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Serving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Part 2 (Feb. 2019)


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Serving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Part 2 (Feb. 2019)

  1. 1. Library Services for Youth with ASD, Part 2: Resources and instructional strategies for people with ASD Dr. Lesley Farmer, CSULB
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Identify print resources that work well with youth having ASD.  Identify digital resources that work well with youth having ASD.  Discuss effective reading strategies for youth with ASD.  Discuss effective instructional strategies for youth with ASD.  Discuss effective learning activities for youth with ASD.
  3. 3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  5 developmental disorders: Autistic Disorder, Rett’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Development Disorder  Symptoms can range from mild to extreme  Children manifest symptoms of this group of disorders either at birth (early infantile autism) or by the age of three (regressive autism)  More boys than girls are affected by autism, although diagnosed girls tend to have more severe behaviors (CDC, 2014)  Sensory system for people with autism differs from others; body language may also differ
  4. 4. Universal Design  Use accessible formats and methods, such as ADA-compliant web pages.  Keep processes simple, clear, intuitive.  Provide choice and flexibility in seating, resources, interaction, pacing.  Encourage positive communication and learning environment.
  5. 5. Getting Started  Collaborate!  Address full scope of deficits.  Remember developmental sequences of physical, communication, social skills.  Keep child close to instructional area.  Use speech and gestures.  Be explicit and literal.  Avoid libraryese and library idioms.  Take advantage of teachable moments.  Reduce behavior incompatible with learning.
  6. 6. Reading Experiences  Jan prefers non-fiction because fiction forces his thoughts to go beyond the literal.  Michael loves Harry Potter, and has read the series repeatedly.  Sean runs around the room when the librarian is telling the story, but he understands it.  Karen has read all of the library’s biographies.  Miguel rocks gently while poetry is read aloud.  Tommy enjoys punching his favorite phrase on a story available on the iPad, the VoiceOver app provide a gesture-based screen reader.
  7. 7. Reading Preferences  Predictable books: chain, cumulative, Q/A, pattern, repeated phrase  Formulaic stories and series  Non-fiction (might just look at pictures)  Rhymes and songs  Motor skills books  Visual discrimination and wordless books  Realistic fiction  NF graphic novels  Periodicals
  8. 8. Make Print Resources Accessible Stabilize (laminate, clip, make lay flat). Enlarge. Add parts. Simplify. Make more familiar and or concrete. Add cues. Add sensory experience. Provide props and realia.
  9. 9. Reading Difficulties  Difficulty sounding out words  Auditory problems  Limited experiences and vocabulary  Difficulty determining main idea  Abstractions  Not motivated to share reading  Limited metacognition  Note: hyperlexia (decode without meaning)
  10. 10. Reading Strategies  Word games: MadLibs, Pictionary, etc.  Softly beating time to poetry  Thematic word walls with image cues  Closed captioning  Making predictions  Modeling think-aloud reading strategies  Retelling and dramatizing stories  Creating picture (and other) books
  11. 11. Story Hours  Have unique defined space (carpet squares)  Have fidget toys  Do opening and closing rituals  Have predictable rules for behavior  Use themes  Repeat a story/song/poem from prior session  Incorporate visuals and props (multi-sensory)  Provide alternative ways to participate  Designate a story hour buddy  Don’t expect response
  12. 12. Advantages of Tech Aids  Involves kinesthetics  Provides a variety of input options and info formats  Facilitates non-verbal response  Can be used repeatedly  Can be highly structured with discrete stimuli or activities  Can be very predictable and patient  Usually doesn’t require high social skills
  13. 13. Mainstream Technologies  Interactive whiteboards  Games (http://sites.google.com/site/autismgames)  Digital tablets (iPad, etc.)  Mobile apps (Squidalicious, EdShelf)  Virtual worlds  Avatars  Social media
  14. 14. Low End Assistive Tech  Dry erase boards  Clipboards  3-ring binders  Manila file folders  Photo albums  Laminated PCS/photographs  Highlight tape, etc. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
  15. 15. More Sensory Strategies
  16. 16. Physical Accommodations
  17. 17. Mid Level Assistive Technology  Battery operated devices or "simple" electronic devices  Tape recorders  Big Mack recorder  Language Master  Overhead projectors  Timers  Calculators
  18. 18. High End Assistive Technology  Touch screens  Communication boards with symbols (e.g., Boardmaker, IntelliKeys)  Voice output devices  Cameras (still and video) (https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/aac-website- resource-list)
  19. 19. Animated Speech Software Products Timo Vocabulary Curriculum-based vocabulary primer (Grades grades K-4) Timo Stories Narrative comprehension, story retelling and language skills development (Grades Pre-K to 3) Timo’s Lesson Creator Create your own vocabulary lessons
  20. 20. Timo Vocabulary Activities Includes activities to Introduce new words & phrases Practice identifying images with words Practice identifying written words Practice spelling words Practice saying words with a recording feature for playback See – Say – Read - Spell (This lesson uses images.)
  21. 21. Video and Animation Training Activity Trainer
  22. 22. Matching Technology with Child and Learning Objective  Use most stable, low-tech solution  Think accessibility  Can child manipulate the technology independently and comfortably?  Does the technology support content and skill?  Is the technology manageable in inclusive site?  What is the time frame required?  Note: tech engagement ≠ learning
  23. 23. Incorporating Technology Aids  Employ universal design principles.  Scaffold learning using technology.  Photograph steps, people, concepts.  Use visual rather than auditory stimulation.  Use videotapes and CD/DVDs of a book that replicates the original, and used with the print copy.  Show video clips that demonstrate positive behaviors in very concrete detail.  Use software/web tutorials to teach skills (e.g., Reader Rabbit, MathBlaster, Timo)
  24. 24. AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication  Picture Exchange Communication System  Keyboards/written tools  Voice-output communication systems  Library-specific vocabulary board
  25. 25. Instructional Strategies: Direct Instruction  Give objective and concrete benefit  Do step-by-step processes  Provide lists  Use presentation tools  Incorporate a variety of senses  Provide visual cues  Give concrete examples  Give study guides  Model and reinforce correct responses
  26. 26. Discrete Trial Training  Set objective, antecedent, behavior, and criterion for mastery: e.g., find correct book  Analyze skill and clarify sequence of steps  Record effort, behavior, interfering behavior  Provide reinforcer  Build in discriminating training
  27. 27. Collaboration Training  Identify tasks that require several people  Identify different roles and skills  Integrate independent work (e.g., research)  Teach group processing skills  Incorporate social stories and task cards  Keep group members and vary roles (or v.v.)
  28. 28. Constructivist Strategies  Builds on prior knowledge and skills so may be hard (leverage youth’s interests)  Connections between two concepts or experiences may be personal  Hard to develop new patterns (can sort into existing categories)  May arrive at unique conclusions (have difficulty with cause and effect)
  29. 29. Visual Issues  Use simple, well-labelled handouts.  Use calming light and muted colors.  Minimize visual distractions.  Face the group.  Write in large letters in high contrast.  Place a black surface under worksheets.  Use closed captioning.  Create vocabulary cards that include image.  Do visual detail activities.
  30. 30. Language Issues  Poetry, humor, irony may be difficult  Paralinguistics (tone, stress) may be difficult  Simplify language.  Ask binary questions: Did he eat a cake or a pie?  Ask literal discrete questions.  Teach “wh” questions.  Provide structured sentence templates.  Use graphic organizers.
  31. 31. Echolalia and Perseveration  Echolalia: echo/repeat same word/phrase  Perseveration: repeat phrase after stimulus ends  Determine “trigger”: interaction, self- regulation, drawing attention, resisting  Redirect attention  Assure and teach support
  32. 32. Learning Activities  Parallel play, learning, and reading  Ask youth to serve as subject/process expert  Use library processes to teach social skills: circulation, book handling, circle time, lining up  Games teach coordination, social interaction, pattern recognition, memory, literacy  Focus on effort and mastery rather than competition  Balance repetition and variety
  33. 33. Libraries and ASD Resources  http://librariesandautism.org/  https://targetingautismlibs.com/  https://projectenable.syr.edu/
  34. 34. “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.”
  35. 35. Your turn… https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/5GHC3VG

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Today we will cover two ASC products, Team Up With Timo: Vocabulary and Timo’s Lesson Creator. A third product, Team Up With Timo: Stories, applies NBLI (Narrative-Based Language Intervention). Timo reads 6 scaffolded stories and introduces concepts ranging from vocabulary and comprehension to to
  • Images in this lesson are from Dorling-Kindersley (DK Books, Eyewitness books, etc.)
  • The Mayer-Johnson images cannot be copied or printed independently of the lesson.