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LESSON 1:
IN THE BEGINNING
(Big Bang Theory and Formation of
the Light Elements)
CONTENT How the elements found in the universe were formed
CONTENT
STANDARD
At the end of the lesson, you will be able to
...
PHYSICAL SCIENCE
It is a branch of
natural science that
studies non-living
systems, in contrast
to life science. It in
tur...
CHEMISTRY
1. Cosmology -
2. Big Bang theory/Big Bang model -
3. Nucleosynthesis -
4. Singularity -
5. Inflation -
6. Annihilation -
...
 is a branch of astronomy that
involves the origin and
evolution of the universe, from
the Big Bang to today and on
into ...
through which specific groups of
elements were formed
1. Big bang nucleosynthesis formed the light
elements (H, He, and Li...
 explains how the elements were
initially formed the formation of
different elements involved many
nuclear reactions, inc...
 part of its proof is the amounts of
H and He we have in the universe
today.
 a point in space and/or a
moment in time where the
universe was infinitely hot and
dense
 is a theory of exponential
expansion of space in the early
universe. The inflationary
epoch lasted from 10−36
seconds.
 is the process that creates new
atomic nuclei from pre-existing
nucleons, primarily protons
and neutrons.
 refers to the epoch at which
charged electrons and protons
first became bound to form
electrically neutral hydrogen
atom...
 in physics, reaction in which a
particle and its antiparticle collide
and disappear, releasing energy.
 the displacement of spectral lines
toward longer wavelengths (the
red end of the spectrum) in
radiation from distant gal...
 is electromagnetic radiation
left over from an early stage of
the universe in Big Bang
cosmology.
 is electromagnetic radiation
left over from an early stage of
the universe in Big Bang
cosmology.
ACTIVITY
BEFORE
and AFTER
INFLATION
Instructions:
1) Stick small stickers randomly on
the surface of the uninflated
balloon.
2) Quickly inflate the balloon wi...
Answer the following questions:
• Why do the stickers appear to be
moving away from each other?
• Are the stickers moving ...
 are the smallest unit of matter
that have all the properties of an
element. They composed of
smaller subatomic particles...
 indicates the
number of protons
in an atom. In a
neutral atom, number of
protons is equal to the
number of electrons.
 is equal to the sum of the number
of protons and neutrons.
 refer to atoms
with the same
atomic number
but different
atomic
masses.
 which are positively or negatively
charged particles, have the same
number of protons in different
number of electrons.
References:
• Santiago, K.. et. Al (2016). Exploring Life Though
Science Series: Senior High School Physical Science.
Phoe...
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)
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Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)

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Content: How the Elements Found in the Universe were Formed

Content Standard:
The learners demonstrate an understanding of:
• the formation of the elements during the Big Bang and during stellar evolution

Learning Competency
The learners:
• give evidence for and explain the formation of the light elements in the Big Bang theory (S11/12PS-IIIa-1)

Summary
• The big bang theory explains how the elements were initially formed the formation of different elements involved many nuclear reactions, including fusion fission and radioactive decay
• There are three cosmic stages through which specific groups of elements were formed.
(1) The big bang nucleosynthesis formed the light elements(H, He, and Li).
(2) Stellar formation and evolution formed the elements heavier than Be to Fe.
(3) Stellar explosion , or supernova, formed the elements heavier than Fe.
• Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that have all the properties of an element. They composed of smaller subatomic particles as protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have positive charge, neutrons are electrically neutral; and electrons have a negative charge.
• The nucleus, which takes the central region of an atom, is comprised of protons and neutrons, electrons move around the nucleus.
• The atomic number (Z) indicates the number of protons in an atom. In a neutral atom, number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. The atomic mass (A) is equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
• Isotopes refer to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses.
• Ions, which are positively or negatively charged particles, have the same number of protons in different number of electrons.

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Lesson 1 In the Beginning (Big Bang Theory and the Formation of Light Elements)

  1. 1. LESSON 1: IN THE BEGINNING (Big Bang Theory and Formation of the Light Elements)
  2. 2. CONTENT How the elements found in the universe were formed CONTENT STANDARD At the end of the lesson, you will be able to demonstrate an understanding of: 1.the formation of the elements during the Big Bang and during stellar evolution 2.the distribution of the chemical elements and the isotopes in the universe PERFORMANCE STANDARD At the end of the quarter, you will able to make a creative representation of the historical development of the atom or the chemical element in a timeline LEARNING COMPETENCIES At the end of the lesson, you will have to give evidence for and explain the formation of the light elements in the Big Bang theory.
  3. 3. PHYSICAL SCIENCE It is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences".
  4. 4. CHEMISTRY
  5. 5. 1. Cosmology - 2. Big Bang theory/Big Bang model - 3. Nucleosynthesis - 4. Singularity - 5. Inflation - 6. Annihilation - 7. Recombination - 8. Redshift - 9. Relative abundance - 10. Cosmic microwave background – KEY TERMS
  6. 6.  is a branch of astronomy that involves the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to today and on into the future.
  7. 7. through which specific groups of elements were formed 1. Big bang nucleosynthesis formed the light elements (H, He, and Li). 2. Stellar formation and evolution formed the elements heavier than Be to Fe. 3. Stellar explosion , or supernova, formed the elements heavier than Fe.
  8. 8.  explains how the elements were initially formed the formation of different elements involved many nuclear reactions, including fusion, fission and radioactive decay
  9. 9.  part of its proof is the amounts of H and He we have in the universe today.
  10. 10.  a point in space and/or a moment in time where the universe was infinitely hot and dense
  11. 11.  is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds.
  12. 12.  is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
  13. 13.  refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.
  14. 14.  in physics, reaction in which a particle and its antiparticle collide and disappear, releasing energy.
  15. 15.  the displacement of spectral lines toward longer wavelengths (the red end of the spectrum) in radiation from distant galaxies and celestial objects.
  16. 16.  is electromagnetic radiation left over from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
  17. 17.  is electromagnetic radiation left over from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
  18. 18. ACTIVITY BEFORE and AFTER INFLATION
  19. 19. Instructions: 1) Stick small stickers randomly on the surface of the uninflated balloon. 2) Quickly inflate the balloon with a pump or your breath. 3) Observe the stickers. ACTIVITY
  20. 20. Answer the following questions: • Why do the stickers appear to be moving away from each other? • Are the stickers moving across the balloon? • Do the stickers themselves grow in size? ACTIVITY
  21. 21.  are the smallest unit of matter that have all the properties of an element. They composed of smaller subatomic particles as protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  22. 22.  indicates the number of protons in an atom. In a neutral atom, number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
  23. 23.  is equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
  24. 24.  refer to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses.
  25. 25.  which are positively or negatively charged particles, have the same number of protons in different number of electrons.
  26. 26. References: • Santiago, K.. et. Al (2016). Exploring Life Though Science Series: Senior High School Physical Science. Phoenix Publishing House. • Teaching Guide for Senior High School: Physical Science. CHED in collaboration with PNU. • Photo credits: various internet websites Disclaimer: The photos used in this slideshow presentation is not owned by the author and were just used for educational purposes only.
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Content: How the Elements Found in the Universe were Formed Content Standard: The learners demonstrate an understanding of: • the formation of the elements during the Big Bang and during stellar evolution Learning Competency The learners: • give evidence for and explain the formation of the light elements in the Big Bang theory (S11/12PS-IIIa-1) Summary • The big bang theory explains how the elements were initially formed the formation of different elements involved many nuclear reactions, including fusion fission and radioactive decay • There are three cosmic stages through which specific groups of elements were formed. (1) The big bang nucleosynthesis formed the light elements(H, He, and Li). (2) Stellar formation and evolution formed the elements heavier than Be to Fe. (3) Stellar explosion , or supernova, formed the elements heavier than Fe. • Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that have all the properties of an element. They composed of smaller subatomic particles as protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have positive charge, neutrons are electrically neutral; and electrons have a negative charge. • The nucleus, which takes the central region of an atom, is comprised of protons and neutrons, electrons move around the nucleus. • The atomic number (Z) indicates the number of protons in an atom. In a neutral atom, number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. The atomic mass (A) is equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons. • Isotopes refer to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses. • Ions, which are positively or negatively charged particles, have the same number of protons in different number of electrons.

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