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Sinusitis is an inflammation or swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses. Healthy sinuses are filled with air. But when they become blocked and filled with fluid, germs can grow and cause an infection.

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  2. 2. DEFINITION Sinusitis is an inflammation or swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses.
  3. 3. TYPES Types  Acute sinusitis usually starts with cold like symptoms such as a runny, stuffy nose and facial pain. It may start suddenly and last 2-4 weeks.  Subacute sinus inflammation usually lasts 4 to 12 weeks.  Chronic inflammation symptoms last 12 weeks or longer.  Recurrent sinusitis happens several times a year.
  4. 4. RISK FACTORS  Hay fever or another allergic condition that affects sinuses  A nasal passage abnormality, such as a deviated nasal septum, nasal polyps or tumors  A medical condition such as cystic fibrosis or an immune system disorder such as HIV/AIDS  Exposure to smoke, either from smoking or through secondhand smoke exposure
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY  Acute sinusitis is most often caused by the common cold, which is a viral infection. In some cases, a bacterial infection develops.
  6. 6. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION Acute sinusitis symptoms often include:  Thick, yellow or greenish discharge from the nose or down the back of the throat (postnasal drainage)  Nasal blockage or congestion, causing difficulty breathing through your nose  Pain, tenderness, swelling and pressure around your eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead that worsens when bending over
  7. 7. Conti… Other signs and symptoms include:  Ear pressure  Headache  Aching in your teeth  Altered sense of smell  Cough  Bad breath  Fatigue  Fever
  8. 8. DIAGNOSTIC TEST  History  Physical examination  Nasal endoscopy. A thin, flexible tube (endoscope) with a fiber-optic light inserted through your nose allows your doctor to visually inspect the inside of your sinuses.  Imaging studies. A CT scan shows details of your sinuses and nasal area. It's not usually recommended for uncomplicated acute sinusitis, but imaging studies might help find abnormalities or suspected complications.  Nasal and sinus samples. Laboratory tests aren't generally necessary for diagnosing acute sinusitis. However, when the condition fails to respond to treatment or is worsening, tissue samples (cultures) from your nose or sinuses might help find the cause, such as a bacterial infection.  Allergy testing. If your doctor suspects that allergies have triggered your acute sinusitis, he or she will recommend an allergy skin test. A skin test is safe and quick, and can help pinpoint the allergen that's causing your nasal flare-ups.
  9. 9. MANAGEMENT •Saline nasal spray, which you spray into your nose several times a day to rinse your nasal passages. •Nasal corticosteroids. These nasal sprays help prevent and treat inflammation. Examples include fluticasone (Flonase Allergy Relief, Flonase Sensimist Allergy Relief, others), budesonide (Rhinocort Allergy), mometasone (Nasonex) and beclomethasone (Beconase AQ, Qnasl, others). •Decongestants. These medications are available in over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription liquids, tablets and nasal sprays. Use nasal decongestants for only a few days. Otherwise they may cause the return of more-severe congestion (rebound congestion). •OTC pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or aspirin.
  10. 10.  Antibiotic therapy  immunotherapy