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  1. 1. REVISITING THE PROGRESS OF THE ACTION PLAN FOR COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS OSCE CYBERTERRORISM IN EUROPE BACKGROUND GUIDE Organization for the Security and Cooperation of Europe IMUNAInternational Model United Nations Association Prepared by the International Model United Nations Association (IMUNA) National High School Model United Nations (NHSMUN) © IMUNA, 2015. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Costanza Cicero Secretary-General University of Bologna Shaan Pattni Director-General Pennsylvania State University Jinny Jung Conference Director University of Michigan Zach Hauser Director of Security Pomona College Maunica Malladi Chief of External Relations University of Alabama Jennifer Padilla Chief of Staff University of Southern California Kevin Burchill Chief of Administrative Affairs George Washington University Nicholas Rigler Under-Secretary-General University of Washington Elettra Di Massa Under-Secretary-General City University London Joy Cui Under-Secretary-General University of Pittsburgh Meghan Agostinelli Under-Secretary-General Georgetown University Nika Arzoumanian Under-Secretary-General New York University Elliot Weiss Under-Secretary-General Brown University NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-for-profit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level. NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL MODEL UNITED NATIONS 2 March 2016 – 5 March 2016 Dear Delegates, Welcome to Regional Bodies of NHSMUN 2016! My name is Nika Arzoumanian, and I am the Under-Secretary-General of Regional Bodies. I have previously served as the Assistant Director for the Council of the European Union (2014) and the Director of the Historic Security Council (2015), making this my third year on NHSMUN staff. My staff experiences have thus far been extremely rewarding and full of incredible delegates and engaged debate. I look forward to making this year’s committees just as brilliant! I was an active member of my high school Model UN team; training younger team members and guiding them through their conference experiences made me realize how much I enjoyed bringing the positive experience of NHSMUN to others. Fortunately, I get to continue doing that through my work at NHSMUN 2016. Currently I am a junior at New York University majoring in Political History. Outside of academics, I am the Executive Web Editor of the NYU Journal of Politics and International Affairs and apart of several local service organizations including the National Organization for Women’s New York City branch. In my free time, I love trying new foods, yoga, playing card games (and winning), and being an unabashed bookworm. Regional Bodies (RBO) provides a unique experience within the NHSMUN framework for delegates to understand the distinct conflicts facing specific areas of the world today. Reduced gridlock and often-similar state goals offer RBO delegates an opportunity to craft comprehensive solutions that are cohesive. Our topics represent a variety of international issues—from the political crisis of ISIL in the Arab world or of cyberterrorism in Europe, to the economic challenge of mitigating income inequality in Asia, to the culturally and socially charged issues of girls attending secondary school in Africa, or preserving indigenous rights in the Americas. Regardless of topic, RBO delegates will be challenged to approach these issues with a fresh and critical eye. NHSMUN staff puts countless hours into preparing for this conference and making it a positive experience for those who attend. Your Directors spent a large portion of their summers working on the Background Guides that will support your research, and your Assistant Directors have worked very hard to gain a deep understanding of your topics as well. Please do not hesitate to reach out to your dais pairs or myself; they are excited to get to know you! I am looking forward to seeing you working with them during the conference. Until then, good luck with your research and preparation! Best Regards, Nika Arzoumanian Under-Secretary-General, Regional Bodies Regional.nhsmun@imuna.org
  3. 3. Costanza Cicero Secretary-General University of Bologna Shaan Pattni Director-General Pennsylvania State University Jinny Jung Conference Director University of Michigan Zach Hauser Director of Security Pomona College Maunica Malladi Chief of External Relations University of Alabama Jennifer Padilla Chief of Staff University of Southern California Kevin Burchill Chief of Administrative Affairs George Washington University Nicholas Rigler Under-Secretary-General University of Washington Elettra Di Massa Under-Secretary-General City University London Joy Cui Under-Secretary-General University of Pittsburgh Meghan Agostinelli Under-Secretary-General Georgetown University Nika Arzoumanian Under-Secretary-General New York University Elliot Weiss Under-Secretary-General Brown University NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-for-profit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level. NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL MODEL UNITED NATIONS 2 March 2016 – 5 March 2016 Dear Delegates, Welcome to NHSMUN 2016! My name is Abha Nath, and I am unbelievably excited to be the Director of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). I have been involved with Model UN since my freshman year of high school, and I continue to enjoy it with my time on NHSMUN staff. NHSMUN is an amazing conference, and I knew I wanted to be on staff since my senior year of high school when I attended the conference myself as a delegate on the World Trade Organization (2013). Last year, I joined NHSMUN staff as an Assistant Director of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2014). I currently attend the University of Southern California as a junior studying Industrial Systems Engineering. I have been in Southern California for most of my life, and so I enjoy lounging at the beach while playing beach volleyball or stand-up paddle boarding. I also enjoy spending my spare time going on long walks or hikes, attending concerts, and trying new restaurants. As for committee, I am very excited to hear the well-researched ideas you all will present in debate. NHSMUN staff has worked hard to find current and relevant topics for you to debate; I sincerely cannot wait to see you use your thorough research and unique insights to come up with creative solutions to these topics. It is important to remember that the nuanced problems addressed in Revisiting the Progress of the Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Cyberterrorism in Europe are constantly changing, so be certain to confront them in their most recent state. The NHSMUN 2016 OSCE Twitter page is a great way to keep up to date with both topics: @NHSMUN_OSCE. If at any point you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to reach out! I would love to help in any way possible. Please contact me at osce.nhsmun@imuna.org. I am eager to read your position papers and to meet all of you soon. Good luck with your research and I will see you in March! Sincerely, Abha Nath Director, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe osce.nhsmun@imuna.org @NHSMUN_OSCE
  4. 4. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE TABLE OF CONTENTS A Note on the NHSMUN Difference.................................................................................................... 1 A Note on Research and Preparation ....................................................................................................3 Committee History ................................................................................................................................4 Simulation..............................................................................................................................................7 Topic A: Revisiting the Progress of the Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings....9 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................9 History and Description of the Issue........................................................................................................................10 Current Status ...............................................................................................................................................................17 Bloc Analysis.................................................................................................................................................................19 Committee Mission......................................................................................................................................................20 Topic B: Cyberterrorism in Europe..................................................................................................... 22 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................22 History and Description of the Issue........................................................................................................................23 Current Status ...............................................................................................................................................................29 Bloc Analysis.................................................................................................................................................................31 Committee Mission......................................................................................................................................................33 Research and Preparation Questions .................................................................................................. 35 Topic A..........................................................................................................................................................................35 Topic B...........................................................................................................................................................................35 Important Documents ......................................................................................................................... 36 Topic A..........................................................................................................................................................................36 Topic B...........................................................................................................................................................................36 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 37 Committee History and Simulation...........................................................................................................................37 Topic A..........................................................................................................................................................................38 Topic B...........................................................................................................................................................................42
  5. 5. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 1 - A NOTE ON THE NHSMUN DIFFERENCE Esteemed Faculty and Delegates, Hello and welcome to NHSMUN 2016! My name is Shaan Pattni, and I am this year’s Director- General. I hope you are as thrilled as I am about the NHSMUN conference this year! Our staff has been working tremendously hard all year to ensure that you have an engaging, educational, and enriching experience in committee. NHSMUN strives to assure that the quality of our debate and in- committee interaction is unmatched. NHSMUN focuses on the educational value of Model UN. We believe that the experiences in our committee rooms extend skills originally developed in the classroom, and prepare students to become future leaders. NHSMUN thrives on well-researched, realistic, and diplomatic debate. We are very proud of the substantive program for NHSMUN 2016 and look forward to the vibrant discussion and cooperation in committee! NHSMUN Practices In order to fulfill our mission, our conference has adopted practices that are key to the continued tradition of excellence in our committees and the NHSMUN difference. NHSMUN prohibits the usage of personal electronics during committee in order to ensure that delegates do not gain an unfair advantage in debate. We feel strongly that the interpersonal connections made during debate are enhanced by face-to-face communication. Enforcing a strict no laptops policy also helps us to ensure that all our delegates have an equal opportunity to succeed in committee. The Dais is permitted a laptop for the purposes of communicating with respective Under-Secretary- Generals and other Senior Staff Members as well as attending to administrative needs. The Dais will only be limited to using their laptops for NHSMUN purposes, and the majority of their focus will be on the needs of the committee. In addition, we staff a dedicated team in our office to assist in typing and formatting draft resolutions and working papers so that committee time can be focused on discussion and compromise. An additional difference that delegates may notice about NHSMUN is the committee pacing. While each BG contains two topic selections, NHSMUN committees will strive to have a fruitful discussion on and produce resolutions on a single topic; prioritizing the quality of discussion over quantity of topics addressed. In order to respect the gravity of the issues being discussed at our conference as well as the intellect of our delegates, NHSMUN committees will focus on addressing one topic in-depth. BGs contain two topics in order to allow delegates to decide what problem ought to be prioritized, a valuable discussion in and of itself, and to safeguard against the possibility that an issue will be independently resolved before conference. NHSMUN uses a set of the Rules of Procedure that is standardized across all IMUNA-brand conferences. These rules provide a standardized system of operation that is easily translated across committee or conference lines. While the general structure and flow of committee will be familiar to any delegate who has previously participated in Model UN, there may be slight procedural
  6. 6. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 2 - differences from other conferences. All delegates are encouraged to review the Rules of Procedure before attending the conference in the Delegate Preparation Guide and are welcome to direct questions to any member of NHSMUN Staff. While NHSMUN does distribute awards, we feel that it is crucial to de-emphasize their importance in comparison to the educational value of Model UN as an activity. NHSMUN seeks to reward delegations that excel in the arts of compromise and diplomacy. We always prioritize a dedication to teamwork over solitary achievement. Directors will judge delegates on their ability and willingness to cooperate with their peers while always maintaining an accurate representation of country policy. At the core of the NHSMUN philosophy is an emphasis on education and compromise. As such, we do not distribute awards to individual delegates, with the exception of committees where students represent their own separate delegation (ICJ and UNSC, for example). Instead, awards will be distributed to delegations that exhibit excellence across all committees. The awards system is standardized so as to give equal weight to delegations of all sizes. Awards will also be offered for schools that demonstrate excellence in research and preparation based on the position papers submitted by their delegates. Detailed information on the determination of awards at NHSMUN will be available in the Faculty Preparation Guide and online in November. As always, I welcome any questions or concerns about the substantive program at NHSMUN 2016 and would be happy to discuss NHSMUN pedagogy with faculty or delegates. It is my sincerest hope that your experience at NHSMUN 2016 will be challenging and thought provoking. Best, Shaan Pattni Director-General, NHSMUN 2016 dg.nhsmun@imuna.org
  7. 7. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 3 - A NOTE ON RESEARCH AND PREPARATION Delegate preparation is paramount to a successful and exciting National High School Model United Nations 2016 Conference. We have provided this Background Guide to introduce the topics that will be discussed in your committee. These papers are designed to give you a description of the topics and the committee. This Guide is not intended to represent exhaustive research on every facet of the topics. We encourage and expect each delegate to fully explore the topics and be able to identify and analyze the intricacies of the issues. Delegates must be prepared to intelligently utilize their knowledge and apply it to their own country’s policy. You will find that your state has a unique position on the topics that cannot be substituted by the opinions of another state. The task of preparing and researching for the conference is challenging, but it can be interesting and rewarding. We have provided each school with a copy of the Delegation Preparation Guide. The Guide contains detailed instructions on how to write a position paper and how to effectively participate in committee sessions. The Guide also gives a synopsis of the types of research materials and resources available to you and where they can be found. An essential part of representing a state in an international body is the ability to articulate that state’s views in writing. Accordingly, it is the policy of NHSMUN to require each delegate (or double- delegation team) to write position papers. The position papers should clearly outline the country’s policies on the topic areas to be discussed and what factors contribute to these policies. In addition, each paper must address the Research and Preparation questions at the end of the committee Background Guide. Most importantly, the paper must be written from the point of view of the country you are representing at NHSMUN 2016 and should articulate the policies you will espouse at the conference. All papers should be typed and double-spaced. The papers will be read by the director of each committee and returned at the start of the conference with brief comments and constructive advice. Each delegation is responsible for sending a copy of their papers to the committee directors via our online upload process on or before January 22, 2016. Complete instructions for online submissions may be found in the Delegate Preparation Guide. If delegations are unable to submit an online version of their position papers, they should contact the Director-General (dg.nhsmun@imuna.org) as soon as possible to find an alternative form of submission. Delegations that do not submit position papers to directors or summary statements to the Director-General will be ineligible for awards.
  8. 8. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 4 - COMMITTEE HISTORY The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)’s creation was a process of development that lasted several decades, beginning during the Cold War and coming to full fruition after the Soviet Union’s collapse. The roots of OSCE came to be in the early 1970s, when hostility between the Communist bloc of Eastern Europe and Western countries was transitioning into what became known as the détente, or “cooling,” period of Cold War tensions. The arrival of the détente phase made Western leaders more open to the concept of negotiations with the Soviet bloc, inspiring the countries of Europe to meet, first in the Helsinki Consultations of 1972 and again at the formal opening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in the summer of 1973.1 After meeting for two years in Geneva and Helsinki, all countries of Europe (with the exception of Albania), as well as Canada and the United States, came to agreement on the Helsinki Final Act, which was signed two years later in August 1975.The Act contained a series of commitments to dealing with polito-military, economic, environmental, and human rights issues across Europe, as well as “the Helsinki Decalogue.” This Decalogue introduced a series of 10 principles by which all the states agreed to abide, centered on state sovereignty and universal equality, which emphasized the importance of peace and compliance with international law.2 35 initial states signed the Helsinki Final Act.3 The CSCE continued to meet throughout the 1970s and ‘80s, serving, though limited in scope, as a place where the divided blocs of the Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization could meet and foster dialogue with non-affiliated states in the OSCE effectively acting as intermediaries.4 The importance of the CSCE, as a conference spanning the geographical and ideological boundaries of Europe, grew as tensions cooled and the Soviet Union gradually collapsed. Prior to the Paris Summit of November 1990, the CSCE had functioned as a series of conferences wherein member states would further their established commitments and examine these commitments’ implementation in various regions. By 1990, however, with a newly democratic Russia coming into fruition, the CSCE took on a much larger role in international affairs. The Charter of Paris for a New Europe, signed at the Paris Summit, established the CSCE as a permanent regional body of Europe whose function in the maintenance of peace and security in Europe would shape the dynamic of European relations in decades to come.5 The body was further legitimized from 1990 through 1994, coming to contain a parliament, a secretary, and various other 1 "Helsinki Final Act, 1975 - 1969–1976 - Milestones - Office of the Historian," Helsinki Final Act, 1975 - 1969–1976 - Milestones - Office of the Historian, accessed 13 June 2014, http://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/helsinki. 2 "OSCE," Signing of the Helsinki Final Act, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/who/43960. 3 Ibid. 4 "Helsinki Final Act, 1975 - 1969–1976 - Milestones - Office of the Historian." 5 "Charter of Paris for a New Europe," U.S. Department of State, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.state.gov/t/isn/4721.htm.
  9. 9. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 5 - internal offices as well as having its name changed from the CSCE to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, or the OSCE, in late 1994.6 Throughout the 1990s, the OSCE became increasingly tied with the United Nations. It came to recognize itself as a regional arrangement of the U.N. in 1992, and developed a framework for cooperation and coordination between the two bodies the following year.7 Recognizing the U.N. Security Council (UNSC) as the primary body for the preservation of peace and security internationally, the OSCE views the UNSC as its primary partner body and has assisted the UNSC since the 1990s in various efforts, including peacekeeping, free and fair elections, and counterterrorism.8 Members The OSCE’s legislative dimension is the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE. Today, the OSCE is composed of 57 participating states, 56 of which are part of its parliamentary assembly: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.9 These states’ primary function is to facilitate inter-parliamentary dialogue between members as an important component of facilitating democracy throughout Europe and working toward the agreed- upon commitments of the OSCE countries.10 In the PA, there is no set number of representatives each country can have, though each member gets one vote on resolutions and recommendations. Resolutions follow the format of United Nations resolutions, and voting is done by consensus. Mandate As mentioned, the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 created the OSCE. Its mandate is one based around security, encompassing its polito-military, economic, and environmental components. As the largest regional security body, the OSCE uses a variety of field operations, expert studies, and dialogues between members to help ensure security of its member states and the regions they occupy. One component of the OSCE mandate that makes it unique is the fact that it is politically, not legally, binding.11 It was created on the basis of a constitutional charter, not a treaty, and because of this its members are seen as part of a process in instituting the OSCE’s stated goals rather than bound to the values they’ve agreed upon. 6 "OSCE," Budapest Summit Marks Change from CSCE to OSCE, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/node/58703. 7 "United Nations," OSCE, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/networks/111477. 8 Ibid. 9 "Factsheet: What Is the OSCE?" Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/secretariat/35775. 10 "Rules of Procedure," OSCEPA, 29 July 2013, http://www.oscepa.org. 11 "Factsheet: What Is the OSCE?”
  10. 10. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 6 - Present Projects As a body with a multi-faceted function in international security, the OSCE currently addresses the three “dimensions” of security – “the polito-military, the economic and environmental, and the human” – through a variety of projects and missions.12 It focuses on the prevention, management, and after-the-fact amelioration of security crises in its area. A number of the OSCE projects, including the Mission to Moldova and its efforts to bring about media freedom, have been ongoing for several decades. Other issues, however, have recently come into increased focus by the body. These include the persecution of Roma and Sinti peoples, as well as human trafficking, and arms control. Increasingly, issues of energy security and cyber security have become priorities of the OSCE throughout the past decade and in recent years particularly.13 Its international clout has also certainly increased with the recent controversy in Ukraine, with both Western countries and Russian President Vladimir Putin himself calling for use of the OSCE to bring about a compromise on the crisis.14 12 "What We Do," OSCE, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/what. 13 "Annual Report 2013," OSCE, accessed 13 June 2014, http://www.osce.org/node/116947. 14 C.J. Chivers, "Separatists Defy Kiev and Putin on Referendum," New York Times, 8 May 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/09/world/europe/ukraine.html?_r=0.
  11. 11. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 7 - SIMULATION In large part, the OSCE will function procedurally as all other NHSMUN committees: it is a regional arrangement under Chapter VII of the United Nations charter, and its resolution process will follow the same format as other U.N. committees.15 In the actual OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCEPA), the OSCEPA president is responsible for moderating the assembly’s Standing Committee.16 At NHSMUN, however, the Dais will assume the role of president in moderating the Standing Committee. This will allow for an impartial regulator of procedure, and it will ensure that delegates are focused solely on crafting solutions to the pressing topics at hand. In the actual OSCEPA, individuals are members of their national parliaments.17 At NHSMUN, however, members will be seen as specially appointed experts to represent their countries on the specific topics being debated. To this end, delegates in the OSCE at NHSMUN are expected to accurately reflect the policies of their delegation’s government. In doing so, it is of crucial importance that delegates not negate their countries’ stances for the sake of resolution writing and compromise. Delegates’ success in resolution writing will be assessed based on their ability to facilitate strong compromise and successful resolutions to the extent that their delegation’s policy allows. The general functioning of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly happens through the OSCEPA’s annual sessions, wherein the group passes a series of resolutions addressing several individual topics. These are the occasions that feature the resolution-style legislative process within the OSCE. At NHSMUN, the Standing Committee will utilize the resolution process of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, and the Dais, acting as president, will determine its agenda. This agenda will be much more limited in scope than that of a general annual session, with the Dais putting forward two topics (Topic A as the first to be discussed and Topic B as the second) and allowing delegates of the assembly only to vote on changing the order of discussion of these two topics. While this is a different format than the general annual sessions, it will streamline the process of resolution writing and allow the delegates to focus on the nuances of one or two specific subjects in the limited time span of the NHSMUN conference. While not involving committees and being geared toward only a two specific topics rather than several, though, the OSCEPA will still function as it does at a standard annual session, where it is able to pass resolutions based on consensus. During committee, a speakers list will be utilized as the default structure of debate. If delegates wish to stray from the speakers list, they can do so by motioning to go into caucuses, either moderated or unmoderated. If these motions receive a simple majority and are deemed in order by the Chair, they will go into effect. 15 "Charter, United Nations, Chapter VII: Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace and Acts of Aggression," UN News Center, accessed June 11, 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml. 16 "Rules of Procedure," OSCEPA, July 29, 2013, http://www.oscepa.org. 17 Ibid.
  12. 12. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 8 - On a general note, the procedural functioning of the OSCE at NHSMUN will adhere to the rules supplied by the NHMSUN guidebook, which is available to every delegate of the conference. Throughout the debate process, the Dais, including the Director and Assistant Director, will control debate on the specified topics. As experts on the procedural and substantive aspects of their OSCEPA’s meeting, they will moderate and assist the resolution and debate processes. Additionally, they will answer written questions from delegates during the committee to their best ability.
  13. 13. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 9 - TOPIC A: REVISITING THE PROGRESS OF THE ACTION PLAN FOR COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS INTRODUCTION According to Article 3 of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, along with the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, human trafficking is defined as “the recruitment, transportation, or harboring of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of the abuse of power to achieve the consent of a person for the purpose of exploitation.”18 Though often overlooked in Europe, human trafficking is a significant issue that affects almost all member states of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in some manner. Since its conception in 1994, the OSCE has worked to eliminate human trafficking and mitigate the problems associated with it. However, in spite of all of its efforts, member states of the OSCE have experienced an approximate 15% increase in the number of reported human trafficking incidents and number of victims since 1994.19 In July 2003, the OSCE published the Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (CTHB) as a means to guide member states with short-term goals and initiatives, eventually leading to the achievement of the OSCE’s long-term goal: eliminating human trafficking. The goal of the CTHB is to provide a comprehensive framework to help member states implement solutions that concentrate on protecting victims, combating trafficking in human beings, and properly indicting criminals.20 Another main focus of the CTHB is to promote collaboration and communication within various OSCE institutions along with UN bodies and member states, such as the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). This collaboration will make it easier to properly prosecute those responsible for human trafficking crimes while simultaneously preventing human trafficking incidents from occurring in the future and providing necessary aid for victims. Though the CTHB was comprehensive in its framework upon its inception, it is necessary to revisit it in order to ensure that member states are taking advantage of the resources offered to them through the Action Plan. Trafficking in persons is one of the most atrocious forms of organized crime and does not discriminate gender. It stands in clear violation of basic human rights, hinders international development, and persists because it is a profitable industry.21 By assessing the OSCE’s progress in achieving the measures and initiatives proposed in the CHTB, member states will be able to re- 18 “United Nations (UN) Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto,” UN Office on Drugs and Crime, last modified 2015, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/treaties/CTOC/. 19 Ibid. 20 PC.DEC/557, “OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings,” 24 July 2003, http://www.osce.org/odihr/23866. 21 “Human Trafficking – Global Issues,” Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Global Affairs, last modified 10 June 2015, http://www.mfa.gr/en/foreign-policy/global-issues/human-trafficking.html.
  14. 14. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 10 - evaluate their short and long-term goals to properly tackle the issue at hand and bring it to the forefront of conversation within the OSCE and the global community. HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ISSUE The persistence of human trafficking in Europe has led to an increase in organized crime and an expansion of underground markets of human trafficking.22 In 2014, it was estimated that the annual profits from global human trafficking were approximately USD 150 billion, almost two and a half times the annual profit in 2005.23 Of that USD 150 billion, 31% was generated from developed economies in the European Union (EU), and 12% was generated from Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.24 In other words, as of 2014, Europe is now the largest contributor to the underground human trafficking market, comprising almost half of it. The Conception of the CTHB The first step towards the conception of the CTHB is the 2000 conference of OSCE member states held in Vienna, Austria. Along with other UN member states, members of the OSCE drafted the Vienna Ministerial Decision No. 1, with the purpose of assessing the situation of human trafficking in OSCE member states. At this conference, many states claimed that the prosecution of criminal charges involving human trafficking was insufficient.25 For example, organized crime groups in the OSCE member states have aggregated a strong monetary base through human trafficking, which has allowed them to expand their networks law enforcement outreach.26 Certain developing states with limited financial capabilities to implement initiatives against human trafficking are struggling to avoid corruption; corruption both benefits these groups and diminishes anti-human trafficking progress in these states.27 Discussions in Vienna regarding the problems associated with human trafficking culminated in an analysis of the root causes of human trafficking in the region. As a result, a conference was held in Berlin for the purpose of discussing Europe’s adamant disapproval of any trafficking in human beings in mid-October 2001. During the two-day long conference, a variety of issues were discussed by the member states of the OSCE, including specific causal factors linked to human trafficking, the role of transnational organized crime groups in exacerbating this problem, and a further Action Plan to be drafted to help combat trafficking in human beings.28 After one and a half years of extensive discussion, thorough analyses of data from annual country visit reports, and detailed iterations of 22 Belinda Luscombe, “Inside the Lucrative Business Model of Human Trafficking,” TIME Magazine, last modified 20 Dec 2014, http://time.com/105360/inside-the-scarily-lucrative-business-model-of-human-trafficking/. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 PC.DEC/557, “OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings.” 26 David Kyle and John Dale, "Smuggling the State Back In: Agents of Human Smuggling Reconsidered," Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives 29 (2001): 45, http://scar.gmu.edu/book-chapter/smuggling-state-back-agents-of- human-smuggling-reconsidered. 27 Annalisa Merelli, “The Human Trafficking Situation in Europe is Out of Control,” Quartz, last modified 21 May 2015, http://qz.com/407275/the-human-trafficking-situation-in-europe-is-out-of-control/. 28 “Europe Against Trafficking in Human Beings: Conference Report,” Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, last modified 12 Jan 2001, http://www.osce.org/odihr/14651.
  15. 15. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 11 - initiatives and measures to be implemented, the CTHB was drafted on 24 July 2003. It was called for gradual adoption in every member state of the OSCE in December 2003.29 Socioeconomic Causes and Consequences of Human Trafficking in Europe During the Berlin Conference of 2001, the OSCE discussed many of the socioeconomic causes of human trafficking and directly targeted each initiative towards combatting these causes. A primary reason why human trafficking is of such high priority to the OSCE is its strong presence in states with weaker social and economic structures. Based on trends observed in member states such as Serbia and Montenegro, states that experienced higher frequencies of human trafficking incidents happened to have weaker social and economic structures, leading to increased societal injustices. Such injustices include lack of gender equality, compromised legislative systems, high rates of violence against women and children, inadequate employment opportunities, and many cases of discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, or nationality.30 According to Ambassador Madina Jarbussynova of Kazakhstan, the OSCE Special Representative and Coordinator for the CHTB, it is not uncommon for women growing up in Kazakhstan to undergo oppression and discrimination in everyday life and in the workplace. In the more rural areas of the country, uneducated women and children are often targeted for trafficking, as they are the most vulnerable subjects. Since many of them are illiterate and desperate to overcome the daily challenges of poverty, they can easily be exploited.31 Similarly, underprivileged females or young children are more susceptible to being trafficked. In 2011, 82% of victims of human trafficking were women (49%), girls (21%), and boys (12%).32 This gender and age disparity is crucial to understanding the debate surrounding human trafficking in Europe and development of the CTHB since many aspects of the CTHB target solutions that aim to mitigate the effect this disparity has on the trafficking of human beings. Notably, the CTHB focuses on finding ways to overcome these social injustices, such as lack of education or youth protection for common victims, as a method of resolving human trafficking. For example, the CTHB takes measures to create targeted awareness campaigns for the most susceptible groups to trafficking. They educate them on their rights and lessen their chances of being trafficked through the help of specific non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work with the OSCE, such as the Human Rights Watch (HRW) or Amnesty International (AI).33 Targeted solutions such as these are important because they allow states to devote resources efficiently and help cater to victims’ needs accordingly, based on factors such as gender, age, or ethnicity. In addition, the CTHB encourages curating political and socioeconomic stability within the OSCE member states, in order to remove the economic need for illicit trafficking. In addition, a reduction 29 PC.DEC/557. 30 Janie Chuang, "Beyond A Snapshot: Preventing Human Trafficking in the Global Economy," Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 13, no. 1 (2006): 137-163, http://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1323&context=ijgls. 31 Patrick Belser, "Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits," Cornell University, last modified 1 March 2005, https://www.civilandhumanrights.org/documents/Forced_Labor_and_Human_Trafficking_- _Estimating_the_Profits.pdf. 32 E.14.V.10, “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014,” Nov 2014, https://www.unodc.org/documents/data- and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf. 33 Ibid.
  16. 16. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 12 - in trafficking would complement an effort to lessen migration rates caused by extreme poverty and would make human trafficking market movement less appealing. Instead, there would be an opportunities to stimulate the economy and promote social inclusion.34 When human trafficking crimes occur, traffickers often have to move trafficked individuals across borders and into the trafficking areas. When the rate of trafficking is high, the country’s suffers a drop in income and productivity because their are being trafficked and moved into other areas. Progression of Trafficking Methods There are various forms of human trafficking. A misconception held by many is that human trafficking always constitutes sex trafficking. However, human trafficking amongst OSCE member states falls into three main categories: sexual exploitation, forced labor, and organ removal. While the most prevalent instance of human trafficking globally and in the OSCE member states is sexual exploitation, it is important to be cognizant of the impact of all three categories when addressing human trafficking and the CTHB.35 Currently in the EU, the most recent development of trafficking involves marriages that occur on a whim, otherwise known as sham marriages. In arranging these sham marriages, the male often promises the female a EU identity card in exchange for marriage. The male is then able to disguise a human trafficking crime as an opportunity for employment. The EU identity card would allow these women to gain access to residence and employment opportunities in the EU.36 Unfortunately, most of these women are brought to the EU with no sign of an identification card, and often face an abusive and non-consensual relationship with no money and no escape from an oppressive lifestyle. Additionally, advances in technology have transformed the caliber of transnational organized crime that now occurs. The combination of poor legislative action for human trafficking prosecution along with rapidly improving technologies propel the human trafficking market forward; since only 40% of countries in the world have ten or more convictions for human trafficking cases and 15% of countries have no recorded convictions, many of these crimes go unnoticed, making it easier for these organized crime groups to conduct their illegal operations.37 As a result, these groups have been able to expand their networks and monetary resources to achieve greater dominance in the global market and avoid criminalization for crimes related to trafficking.38 Human trafficking methods are constantly evolving. As a result, delegates must find a way to address how member states can unite to overcome this violation of human rights in OSCE member states. In doing so, delegates must be aware of the most current technologies and practices being used by those involved with human trafficking. Currently, many state governments have implemented efforts 34 Dina Francesca Hayes, “Human Trafficking and Migration” in Human Rights in Crisis, ed. A Bullard (London: Ashgate, 2008), http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1007704. 35 “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014.” 36 Sylvia Hui and Karel Janicek, “A Growing Type of Human Trafficking: European Women Lured to Marry for Their European Union Identity Cards,” U.S. News, last modified 2 March 2015, accessed 26 May 2015, http://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2015/05/25/brides-for-sale-european-women-lured-for-sham- marriages. 37 UNU/WIDER/2003/72, “Illegal Immigration, Human Trafficking, and Organized Crime,” Oct 2003, http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/discussion-papers/2003/en_GB/dp2003-072/. 38 Melvyn Levitsky, "Transnational Criminal Networks and International Security," Syracuse Journal of Law and Commerce 30, No. 2 (2003): 227, http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/rdenever/InternationalSecurity/Levitsky.pdf.
  17. 17. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 13 - to research human trafficking in “domestic and international contexts.”39 Germany, for example, has implemented multiple research initiatives to strengthen their human trafficking prevention policies. They have worked to establish countrywide “taskforces on trafficking online” along with offering continued support for local taskforces that are already in place by supplying them with the necessary information and material to address online trafficking means.40 Germany’s government has also set aside money allocated towards growing the technological capacity and aptitude of federal and local agencies for tracking online trafficking. Subsequently, governments can distribute this information to relevant organizations that are able to act upon the information.41 The development of taskforces such as these has proven to be important in the fight against human trafficking, because it helps increase transparency transnationally amongst state governments and their affiliated organizations. Execution of Legislations: Prosecution and Police A primary reason human trafficking is still able to thrive as such a prominent industry in Europe is a lack of serious prosecution for traffickers in several states. The CTHB looks to establish anti- trafficking units in order to foster efficient and just practices with both male and female officers, highly specialized in investigating trafficking offenses regarding sexual assault in women or children.42 The UNHCR has conducted several studies that conclude giving trafficked individuals the option to choose the officers with whom they will interact helps establish a positive and trusting relationship between the officer and individual. These initiatives will be coupled with intelligence-led policing for processing criminal investigations ensure that the maximum number of guilty criminals will be convicted for their crimes. The power of intelligence-led policing, centered on gauging and managing risk in order to optimize crime-solving efficiency, will be crucial. Most importantly, the CTHB stresses collaboration between policing bodies, governmental organizations, NGOs, and local communities.43 Through these collaborative forces, different police units and operations will have a higher likelihood of more accurately prosecuting criminals, and victims will feel more inclined to work with prosecutorial bodies to testify in criminal procedures.44 It is crucial for member states to look at the police systems and trainings already in place to determine how or if they should be altered to better combat human trafficking. Additionally, it is important to improve group dynamics in taskforces to improve cooperation between currently existing anti-human trafficking teams. UN, EU and Other Pre-Existing Human Trafficking Legislation There are several key pieces of legislation that are essential to understanding the debate surrounding human trafficking in Europe. Therefore understanding the differences in the structure of the EU 39 Ibid. 40 “Principles,” Global Network Initiative, accessed 29 July 2011, http://www.globalnetworkinitiative.org/principles/index.php. 41 Ibid. 42 PC.DEC/557, “OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings.” 43 “Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation/Forced and Bonded Labour: Identification – Prevention – Prosecution,” Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, last modified 2006, http://www.osce.org/cthb/31923?download=true. 44 Hussein Sadruddin, Natalia Walter, and Jose Hidalgo, "Human Trafficking in the United States: Expanding Victim Protection Beyond Prosecution Witnesses," Stanford Law & Policy Review 16 (June 2005): 379, https://journals.law.stanford.edu/stanford-law-policy-review/print/volume-16/issue-2-globalization-security-human- rights-immigration-twenty-first-century/human.
  18. 18. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 14 - legislation versus that of the OSCE legislation is vital. The member states of the OSCE include many states not included in the EU. The 28 member countries of the EU include France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, and the UK. Member states of the OSCE include all EU member states, as well as Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Georgia, Holy See, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. One of the benefits of having these additional countries in the OSCE is that member states can leverage this community of countries to create a pool of resources to help overcome any large problems they encounter. The 2000 UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime is an important piece of the debate surrounding human trafficking in Europe. This Convention is the first official piece of UN legislation to cohesively and comprehensively define human trafficking for the international community. The document defines human trafficking as: The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.45 Moreover, it emphasizes the important role that transnational organized crime groups have in the black market. These crime groups work with traffickers to transport individuals and execute illegally transactions.46 Though it clearly outlines the problem at hand as well as specific causes of human trafficking in organized crime, the legislation fails to focus on specific methods to combat the problem. Therefore, delegates of the OSCE will be tasked with devising efficient and effective solutions to fill these gaps. The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons highlights the legislative aspects of this issue.47 It focuses on how states can establish legislation to help fight these crimes, and how migration contributes to the problem. In terms of location of the crime and logistics regarding extradition, impunity, policing bodies, and international law, this document delineates the exact procedural requirements necessary for member states to convict criminals and conduct proper criminal investigations.48 The CTHB used this protocol as a basis to formulate many of the operatives in the Action Plan. As comprehensive as this protocol is, it is targeted heavily towards 45 Tom Obokata, "EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: A Critical Appraisal," Common Market Law Review 40, No. 4 (2003): 917-936, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2083039. 46 Louise Shelley, "Transnational Organized Crime: An Imminent Threat to the Nation-State?" Journal of International Affairs 48, No. 2 (1995): 463, http://n.ereserve.fiu.edu/010034785-1.pdf. 47 “United Nations (UN) Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto,” UN Office on Drugs and Crime. 48 Louise Shelley, "Transnational Organized Crime: An Imminent Threat to the Nation-State?".
  19. 19. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 15 - helping prevent trafficking in certain focused groups of people as opposed to alleviating human trafficking on a global scale. In addition, the protocol does not adequately focus on prosecuting criminals responsible for committing human trafficking crimes. The protocol policy is instead heavily preventative. The EU Strategy Towards Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings was adopted in 2012. This legislation targeted preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. Even though this legislation is increasingly comprehensive, many gaps in information and legislation remain.49 Vagueness of pre-existing legislation is an important issue that delegates must address, in addition to the adoption of more specific actions and legislation.50 The various pieces of legislation presented in this section should give delegates a better understanding of previous ways that the international community has attempted to combat this issue. Delegates should use this legislation as a guide to formulating solutions, while also considering the mandate and limitations of the OSCE. Additionally, delegates should be especially aware of the past failures of these documents and look for ways to improve upon them. Border Management and Migration Control A significant contributing factor to human trafficking is a lack of coordinated effort between the OSCE member states to regulate border management and migration control. Many believe that a uniform regulation system should be put in place within the OSCE member states that is consistent across various different platforms and border sites. This would help to mitigate human trafficking in the region. Specifically, one initiative outlined by the CTHB entails solidifying collaboration between border control agencies, and establishing and withholding uninterrupted and consistent methods of communication.51 This enhancement would be complemented with a measure to conduct check-ups at all border sites on commercial carriers, such as sea carriers, to confirm the identities of passengers as legitimate with verifiable travel documentation. Additionally, improved communication between states requires the establishment of National Referral Mechanisms, a framework applicable to all member states of the OSCE to withhold their responsibilities with the Action Plan to take care of individuals’ human rights in conjunction with a coalition with civil societies and other affiliated organizations. This framework would include a universal database in order to enhance policing and prosecution practices throughout the borders of member states.52 49 Ibid. 50 Jennifer L., "The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime: Is It All That It Is Cracked Up To Be: Problems Posed by the Russian Mafia in the Trafficking of Humans," Syracuse Journal of International Law & Commerce 30 (2003): 369, https://litigation- essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&doctype=cite& docid=30+Syracuse+J.+Int'l+L.+%26+Com.+369&key=4c3f26b83891aba1e24500b76e2f40ed. 51 Sergio Carrera, "The EU Border Management Strategy: FRONTEX and the Challenges of Irregular Immigration in the Canary Islands," The Centre for European Policy Studies, last modified 22 March 2007, http://www.ceps.eu/publications/eu-border-management-strategy-frontex-and-challenges-irregular-immigration-canary. 52 John Salt, "Trafficking and Human Smuggling: A European Perspective," International Migration 38, No. 3 (2000): 31- 56, http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/538%20pdf.pdf.
  20. 20. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 16 - It will be important for the OSCE to take a nuanced look at how decreasing migration rates and the the flow of individuals across the border can be lessened in the context of border management and human trafficking. Increased regulation of state borders would enhance the ability of member states to control which persons entered and exited the state, along with increased regulation of human trafficking along borders. However, stricter regulation could also negatively impact state economies by lessening the benefits of easy migration and increased trade. Migration control will likely be a main source for debate among delegates when assessing the CTHB and discussing human trafficking in the region.53 Delegates must realize that general migration in itself is not an undesired occurrence, the movement of people has tremendous benefits. In this context, the aim is to target illegal and unsafe migration, which is a driver of human trafficking and harmful to the individual and state. Rehabilitation and Reintegration The protection and assistance of victims is another important aspect of trafficking in human beings. For many victims who are able to escape the imprisonment of human trafficking, their lives are often severely unstable due to emotional damage, lack of proper financial resources, and inability to reintegrate back into society without social exclusion. A section of the CTHB focuses on victim protection during pre-trial investigations and court proceedings, along with post-trial reintegration into normal societal environments. Some measures in the CTHB include partnerships with organizations such as the Witness Protection Program, which helps properly identify victims and provides them with suitable care starting from the beginning of their investigations through the end of the victim’s rehabilitation and reintegration into society.54 More specifically, these programs provide safe housing for victims through shelters. These shelters provide the necessary medical attention in order to return back to health, along with post-trial training opportunities to help re- integrate these victims back into the workplace.55 Rehabilitation and reintegration are essential parts of anti-human trafficking efforts that are frequently disregarded. Often victims of human trafficking return to being victims, caught up in the same lifestyle out of desperation.56 The OSCE has developed a National Referral Mechanism Report (NRM) to provide information for member states regarding the issue of human trafficking, which includes sections regarding the rehabilitation of victims of trafficking. That said, the OSCE must assess whether this report spends enough time addressing the specific issues brought up in the CTHB. Additionally, the OSCE must accommodate for victims who do not wish to return to their home states. Member states must investigate integrating and transitioning these victims into new places, while still preserving their identities. 53 Ibid. 54 Cornelius Friesendorf, "Pathologies of Security Governance: Efforts Against Human Trafficking in Europe," Security Dialogue 38, No. 3 (2007): 379-402, http://sdi.sagepub.com/content/38/3/379. 55 Claudia Aradau, "The Perverse Politics of Four-Letter Words: Risk and Pity in the Securitization of Human Trafficking," Millennium-Journal of International Studies 33, No. 2 (2004): 251-277, http://mil.sagepub.com/content/33/2/251.abstract. 56 Heather Clawson et. al, "Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States: A Review of the Literature," U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, last modified 30 August 2009, http://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/human- trafficking-and-within-united-states-review-literature.
  21. 21. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 17 - CURRENT STATUS In 2014, the annual profits made from human trafficking (USD 150 billion) have more than tripled the profits made a decade ago in 2006 (USD 44 billion).57 According to the UNHCR, this dramatic increase can be attributed to a decline in the number of stable economies in the EU. Though an increasing number of countries, such as Kazakhstan, Austria, and Serbia, are adopting the measures of the CTHB and taking action to reduce the amount of human trafficking overall, more is needed by all OSCE member states in order to properly address this problem. Current OSCE Field Operations Currently, the OSCE has twelve different field operations, or initiatives, that are already launched in specific locations around Europe and Central Asia; this number continues to grow. In Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, the OSCE has a Centre that conducts organized information sessions for trained officials on the protection and assistance of victims. Similarly, the Centre in Bishkek focuses on the legislative aspect of the problem and combines the abilities of government institutions, law enforcement agencies, and local communities to offer capacity-building training, informational seminars, and unified prosecution systems in countries with similar trafficking situations. It is also working on establishing an NRM for the protection of victims during trials and after rehabilitation.58 Additionally, the OSCE is currently involved in five different missions throughout member states. The Mission to Bosnia Herzegovina partners with law enforcement agencies and is working to draft legislation with the aim of mitigating human trafficking in the region. This mission has also created an NRM to work in conjunction with new legislation. The Mission to Moldova focuses more on the human rights aspect of the issue and works to train officials in proper anti-trafficking practices that involve fair and careful treatment of victims and human trafficking cases. In the same way, the Mission to Montenegro works on highly specializing law enforcement officials and policing groups in order to accurately detain and prosecute perpetrators. It also promotes awareness campaigns among normal civilians to prevent trafficking from occurring, especially among groups that are most susceptible to victimization.59 Lastly, the OSCE Mission to Skopje, Albania, focuses mainly on enhancing border security and controlling migration movement within the Republic of Macedonia and other neighboring states.60 57 Patrick Belser, "Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits," Cornell University, last modified 1 March 2005, https://www.civilandhumanrights.org/documents/Forced_Labor_and_Human_Trafficking_- _Estimating_the_Profits.pdf. 58 David J. Galbreath, "Putting the Color into Revolutions? The OSCE and Civil Society in the Post-Soviet Region." Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 25, No. 2-3 (2009): 161-180, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/224748562_Putting_the_Colour_into_Revolutions_The_OSCE_and_Civil_S ociety_in_the_Post-Soviet_Region. 59 Victor-Yves Ghebali, "The OSCE Long-Term Missions: A Creative Tool Under Challenge," Helsinki Monitor 15, No. 3 (2004): 202-219, http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/1571814041954235. 60 Wolfgang Zellner, "New Forms and Support Structures for OSCE Field Operations," Helsinki Monitor 15, No. 2 (2004): 91-102, http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/1571814041342928.
  22. 22. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 18 - The OSCE also has a presence through field operations in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.61 The five, current OSCE missions launched are integral to the region’s crime fighting process overall. Each mission targets the specific state and operates accordingly, taking into account geography, trafficking/migration patterns, most common trafficking methods, and most susceptible populations. This information is then used to form a mission that specifically addresses the needs of the area. Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons The Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons (AATP) was established under the OSCE as a forum for consolidating the resources of roughly 30 different governmental bodies, NGOs, and civil societies with the aim to improve the prevention of human trafficking. Some of these include AI, HRW, the International Labor Organization, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime.62 Most recently, its efforts have been focused on providing assistance and shelter for asylum-seeking children, along with preventing child involvement in human trafficking overall.63 Additionally, the AATP has focused efforts on non-punishment provisions for victims that are willing to testify against perpetrators in criminal investigations. The provisions include safe-housing them during pre-trial investigations and court proceedings. These organizations and groups have a wealth of resources that prove to be essential in the fight against trafficking, and many member states do not have access to these resources. In addition, it is important to note that when member states of the OSCE are re-evaluating the Action Plan, it is vital to increase the use of these allied organizations to the committee’s advantage and incorporate them into government efforts. In September 2014, Ambassador Madina Jarbussynova of Kazakhstan was appointed as the OSCE Special Representative and Coordinator for CTHB. Her objectives as ambassador include helping states carry out the Action Plan, while coordinating a cohesive international effort to tackle human trafficking.64 Specifically, she hopes to “improve victim identification and assistance, strengthen the criminal justice response, and enhance the prevention of human trafficking.”65 So far, since her election as ambassador, many steps have been taken towards achieving these goals. Not only has Ambassador Jarbussynova taken initiative on implementing anti-trafficking commitments, but she has also traveled to individual countries such as Lichtenstein, Denmark, and Latvia to help increase awareness of the problem and launch initiatives. In late May 2015, Ambassador Jarbussynova visited Ukraine for a week-long trip in which she addressed the risks of human trafficking in crisis situations.66 This trip included a visit to a humanitarian aid shelter along with hosting many anti-trafficking informational sessions. These presentations were divided up and targeted to either law enforcement officials, potential vulnerable 61 Ibid. 62 “Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons,” Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, last modified Nov 2014, http://www.osce.org/secretariat/107221. 63 Ibid. 64 Louise Shelley, Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), http://ir.nmu.org.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/129773/35bc6666b7c979e875764e00ee5fee48.pdf?sequence=1. 65 Ibid. 66 “Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons.”
  23. 23. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 19 - trafficking victims, and rehabilitated and rescued victims.67 As the second person to hold this position, Ambassador Jarbussynova hopes to mold and establish a legacy for what this job should accomplish. This legacy would help future coordinators understand how their role helps maintain security in these areas affected by human trafficking. When assessing the CTHB, member states must take the actions of Ambassador Jarbussynova into account, as her reports can be utilized to target and improve the solutions in the CTHB. During Ambassador Jarbussynova’s expedition to certain member states of the OSCE, she worked with informational NGOs to collect data and compile country visit reports on the states she visited. These reports include discussion and analysis of the progress each state has taken toward making progress on the Action Plan to CTHB, any challenges that each state may have faced in light of implementation of the Action Plan, and improvements in anti-trafficking policy.68 These reports are vital in the battle against human trafficking. They have allowed for increased transparency and the opportunity for state governments to be more alert as to what action must be taken to preserve security. When analyzing a state’s progress with the Action Plan, it will be essential to refer to these reports as a starting point to assess what further action must be taken. In addition, member states need to look into certain topics or issues not addressed in the CTHB and what steps need to be taken to address these missing aspects of the CTHB. BLOC ANALYSIS Debate on this topic will focus on the progress of the OSCE’s Action Plan and how the initiatives of this Action Plan have been executed over the last twelve years. Delegates will also address the underground aspect of this problem and how the OSCE can mitigate further illegal operations of human trafficking, even in light of its elusive nature. Since there are no defining, polar positions taken by member states in regards to the ethics of human trafficking, the major division of debate will involve the socioeconomic divisions apparent in member states, along with policies and legislative action already implemented in specific member states. Economically Stable States with Pre-existing Legislation on Anti-Trafficking Policies The socioeconomic divisions between OSCE member states have a strong correlation with the participation of trafficking and prosecution in these areas. For more developed states with greater financial security, such as Germany and Luxembourg, more monetary resources in a government budget can be allocated towards improving legislation, providing specialized training to police forces, and developing rehabilitation centers for victims affected by crime.69 In France, the government created a public-private partnership to address child sports trafficking in 2009 and allocated USD 2.74 million towards the initiative. However, delegates must note that human trafficking and the problems associated with it impact socioeconomically stable states less than socioeconomically unstable states. 67 Wolfgang Zellner, "New Forms and Support Structures for OSCE Field Operations." 68 Ibid. 69 Khalid Koser, “Irregular Migration, State Security and Human Security,” General Commission on International Migration, last modified 2005, https://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/policy_and_research/gcim/tp/TP5.pdf.
  24. 24. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 20 - Additionally, many states already have forms of pre-existing legislation to address the problem. Thus, for these developed states there is less of a need for great financial investment in anti- trafficking commitments or increased security forces. This stance can pose a dilemma because many of these states will prioritize other problems over increasing investments in security forces, whether that is for their state or for states with limited financial resources.70 These OSCE member states will need to consider the extent to which they will choose to get involved without hindering their individual political agendas. Developing States with Pre-existing Legislation on Anti-Trafficking Policies For developing states, financial and economic instability can be a significant roadblock to eliminating human trafficking. These states often compromise the extent of their security forces when faced with financial crises in order to continue the stimulation of the economy.71 Some states that fall into this bloc include Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ireland, and Greece. Even though these states are unable to sufficiently fund training for police groups or niched taskforces, their strong legislative backbone helps decrease the amount of crime occurring in these states.72 Overall, these states recognize the priority of eliminating human trafficking yet lack the resources to properly tackle the issue. Finding the correct means to collaborate with other OSCE member states to strengthen their security can aid them in this endeavor, in hopes of ultimately fully eliminating human trafficking through socioeconomic stability. It should be noted that despite their economic viability, these states have taken the steps to alleviate the problem presented with human trafficking. Developing States with Minimal to No Legislation on Anti-Trafficking Policies In many developing states without a strong anti-human trafficking policy structure, individuals are most susceptible to being trafficked. A lack of anti-trafficking policies undoubtedly increases the crime rates of human trafficking incidents.73 However, with disorganized political structures and legislation, along with insufficient means for security forces, these states become major hotbeds for human trafficking transactions and other human rights violations.74 Most member states in this category, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Latvia, and Estonia, have little incentive to prioritize this issue and often focus on larger items on their political agendas. The OSCE must find a way to ensure these states take a vested interested in this issue, while helping increase accessibility to resources that have the potential to decrease the amount of trafficking in such states. COMMITTEE MISSION Though the OSCE is a relatively new body, it addresses issues that are important and relevant to both the region and the international community. In addition, the OSCE may collaborate with governmental and UN-related bodies that can provide valuable assistance in achieving the goals of member states. In order to properly address this topic, strongly consider the capabilities and limitations of the OSCE mandate. The main focus of the OSCE is to address any issues relating to 70 Tom Obokata, "EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: A Critical Appraisal.” 71 Cornelius Friesendorf, "Pathologies of Security Governance: Efforts Against Human Trafficking in Europe." 72 Ibid. 73 Louise Shelley, Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010). 74 Danailova-Trainor Gergana and Patrick Belser, “Globalization and the Illicit Market for Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis of Supply and Demand,” International Labor Office Geneva, last modified Dec 2006, http://natlex.ilo.ch/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---integration/documents/publication/wcms_081759.pdf.
  25. 25. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 21 - “human rights and rule of law, law enforcement and crime control, inequality and discrimination, and corruption, economic deprivation and migration policies.”75 Therefore, any discussion about this topic should relate back to these key ideas. As members of the OSCE, it is necessary to focus this debate on the security aspects related to human trafficking and the CTHB. It is absolutely essential for delegates to remember that the focus of this debate is not finding broad solutions to human trafficking. Instead, it is to revisit the Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings while considering the aspects discussed above and how this document relates to each member state’s policy. Overall, it is important to remember that human trafficking is happening on a daily basis on both a regional and an international scale. As delegates, it is your responsibility to address these issues in a feasible and practical manner. This simulation of the OSCE is a great reminder of the problems that the international community faces and the impact of global solutions that will arise through debate. 75 “OSCE Mandate,” Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, accessed 31 May 2015, http://www.osce.org/odihr/109088.
  26. 26. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 22 - TOPIC B: CYBERTERRORISM IN EUROPE INTRODUCTION The use of the Internet and information technology to cause harm is an issue of great concern to the international community. Although terms like cyberwar and cyberterrorism are widely used, there is little agreement throughout the international community on what they mean, or whether a cyberwar would cause enough human suffering to be worthy of the “war” label. A textbook definition of cyberterrorism is the politically driven, premeditated, and unlawful attack or threat of attack against information, computers, and networks. There are two main types of cyberterrorism: effects-based and Internet-based.76 In an effects-based cyberterrorist attack, imposing fear on others is the primary goal. An example of this form of cyberterrorism would be hacking into a hospital’s main system and changing information pertaining to patients, possibly causing them physical harm.77 Internet-based cyberterrorism, on the other hand, is intended to provoke severe economic damage or harm. 78 In the past ten years, the international community has seen a shift towards pettier, homeland security attacks. Many experts have made claims that, due to the limited definition of cyberterrorism, the international community has had difficulty dealing with its ramifications.79 Currently, no universal definition exists. That being said, the US Federal Bureau of Intelligence’s definition of cyberterrorism as “the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs and data, which results in violence against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents”80 This definition is currently the most commonly accepted across the world. While this definition is the most common standard for assessing cyber attacks, many experts have agreed that it is not comprehensive or specific enough for evaluating and dealing with the aftermath of such attacks. Peter W. Singer, the Director of the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence and a senior fellow in foreign policy at the Brookings Institute, notes that the focus of this definition is based on using “violence” as a gauge for measuring an attack when no death or casualty has been caused directly by a cyberterrorist attack. However, the most prominent instances of cyber-attacks occur when state-sponsored groups are provoked by states that differ from them politically and socially.81 76 Murat Dogrul, Adil Aslan, and Eyyup Celik, "Developing an International Cooperation on Cyber Defense and Deterrence Against Cyber Terrorism," NATO Cooperative Defense Centre of Excellence, last modified 2011, https://ccdcoe.org/ICCC/materials/proceedings/dogrul_aslan_celik.pdf. 77 Jonathan Matusitz and Elizabeth Minei, "Cyberterrorism: Its Effects on Health-Related Infrastructures," Journal of Digital Forensic Practice 2, No. 4 (2009): 161-171, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15567280802678657. 78 Murat Dogrul, Adil Aslan, and Eyyup Celik, "Developing an International Cooperation on Cyber Defense and Deterrence Against Cyber Terrorism.” 79 Alfonso Valdes and Keith Skinner, "Adaptive, Model-Based Monitoring for Cyber Attack Detection," SRI International, last modified 2000, http://www.csl.sri.com/papers/adaptbn/adaptbn.pdf. 80 Ibid. 81 Göran N. Ericsson, "Cyber Security and Power System Communication—Essential Parts of a Smart Grid Infrastructure," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions 25, no. 3 (2010): 1501-1507, http://rampages.us/keckjw/wp- content/uploads/sites/2169/2014/11/20100400Cyber-Security-and-Power-System-Communication—Essential-Parts- of-a-Smart-Grid-Infrastructure.pdf.
  27. 27. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 23 - In April 2015, the Netherlands hosted the Global Conference on Cyberspace, during which cyber security was one of the main themes.82 The main goal of terrorism in general is to strike fear and insecurity in the target; and, through cyberterrorism, this can be accomplished through acts such as altering and taking over IP addresses. Since many business and financial transactions occur in cyberspace, promoting cybersecurity is essential to the socioeconomic stability of the global community. Current cyberterrorist acts include state-sponsored attacks to the servers of state governments, along with other attacks by private groups.83 Given the highly volatile nature of cyberterrorism, it is critical that the OSCE begins to draft solutions to this wide-reaching and impactful international issue. HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ISSUE Major Cybersecurity Attacks In the 1980s, the term cyberterrorism was conceived, and public attention towards cyberterrorism quickly increased. In the late 1990s, the issue was researched more seriously as a popular fear related to the digital implications of the fast approaching year 2000, coined as the Y2K problem. As Y2K and computer failure gained more attention, the issues of cybersecurity and cyberterrorism became even greater concerns to the international community.84 Then, public interest in cyberterrorism peaked after the 9/11 terror attacks, during which the terrorist group al-Qaeda overtook noncombatant jetliners and flew them into US commercial and government buildings, including the World Trade Centers in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The 9/11 attacks made the public more aware of the variety of terrorist attacks, from chemical to cyber, leaving a lasting impression on the global community.85 The first major, internationally recognized cyber-attack came in 2007, when several networks in Estonia were shut down by a massive Distributed Denial of Service attack.86 This blocked access to government websites for several hours and halted some banks for a full day. The attacks were associated with a political confrontation over the removal of a statue commemorating Soviet re- conquest of Estonia during World War II. Whether the Russian government officially sanctioned the attacks or whether the attack was the work of Russian activists remains unknown. Smaller attacks were directed against Georgia during its three-day war with Russia in August 2008.87 One of the best-known and most effective cyber-attacks of all time occurred in 2009 and 2010, when the US government launched a virus against Iranian nuclear enrichment centrifuges at its 82 “Security,” Global Conference on CyberSpace, last modified 2015, https://www.gccs2015.com/themes/security. 83 James Andrew Lewis, “Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, last modified Dec 2002, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/021101_risks_of_cyberterror.pdf. 84 Patricia Ralston, James H. Graham, and Jefferey L. Hieb, "Cyber Security Risk Assessment for SCADA and DCS Networks," ISA Transactions 46, No. 4 (2007): 583-594, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019057807000754. 85 David E. Graham, "Cyber Threats and the Law of War," Journal of National Security Law & Policy 4 (2010): 87, http://jnslp.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/07_Graham.pdf. 86 Göran N. Ericsson, "Cyber Security and Power System Communication—Essential Parts of a Smart Grid Infrastructure.” 87 Ibid.
  28. 28. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 24 - fissile material facility at Natanz, a city south of Tehran. The Stuxnext attack, a computer worm used to infect computer networks, destroyed or shut down 10% of Iran’s uranium enrichment capabilities for a full year. Stuxnet reportedly was a virus targeted through flash drives, not the Internet. Other major attacks have been focused on specific companies, often penetrating their security systems in search of credit card numbers.88 While these most prominent cyber-attacks took place outside of Europe, the economic nature of the countries targeted mirror that of many European states. Additionally, the targeted countries have the experience to help Europe in the battle against cyberterrorism, and can potentially help prevent attacks from occurring in the future. In 2009, the US, the UK, and Germany created the Anti- Terrorism Effort in European Nations. This action plan was created as a means to help well- resourced countries in Europe along with the US to provide resources and a united front to maintain cybersecurity in European countries.89 In May 2010, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, one of many stock market indices, dove nearly one thousand points (8% of its value) after a trading algorithm malfunctioned.90 This instance proved to the international community that stock exchanges and other business transactions are highly vulnerable to cyber glitches and hackers. Less than a year later, NASDAQ revealed that its servers had been broken into and hackers had gained access to confidential corporate documents.91 It is unknown of what caused the hacking. It is known, however, that the hackers were able to plant malware inside the Director’s Desk web application. While the trading platform itself was not breached, this security failure raised questions about just how secure the world’s financial markets are. NASDAQ accounts for almost 19% of the American stock market, and a breach to its trading platform could be disastrous, especially in the short-run.92 Whether an attack would have long-term consequences is more speculative. Regardless, this potential lack of security is crucial for delegates to note. In early 2012, a virus now known as Flame virus was discovered. Like Stuxnet, Flame was likely constructed by a group of countries, including those involved in Stuxnet.93 Unlike Stuxnet, however, it was used for espionage purposes. Several major laboratories including CrySyS and Budapest University for Technology and Economics, both in Hungary, deemed it the most complex malware they had ever encountered and, possibly, in existence. Reports conducted by Kaspersky, the malware protection software company, indicated that Flame had plagued over one thousand machines and servers. Those affected included government-affiliated organizations, academic institutions and 88 David E. Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,” New York Times, 1 June 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/01/world/middleeast/obama-ordered-wave-of-cyberattacks-against-iran.html 89 Kristin Archick, "Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention." Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2005, http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/36076.pdf. 90 Göran N. Ericsson, "Cyber Security and Power System Communication—Essential Parts of a Smart Grid Infrastructure.” 91 Joseph S. Nye Jr., “Cyber Power,” Harvard University Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, last modified May 2010, http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/cyber-power.pdf. 92 Ibid. 93 Ralph Langner, "Stuxnet: Dissecting a Cyberwarfare Weapon," Security & Privacy, IEEE 9, no. 3 (2011): 49-51, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5772960&tag=1.
  29. 29. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 25 - normal civilians.94 The attacks were mainly focused in the Middle East, particularly Iran.95 These attacks raise a slew of significant security concerns for the European region, and the OSCE must begin to investigate this issue and, in doing so, take into account these increasingly volatile cyber- attacks. Identification and Targeting Key Sources of Cyber Threats One of the most important components of the issue of cyberterrorism is understanding the scope of cyberterrorist attacks and how such attacks have the serious potential to impact countries in Europe. Identifying key sources of attacks can change how an OSCE member state chooses to address the attack and can also help in the prevention of future attacks relating to cyberterrorism. Another main component of this issue is that many of the positive aspects of the Internet can be used to the advantage of terrorist groups. Some of those components include its minimal regulation, wide range of possible audiences, and efficient and quick transfer of information, along with few barriers of entry.96 Groups involved with cyberterrorism and cyber-attacks have tried various different tactics as a means of contaminating cyberspace. Some of these tactics include infecting servers with worms and viruses, installing incognito malware programs, and denial of service (DoS) attacks. The most common technique employed by cyberterrorist groups is creating viruses in which malware software is linked to an already existing file or application and launches consistently with the file or application without the knowledge of the individual using the file or application. The virus then clones itself and attaches itself to other files and applications.97 A major problem with cybersecurity is the speculative nature of the threats. The range of possible threats is quite broad. Well-known-possibilities include attacks interfering with Internet-related installations, server parks, and major firms; attacks on financial industries such as banking and security trading; denial of access to defense ministries; energy industries, electricity generation and distribution, including oil refineries and pipelines; interference with equipment at critical infrastructure such as emergency services, hospitals, energy generation and distribution, transportation; access to information of prosecuted criminals and terrorists; and violation of commercial and individual privacy.98 Overall, these varying types of cybersecurity threats can be categorized as acts of effects-based cyberterrorism and/or acts of Internet-based cyber terrorism. Many cyber security attacks come from attacks on critical information infrastructure. Critical information infrastructures are “systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to a country that their improper functioning, incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on state 94 Doris Estelle Long, "Strategies for Securing the Cyber Safety Net for Terrorists: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach," in Terrorism and Global Insecurity: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, (Urbana: Linton Atlantic Books, 2009), http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2223301. 95 Ibid. 96 Mei Xue and Deren Yang, "Analysis of Digital Content Nested Protection in the Research of Digital Content Lifecycle Protection," Network Computing and Information Security, last modified 2011, http://www.gbv.de/dms/tib-ub- hannover/669237418.pdf. 97 Ibid. 98 Ibid.
  30. 30. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 26 - security and defense, economic security, public health or safety.”99 These infrastructures are often run by roughly twenty-four computer database systems and can include energy, transport, communication, defense and government service factors to name a few. A small malfunction of these systems caused by cyberterrorists may not only make daily activities inconvenient but could even bring about thousands of deaths if the cyberattack threatens national security. 100 Enhancing Cybersecurity Technologies Many large security organizations have started developing and researching security-enhancing cybersecurity technologies for the purpose of ensuring the security of the international community. The Geneva-based International Telecommunications Union (ITU), an independent international organization affiliated with the OSCE, has emerged as the center for international coordination on these issues.101 By setting standards for all telecommunications, the ITU provides essential benchmarks for governments, establishing what is universally accepted as permissible and where limits for governments stand in regards to the quality of cybersecurity technologies. UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council both generally mandate the ITU as the center for further consideration and action on this issue.102 On 23 November 2001, the Council of the European Union (CoEU) met in Budapest for the Convention on Cybercrime. This convention resulted in the first international treaty focused on forming a universal criminal policy centered on protecting states from cybercrime through assuming suitable legislation and cooperation on an international front.103 One of the key highlights of the convention was the creation of a committee of experts to assess and manage cyberterrorism issues, with membership determined by the European Committee on Crime Problems. The committee was formed in order to maintain cybersecurity in participating members states of the CoEU. One of the primary responsibilities of the committee was to assess already existing criminal procedural laws relating to cyberspace offenses, define criminal prosecution for cyberterrorism-related crimes, utilize coercive powers in cyberspace, determine the jurisdiction of these crimes, and establish and develop international cooperation in regards to cybersecurity maintenance. On 16 May 2005, the CoEU met again to revise the standards established at the last convention and to improve the effectiveness of existing provisions and initiatives established for the fight against cybercrime. The session was held in response to the 9/11 attacks and aimed to prepare Europe for terrorist attacks in the realm of cyber-related crimes. In this convention, the Multidisciplinary Group on International Action against Terrorism was created. The purpose of the group was to help establish and foster cooperation amongst countries in order to improve the disciplinary action and prevention of such atrocious acts. 99 Myriam Dunn, "The Socio-Political Dimensions of Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP)," International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 1, No. 2-3 (2005): 258-268, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= 100 Dan Assaf, "Models of Critical Information Infrastructure Protection," International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection 1 (2008): 6-14, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/234050880_Models_of_Critical_Information_Infrastructure_Protection. 101 Paul Meyer, "Diplomatic Alternatives to Cyber-Warfare: A Near-Term Agenda," The RUSI Journal 157, no. 1 (2012): 14-19, https://www.rusi.org/publications/journal/ref:A4F43D5ED55AEA/. 102 Ibid. 103 Ibid.
  31. 31. NHSMUN 2016 OSCE - 27 - On 28 Sept 2001, the UN Security Council ratified Resolution 1373 (S/RES/1373), which was a basis for UN counterterrorism policy and a direct result of the 9/11 attacks.104 This resolution delineated a universal binding policy for states to battle terrorism internationally, which helped the OSCE establish a basis to orient the focus of this issue. Furthermore, it founded the Counter- Terrorism Committee (CTC) as an enforcing body that would regularly check in on states to monitor their progress with the implementation of the resolution. Shortly after, on 12 November 2001, the Security Council passed Resolution 1377 (S/RES/1377).105 This resolution expanded upon Resolution 1373 and the roles of the CTC, finding ways to improve on how participating states could be assisted in implementing Resolution 1373.106 In 2005, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan outlined a five-part plan to battle terrorism on an international basis. His points were “first, to dissuade disaffected groups from choosing terrorism as a tactic to achieve their goals; second, to deny terrorists the means to carry out their attacks; third, to deter states from supporting terrorists; fourth, to develop state capacity to prevent terrorism; and fifth, to defend human rights in the struggle against terrorism.”107 The following year, Resolution 60/288 (RES/60/288) was adopted by the General Assembly to officially declare the five-part strategy created by Secretary-General Annan. It was named the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. A year later, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 60/288 (2006), formally announcing the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. RES/60/288 also created the Working Group on Countering the Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes. This working group is the only organization working with the OSCE dedicated exclusively to cyberterrorism issues, and, more specifically, the focus of the Working Group shifted in 2010 to focus more on the legal and technical aspects of cyberterrorism. In 2011, the Working Group started developing strategies to use the Internet as a means to deter attraction to terrorism, specifically by analyzing the role of counter- narratives and effective messengers who can deliver these narratives to lessen the appeal of terrorist action to achieve organizational or collective aims.108 Legislation Regarding Cyberterrorism in Europe Currently, several member states in the OSCE have little to no legislation dealing directly with cyberterrorism prevention and prosecution. The problem was not seen as the main priority for many countries in Europe until the cyber-attack on Estonia in 2007. In the EU, legal and policy frameworks has been compartmentalized into two main areas: policy in which “actions should be taken to enhance network resilience to potential attacks and incident response capacities” and from the law enforcement perspective.109 Related policy would include network and information security, critical infrastructure protection, and critical information infrastructure protection. Contrarily, little 104 Mitko Bogdanoski and Drage Petreski, "Cyber Terrorism–Global Security Threat," Security and Peace Journal 13, No. 24 (July 2013), 59-72, http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/6849/. 105 Ibid. 106 Paolo Campobasso, "A World-Wide Financial Infrastructure to Confront Cyber Terrorism," Modelling Cyber Security: Approaches, Methodology, Strategies 59 (2009): 75, www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/downloadSuppFile/247/18. 107 Tim Maurer, "Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations," Harvard University Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (2011): 6668, http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/maurer-cyber-norm-dp-2011-11-final.pdf. 108 Ibid. 109 Mitko Bogdanoski and Drage Petreski, "Cyber Terrorism–Global Security Threat."