Can be defined as relatively permanent
change on behavior occurring as a result of
experience. (experience may be of purchase
TYPES OF LEARNED BEHAVIORS
We learn many physical behaviors to respond to a situation e.g. learn to walk ,
talk , interact with others, and also the method of responding to various
Consumers learn certain physical activity through the process of modeling, in
which they mimic the behavior of other individual such as celebrities.
Symbolic Learning and problem Solving
Traffic signs , McDonald's Golden arches, slogans etc. and also the cognitive
One can also engage in problem-solving process of thinking and insight
Thinking involves the mental manipulation of symbols representing the real
world to form meanings. This leads to insight that is relationships of products
with problems .e.g u may be interested in buying an alarm for car due to certain
symbols or ads but after some insight knowledge that ur car is always in secured
parking lots u decide not ot waste money and spend it for some thing else.
4 ELEMENTS OF LEARNING
Motives arouse individuals and as a result they respond. This arousal function is
essential because it activates the energy needed to engage in learning activity.
By achieving the goal ,the arousal reduces, but have a greater tendency to occur
again, that is why marketers put their product in a way that when relevant
consumer motive arouse their products are their to satisfy the need.
This result that consumer will learn a connection b/w the product and motive .
Capable of providing direction i.e. it influences the manner in which, to respond to
motive.e.g. hungry man is guided by restaurant signs or aroma of food.
Mental or physical activity in reaction to a stimulus.
Anything that follows the response and increase the tendency of response to
reoccur in a similar situation.
CONSUMER LEARNING PROCESS
Learning occurs intentionally (problem
solving process) as well as un-intentionally.
learning and memory theories are useful in
understanding that how consumers wants
and motives are acquired and how their
tastes are developed, how frequently we are
going to repeat our advertising , how visuals
,symbols ,sounds and other techniques can
SOME PEOPLE PURCHASE A WATCH FROM A COGNITIVE
AND RATIONAL VIEWPOINT WHERE AS SOME MAY GO FOR
ITS STYLING OR ITS ASSOCIATION WITH A CERTAIN LIFE
STYLE OR STATUS LEVEL THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL
VARIATIONS IN CONSUMER DECISION
Depends upon the type of product
Low priced /routine /habitual
Prominent shelf position
Special price offer
High value coupons
Low knowledge about the product
Ads with detail information
People learn to value certain elements of their
environment and dislike others. This means
that consumers learn many of their wants
,needs, motives as well as what products
satisfy these needs.
Learning also influence the consumers in
developing a favorable or unfavorable attitudes
towards some product.
CONSUMER LEARNING PROCESSES
Cognitive Learning (Thinking)
Consumers learn through information processing and
Behavioral Learning (Conditioning)
Learning via association (classical conditioning)
Learning via reinforcement (instrumental cond.)
Modeling Processes (Modeling)
Based on observation of outcomes and consequences
experienced by others
BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY.
Two approaches of the theory
1. Classical conditioning
2. Operant conditioning
Says that learning is an associative process
with an already existing relationship b/w a
stimuli and response. e.g. of food and
salivation that is not taught rather it already
exists. or we can say food is unconditional
stimuli and so as unconditional response
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PROCESS
Lipton Tea ,Brita water
Association develops through
contiguity and repetition
(Food, family events
CONSIDERATIONS WHILE APPLYING THE THEORY
1. Contiguity : unconditional and conditional
stimuli must be close enough in time and
2. Repetition: the more often the unconditional
and conditional stumble occur together the
stronger the association
The individual must actively operate or act on
some aspect of environment for learning to
ossur.Also called instrumental conditioning.
Is that learner or consumer will discover the
appropriate response that will be reinforced.
i.e. instead of dog put a pigeon in the box .
Button = conditional stimuli
Food = positive reinforcement
Increase or decrease in
probability of repeat
INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING PROCESS
Positive or negative
(reward or punishment)
product or service)
DISTINCTION B/W THEORIES
1. Involve an already
to another stimuli
2. The outcome is not
3. Influences and
change the opinions
1. No previous stimuli
2. The outcome is
3. Influences changes
in goal –oriented
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON
That includes knowledge , belief, art,morals,law,
customs, and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society. every
thing that is socially learned and shared by the
members of society.
Characteristics of culture
Culture is learned
From one generation to an other
Culture is socially shared
American culture in our society / TV programs etc.
Culture are similar but diff.
e.g. calendar / education/ family/ music/ gestures/ housing
Cultural elements are handed down from generation to
generations cant escape ur cultural heritage
But in spite of resistance culture is changing gradually rate
of change varies.
Organized as well as integrated.
Tends to form a consistent and integrated as a whole.
Marketers can distinguish more homogeneous
groups subgroups within the heterogeneous
national society. Sindhi / Punjabi/ pathan etc.
Race , nationality, religion
Social class Vs Status
Both can be of same social class but diff. in status
Reference/ social groups
What role you are playing in the group