in computer. for example Partition Magic Backup utility Antivirus Data Recovery Security Software Win Ghost
  19. 19. Slide 19 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Bit: One digit, either 0 or 1 Byte: any combination of 0 or 1. also called an octet. Bits n Bytes
  20. 20. Slide 20 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Computer only understand 0 or 1 0 OFF 1 ON
  21. 21. Slide 21 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 0001100125 10110011179 01000001A The number 25 stored as 8 bits using the binary number system: The number 179 stored as 8 bits using the binary number system: The letter A stored as 8 bits using ASCII code: = = = = = =
  22. 22. Slide 22 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Exam Results! Information for the Exam
  23. 23. Slide 23 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Consists of four parts where each part involves one or more specific components of the computer. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output 4. Storage Information Processing Cycle
  24. 24. Slide 24 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage
  25. 25. Slide 25 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage Data Information Input: A computer receives data via an input device such as the keyboard.
  26. 26. Slide 26 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage Data Information Processing: A computer program performs operations on the data to transform it into information.
  27. 27. Slide 27 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage Data Information Output: A computer produces the output through an output device such as the monitor to display the result of the processing operations.
  28. 28. Slide 28 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage Data Information Storage: A computer stores the result of the processing operations in a storage device such as the hard disk.
  29. 29. Slide 29 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Processing Output Storage Adds each item cost together  Organizes data  Computes total due Note book RM 4.50 each Eraser RM 0.80 each Pen RM 1.50 each Stapler RM 2.20 each
  30. 30. Slide 30 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers So Computer is an Electronic device which can: 1. accept data 2. process it 3. give the result after that processing 4. and also store processed data InputOutputProcessingStorage
  31. 31. Slide 31 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers PC four major functions are: Input data Process data Output information Store data and information DATA IN INFORMATION OUT
  32. 32. Slide 32 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Data vs. Information Data is a representation of a fact or idea Number Word Picture Sound Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful. examples of data 3547 Ahmad Kuala Lumpur Malaysia examples of information Roll No. 3547 Name-Ahmad City-Kuala Lumpur Country-Malaysia
  33. 33. Slide 33 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 2 + 2 = 4 Data vs. Instruction InstructionDATA Information
  34. 34. Slide 34 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers A Typical Personal Computer System unit Display device External deviceExternal device Input devices A Personal Computer:
  35. 35. Slide 35 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers KLMU 1 User type “KLMU” 2 Keyboard converts characters to a binary code; bits are transmitted to memory and to CPU for processing 3 All processing and storage are done in binary form 4 Transmission to printer is in binary form 5 Printer converts binary code to characters before printing KLMU__
  36. 36. Slide 36 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Temporary storage Permanent storage OutputInput RAM Floppy Disk Hard Disk Monitor Speaker Printer Webcam Scanner
  37. 37. Slide 37 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Enter data to be processed Keyboard Scanners Mouse Trackball Touch screen Microphone Game Controller Digital camera
  38. 38. Slide 38 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Cabinet that houses all components Motherboard CPU Memory modules System Unit System Unit
  39. 39. Slide 39 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers A processor present in system unit is the part that is like a computer’s brain. A system unit is a personal computer component that houses other devices necessary for the computer to function.
  40. 40. Slide 40 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Chassis Memory chips Disk drives The System Unit Cooling device Microprocessor (under cooling device) Power Supply Ports Adapter Card
  41. 41. Slide 41 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Display Device A display device is a personal computer component that enables users to view the text and graphical data associated with a computer program.
  42. 42. Slide 42 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Input Devices An input device is a personal computer component that enables users to enter data or instructions into a computer.
  43. 43. Slide 43 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers External Devices There are several categories of external devices: Microphone Digital camera Scanner Speakers Printer Network device External drive
  44. 44. Slide 44 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers System Unit Components The system unit itself has several important sub- components, such as: System Board Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory System Bus Storage devices
  45. 45. Slide 45 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Expansion slots AGP slot Ports CPU RAM slots Drive interfaces The System Board The system board is the personal computer component that acts as the backbone for the entire computer system.
  46. 46. Slide 46 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers The Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit (CPU), sometimes called microprocessor or just processor, is the real brains of the computer and is where most of the calculations take place.
  47. 47. Slide 47 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Memory Memory is the personal computer component that comprises the electronic storage areas in the computer. It can be considered either volatile or non-volatile.
  48. 48. Slide 48 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Hard Drive Controller Video Controller Memory System Bus CPU The System Bus The system bus is the main communication path between the CPU and memory.
  49. 49. Slide 49 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Storage Devices A storage device is a system unit component, such as a hard drive, that enables users to save data for reuse at a later time, even after the personal computer is shut down and restarted.
  50. 50. Slide 50 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Internal viewExternal view Wires from the power supply to the system board and drives Fan Voltage switch Socket for power cord Power switch Power Supplies A power supply is an internal computer component that converts AC power from an electrical outlet to the DC power needed by system components.
  51. 51. Slide 51 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Cooling Systems Fan Heat sink Computer systems contain several components that require cooling: The computer case The CPU The power supply Some adapter cards Some hard disk drives
  52. 52. Slide 52 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers PCI bus Circuitry Adapter Cards An adapter card is a printed circuit board that you install into a slot on the computer’s system board to expand the functionality of the computer. Phone line connection Circuit to connect to phone line
  53. 53. Slide 53 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Riser Cards REAR FRONT Memory slots PCI/ISA slots on riser Peripheral connectors CPU A riser card is a board that plugs in to the system board and provides additional slots for adapter cards..
  54. 54. Slide 54 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Storage Devices The various types of storage devices used in personal computers are: Floppy Disk Drives (FDD) Hard Disk Drives (HDD) Optical Drives Tape Drives Solid State Storage devices
  55. 55. Slide 55 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Front view 3.5-inch floppy disk drive 3.5-inch floppy disk Rear view of floppy disk drive Data cable Power cable Floppy Disk Drives (FDD) FDD is a personal computer storage device that reads data from, and writes data to, removable disks made of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a magnetic coating and enclosed in a stiff, protective, plastic case.
  56. 56. Slide 56 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Hard Disk Drives (HDD) HDD is a personal computer storage device that uses fixed media, which means that the disk is built into the drive and the drives are not removed from the computer unless you are performing an upgrade or a repair.
  57. 57. Slide 57 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers An internal CD-ROM drive An external DVD drive A CD-R disc Optical Disks An optical disk is a personal computer storage device that stores data optically, rather than magnetically.
  58. 58. Slide 58 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Types of Optical Disks and Drives Optical disks and drives come in several types, such as: CD-ROM CD-R CD-RW DVD-ROM DVD-R DVD+R DVD+R DL DVD-RW DVD+RW DVD-RAM
  59. 59. Slide 59 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Tape Drives A tape drive is a personal computer storage device that stores data magnetically on a removable tape that is enclosed in a tape cartridge.
  60. 60. Slide 60 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Compact Flash card fits in here 43mm 36mm USB adapter connects the Compact Flash reader to the computer Solid State Storage Solid state storage is a personal computer storage device that stores data in special types of memory instead of on disks or tape.
  61. 61. Slide 61 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Personal Computer Connection Methods The various PC connection methods are: Ports Personal Computer Connections Serial Connections Parallel Connections Universal Serial Bus (USB) Connections IEEE 1394 and FireWire Connections Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) Connections Parallel ATA (PATA) Connections Serial ATA (SATA) Connections
  62. 62. Slide 62 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Enable devices to be connected to a personal computer. 6-pin round connector 25-pin D-shaped connector 15-pin D-shaped connector Ports A port is a hardware connection interface on a personal computer that enables devices to be connected to the computer.
  63. 63. Slide 63 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers USB Connector Cable Personal Computer Connection A personal computer connection is a means by which a personal computer component is attached to other components to provide computing capabilities.
  64. 64. Slide 64 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers 25-pin serial port on a serial device 25-pin end of serial cable connects to modem and 9-pin end connects to computer’s serial port Serial Connections A serial connection is a personal computer connection that transfers data one bit at a time over a single wire.
  65. 65. Slide 65 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Parallel connector Parallel cable Parallel Connections A parallel connection is a personal computer connection that transfers data eight bits at a time over eight wires and is typically used to connect a printer to a system unit.
  66. 66. Slide 66 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Type B connector connects to USB device Type A connector connects to USB port on the computer or on a hub USB Connections A USB connection is a personal computer connection that enables you to connect multiple peripherals to a single port with high performance and minimal device configuration.
  67. 67. Slide 67 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers FireWire device FireWire port FireWire 6-pin connector IEEE 1394 and FireWire Connections A FireWire connection is a personal computer connection that provides a high-speed interface for peripheral devices that are designed to use the IEEE 1394 standard.
  68. 68. Slide 68 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers SCSI connector SCSI cable Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) Connections A SCSI connection is a personal computer connection that connects internal and external components to the system unit and provides for high-speed data transfer.
  69. 69. Slide 69 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers PATA connector Parallel ATA (PATA) Connections A PATA connection is a personal computer connection that provides a parallel data channel from a disk controller to the disk drives.
  70. 70. Slide 70 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers SATA data cable SATA power cables Serial ATA (SATA) Connections A SATA connection is a personal computer connection that provides a serial data channel between the drive controller and the disk drives.
  71. 71. Slide 71 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Personal Computer Mobile Computer and Mobile Devices Mid-Range Server Mainframe Computer Supercomputer 1.5 Categories of Computer
  72. 72. Slide 72 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Personal Computer  A single-user computer that can perform all input, processing, output and storage operations on its own.  Two types of personal computer are desktop computer and workstation. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  73. 73. Slide 73 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Notebook Computer  Portable, small enough to fit on your lap.  Also called a laptop computer.  Usually more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  74. 74. Slide 74 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Tablet PC  A computer that is shaped like a slate or notebook.  Normally fitted with a touch screen for users to enter input through a stylus. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  75. 75. Slide 75 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Handheld Computer  A small computer that can easily be fit in one hand and operated by the other hand. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  76. 76. Slide 76 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)  A small, portable computer built for specific purposes such as for keeping phone directories and calendars. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  77. 77. Slide 77 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Mid-Range Server  More powerful and larger that a workstation and can support up to 4,000 users at one time.  Formerly known as minicomputer. 1.5 Categories of Computer
  78. 78. Slide 78 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Mainframe Computer  Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected users 1.5 Categories of Computer
  79. 79. Slide 79 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers Supercomputer  The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer.  Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations. 1.5 Categories of Computer

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