SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 9
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Fertilizer Policies and Implications for
African Agriculture: A Review*
Gashaw T. Abate
International Food Policy Research Institute
*Citations are not included in the PPT to conserve space, please refer the paper for citations.
Co-authors
Kibrom Abay David Spielman
Fertilizer use in Africa lag significantly behind other
regions of the world
• In 2017, Africa accounted for only 3.3%
of the global fertilizer use in Agriculture
• Intensity of application (23kg/ha) is about
eightfold lower than the rates in Asia
(185kg/ha)
• However, aggerate fertilizer use and
application rates have increased in Africa
• Fertilizer use: 4.1 (2002)  6.5 (2017)
(million, mt) == 3.5% annual growth rate
• Application rate: 17.7 (2002)  23.3 (2017)
(kg/ha) == 2% annual growth rate
23
95
81
135
185
123
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
Kilograms(kg)offertilizernutrientsper
hectare(ha)ofcropland
Quantities(in'000metrictons(mt))
Consumption (agricultural use) Application rate (kg/ha)
Fertilizer application rates considerably varies across
countries
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Kilograms(kg)offertilizernutrients
perhectare(ha)ofcropland
Mali Kenya Malawi Zambia
Burkina Faso Ghana Senegal Nigeria
Tanzania Ethiopia Côte d'Ivoire
• Access and supply related factors: unavailability of fertilizer at all or fertilizer not supplied at
the right time and place and in the right formulation
• Liquidity and credit constraints: fertilizer purchase require cash on hand (difficult to
accumulate), assets that can be liquidated (immiserating), or access to credit (in short supply)
• High cost of fertilizer: African farmers pay the highest price for fertilizer anywhere in the world,
which make it simply unaffordable/unprofitable (specially in remote areas and production zones
with low crop response rate)
• Risks/uncertainties and other behavioral factors (i.e., information asymmetry (e.g., on
quality); present-biased behavior (discourage saving); aspiration failures; etc.)
→Most of these factors are surmountable with the deployment of appropriate
public policies and investments
Socioeconomic and behavioral factors contribute to the
low adoption/application rate of fertilizer in Africa
• CAADP call for increasing ag productivity by focusing on the provision of improved inputs
• The Abuja Declaration called member states to promote the use of fertilizer via targeted
subsidies
• The Malabo Declaration affirmed the need to improve access to quality and affordable modern
inputs through the provision of “smart” protection to smallholder agriculture
• Regional initiative by Economic Communities: harmonization of fertilizer policy & regional trade
• While these declarations are instrumental in providing overarching frameworks for fertilizer
promotion, their impacts remain mixed
• Inspired some countries to update or reformulate their fertilizer polices
• Progress toward meeting most of the resolutions is inadequate
Concrete policies/declarations/regulations on fertilizer
promotion exist at the continent & regional levels
1) State-led fertilizer (marketing) policy
• Place the state at the center of fertilizer procurement, pricing, distribution
• Associated with (near-)universal subsidies on fertilizer price
• Some evidence of increased fertilizer use, but came with high fiscal cost, market distortion,
rent-seeking behavior
2) Market-led fertilizer policy
• Followed from the structural adjustment programs that many African countries signed on to
• The market-led policy vary across country both in terms of depth/breadth and level of
implementation
• As a result, the evidence base is mixed and sometimes controversial
→Currently, the most important question is “why such policies are insufficient to
achieve ag productivity” than “how to design and implement fertilizer polices”
About ⅓ of countries in Africa have a coherent fertilizer
policies…can be categorized into two broad typologies
• Poor (inadequate) implementation (e.g., inefficient targeting of subsidies)
• Absence of complementary polices/investments
• Fertilizer policies alone are not sufficiently effective to increase productivity
• Complementary policies related to investment in extension, breeding, road, irrigation, markets, and
other rural infrastructure; private sector participation, etc.
• Most policies overlooked basic scientific issues relating to soils and agronomy
• E.g., Generic and “blanket” fertilizer recommendations are common in Africa, despite considerable
spatial variability in soil properties (i.e., contribute to the low return and application rate)
Commonly cited shortfalls of existing fertilizer policies
in relation to increasing ag productivity
• While most fertilizer polices focus on reducing farmgate fertilizer prices and
increasing application rate, the evidence on its effectiveness is mixed
• Call for further improvements in the modalities and targeting of these policies (e.g.,
smart/innovative subsidies)
• Low and variable fertilizer application rate in Africa low and variable
returns for fertilizer use
• Investment in complementary inputs (e.g., improved seeds) & infrastructures (e.g., irrigation,
road, market, etc.) could help make fertilizer more profitable and appealing to farmers
• “Blanket” fertilizer recommendation in the presence of spatial variability in soil
properties likely contributing to the low return and application rate
• Call for site-specific recommendation to increase returns and ensure sustainable intensification
• Revitalizing extension systems to promote the adoption of integrated soil fertility management
practices
In summary . . .

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Strategic challenges in the agriculture sector
Strategic challenges in the agriculture sectorStrategic challenges in the agriculture sector
Strategic challenges in the agriculture sectorifadseahub
 
1. COSOP 2013-2018
1. COSOP 2013-20181. COSOP 2013-2018
1. COSOP 2013-2018ifadseahub
 
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementation
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementationFAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementation
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementationFAO
 
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...FMNR Hub
 
2. COSOP results review mtr 2016
2. COSOP results review mtr 20162. COSOP results review mtr 2016
2. COSOP results review mtr 2016ifadseahub
 
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectiveness
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectivenessTraditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectiveness
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectivenessEuforic Services
 
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio 6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio ifadseahub
 
Sustainability project
Sustainability projectSustainability project
Sustainability projectBurnee Bok
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Strategic challenges in the agriculture sector
Strategic challenges in the agriculture sectorStrategic challenges in the agriculture sector
Strategic challenges in the agriculture sector
 
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Dieter Orlowski
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Dieter Orlowski2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Dieter Orlowski
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Dieter Orlowski
 
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Sam Benin
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Sam Benin2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Sam Benin
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Sam Benin
 
How Policies, Institutions, and Markets Either Facilitate or Hinder Contribut...
How Policies, Institutions, and Markets Either Facilitate or Hinder Contribut...How Policies, Institutions, and Markets Either Facilitate or Hinder Contribut...
How Policies, Institutions, and Markets Either Facilitate or Hinder Contribut...
 
1. COSOP 2013-2018
1. COSOP 2013-20181. COSOP 2013-2018
1. COSOP 2013-2018
 
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementation
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementationFAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementation
FAO 28th Regional Conference for Africa: CAADP implementation
 
Global Food Policy Report 2018
Global Food Policy Report 2018Global Food Policy Report 2018
Global Food Policy Report 2018
 
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...
Potential Synergies between CAADP National Investment Planning and Farming Sy...
 
Module 5: Consideration of social aspects for inclusive development
Module 5: Consideration of social aspects for inclusive developmentModule 5: Consideration of social aspects for inclusive development
Module 5: Consideration of social aspects for inclusive development
 
CAADP Successes and Challenges
CAADP Successes and ChallengesCAADP Successes and Challenges
CAADP Successes and Challenges
 
2. COSOP results review mtr 2016
2. COSOP results review mtr 20162. COSOP results review mtr 2016
2. COSOP results review mtr 2016
 
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectiveness
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectivenessTraditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectiveness
Traditional and new donors – The need for improved development effectiveness
 
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Mawuli Sablah
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Mawuli Sablah2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Mawuli Sablah
2015 ReSAKSS Conference – Day 1 - Mawuli Sablah
 
IFAD presentation at the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation presentation at sf...
IFAD presentation at the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation presentation at sf...IFAD presentation at the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation presentation at sf...
IFAD presentation at the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation presentation at sf...
 
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio 6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio
6. Overview of the Cambodia country portfolio
 
COVID-19 & Global Food Security: 2 Years Later Introduction
COVID-19 & Global Food Security: 2 Years Later IntroductionCOVID-19 & Global Food Security: 2 Years Later Introduction
COVID-19 & Global Food Security: 2 Years Later Introduction
 
Module 4: Private sector engagement for NDC implementation
Module 4: Private sector engagement for NDC implementationModule 4: Private sector engagement for NDC implementation
Module 4: Private sector engagement for NDC implementation
 
Module 6: Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and adaptation M&E
Module 6: Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and adaptation M&EModule 6: Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and adaptation M&E
Module 6: Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and adaptation M&E
 
The African Union Biennial Review process and its potential outcomes
The African Union Biennial Review process and its potential outcomesThe African Union Biennial Review process and its potential outcomes
The African Union Biennial Review process and its potential outcomes
 
Sustainability project
Sustainability projectSustainability project
Sustainability project
 

Ähnlich wie 2020 ReSAKSS Annual Conference - Plenary Session III–Policies for Competitive & Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems

Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...africa-rising
 
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)AKADEMIYA2063
 
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern MaliEconomic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Maliafrica-rising
 
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzania
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in TanzaniaEconomic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzania
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzaniaafrica-rising
 
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global levelTowards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global levelSoils FAO-GSP
 
Distribution of Agri-inputs
Distribution of Agri-inputsDistribution of Agri-inputs
Distribution of Agri-inputsMD SALMAN ANJUM
 
Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation
 Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation  Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation
Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation africa-rising
 
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...essp2
 
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level Soils FAO-GSP
 
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...FAO
 
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern MaliEconomic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern MaliICRISAT
 
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation Crop diversity for climate change adaptation
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation Bioversity International
 
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...africa-rising
 
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...EcoAgriculture Partners
 
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate finance
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate financeIntroduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate finance
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate financeFAO
 
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...FAO
 

Ähnlich wie 2020 ReSAKSS Annual Conference - Plenary Session III–Policies for Competitive & Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems (20)

Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern M...
 
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)
Antony Chapoto-2022 ReSAKSS Conference Presentation (Side Event)
 
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern MaliEconomic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in southern Mali
 
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzania
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in TanzaniaEconomic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzania
Economic analysis of fertilizer options for maize production in Tanzania
 
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global levelTowards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
 
Rachid Serraj (FAO)• 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and...
Rachid Serraj (FAO)• 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and...Rachid Serraj (FAO)• 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and...
Rachid Serraj (FAO)• 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and...
 
The Fertilizer sector in the Philippines- Roehl Briones
The Fertilizer sector in the Philippines- Roehl Briones  The Fertilizer sector in the Philippines- Roehl Briones
The Fertilizer sector in the Philippines- Roehl Briones
 
Distribution of Agri-inputs
Distribution of Agri-inputsDistribution of Agri-inputs
Distribution of Agri-inputs
 
Hala Abou Ali - 2017 IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with FEPS - Cairo Uni...
Hala Abou Ali - 2017 IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with FEPS - Cairo Uni...Hala Abou Ali - 2017 IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with FEPS - Cairo Uni...
Hala Abou Ali - 2017 IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with FEPS - Cairo Uni...
 
Sikandra Kurdi (IFPRI Egypt) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in...
Sikandra Kurdi (IFPRI Egypt) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in...Sikandra Kurdi (IFPRI Egypt) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in...
Sikandra Kurdi (IFPRI Egypt) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in...
 
Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation
 Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation  Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation
Decision support tools for fertilizer recommendation
 
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...
Extension, fertilizer use, and agricultural productivity in Agricultural Grow...
 
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
Towards the implementation of the Fertilizer Code at the global level
 
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...
Highlights of the process for developing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Ac...
 
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern MaliEconomic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern Mali
Economic analysis of alternative systems for sorghum production in Southern Mali
 
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation Crop diversity for climate change adaptation
Crop diversity for climate change adaptation
 
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...
Sustainable intensification of maize-based systems through improved use of ph...
 
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...
Greening Commodity Agriculture: Agri-environmental policy in East and Southea...
 
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate finance
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate financeIntroduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate finance
Introduction to the NAP and NAMA processes and the relation to climate finance
 
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...
Adaptation Sector Integration: Perspectives from the agriculture and land-use...
 

Mehr von AKADEMIYA2063

AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAugustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS ConferenceAKADEMIYA2063
 
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxLea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxPrince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxSilver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference AKADEMIYA2063
 
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMs. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 

Mehr von AKADEMIYA2063 (20)

AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
 
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAugustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxLea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxPrince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxSilver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMs. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Amil baba
 
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectHello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectninnasirsi
 
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward
 
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundThoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundAshwinJey
 
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdfglobusfinanza
 
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxIntroduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxDrRkurinjiMalarkurin
 
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride ConsultingGlobal Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consultingswastiknandyofficial
 
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024prajwalgopocket
 
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxTACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxKathlynVillar
 
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityDemographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityGRAPE
 
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxOAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxhiddenlevers
 
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareAon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareHenry Tapper
 
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfSteliosTheodorou4
 
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςNewsroom8
 
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureBuilding pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureResolutionFoundation
 
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxBanking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxANTHONYAKINYOSOYE1
 
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptxHenry Tapper
 
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nationko9240888
 
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfZimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfFREELANCER
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (19)

Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
Uk-NO1 Rohani Amil In Islamabad Amil Baba in Rawalpindi Kala Jadu Amil In Raw...
 
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final projectHello this ppt is about seminar final project
Hello this ppt is about seminar final project
 
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
Money Forward Integrated Report “Forward Map” 2024
 
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension FundThoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
Thoma Bravo Equity - Presentation Pension Fund
 
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
10 QuickBooks Tips 2024 - Globus Finanza.pdf
 
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptxIntroduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
Introduction to Health Economics Dr. R. Kurinji Malar.pptx
 
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride ConsultingGlobal Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
Global Economic Outlook, 2024 - Scholaride Consulting
 
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
What is sip and What are its Benefits in 2024
 
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptxTACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
TACLOBAN-CITY-DIVISION-POPQUIZ-2023.pptx
 
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequalityDemographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
Demographic transition and the rise of wealth inequality
 
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptxOAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep18 WeighingTheRisks_Mar24_GlobalCredit.pptx
 
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshareAon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
Aon-UK-DC-Pension-Tracker-Q1-2024. slideshare
 
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdfekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
ekthesi-trapeza-tis-ellados-gia-2023.pdf
 
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτοςΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
ΤτΕ: Ανάπτυξη 2,3% και πληθωρισμός 2,8% φέτος
 
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the futureBuilding pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
Building pressure? Rising rents, and what to expect in the future
 
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptxBanking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
Banking: Commercial and Central Banking.pptx
 
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
2024-04-09 - Pension Playpen roundtable - slides.pptx
 
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation2B  Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
2B Nation-State.pptx contemporary world nation
 
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdfZimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
Zimbabwe's New Gold-Backed Currency- A Path to Stability or Another Monetary.pdf
 

2020 ReSAKSS Annual Conference - Plenary Session III–Policies for Competitive & Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems

  • 1. Fertilizer Policies and Implications for African Agriculture: A Review* Gashaw T. Abate International Food Policy Research Institute *Citations are not included in the PPT to conserve space, please refer the paper for citations.
  • 3. Fertilizer use in Africa lag significantly behind other regions of the world • In 2017, Africa accounted for only 3.3% of the global fertilizer use in Agriculture • Intensity of application (23kg/ha) is about eightfold lower than the rates in Asia (185kg/ha) • However, aggerate fertilizer use and application rates have increased in Africa • Fertilizer use: 4.1 (2002)  6.5 (2017) (million, mt) == 3.5% annual growth rate • Application rate: 17.7 (2002)  23.3 (2017) (kg/ha) == 2% annual growth rate 23 95 81 135 185 123 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Kilograms(kg)offertilizernutrientsper hectare(ha)ofcropland Quantities(in'000metrictons(mt)) Consumption (agricultural use) Application rate (kg/ha)
  • 4. Fertilizer application rates considerably varies across countries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Kilograms(kg)offertilizernutrients perhectare(ha)ofcropland Mali Kenya Malawi Zambia Burkina Faso Ghana Senegal Nigeria Tanzania Ethiopia Côte d'Ivoire
  • 5. • Access and supply related factors: unavailability of fertilizer at all or fertilizer not supplied at the right time and place and in the right formulation • Liquidity and credit constraints: fertilizer purchase require cash on hand (difficult to accumulate), assets that can be liquidated (immiserating), or access to credit (in short supply) • High cost of fertilizer: African farmers pay the highest price for fertilizer anywhere in the world, which make it simply unaffordable/unprofitable (specially in remote areas and production zones with low crop response rate) • Risks/uncertainties and other behavioral factors (i.e., information asymmetry (e.g., on quality); present-biased behavior (discourage saving); aspiration failures; etc.) →Most of these factors are surmountable with the deployment of appropriate public policies and investments Socioeconomic and behavioral factors contribute to the low adoption/application rate of fertilizer in Africa
  • 6. • CAADP call for increasing ag productivity by focusing on the provision of improved inputs • The Abuja Declaration called member states to promote the use of fertilizer via targeted subsidies • The Malabo Declaration affirmed the need to improve access to quality and affordable modern inputs through the provision of “smart” protection to smallholder agriculture • Regional initiative by Economic Communities: harmonization of fertilizer policy & regional trade • While these declarations are instrumental in providing overarching frameworks for fertilizer promotion, their impacts remain mixed • Inspired some countries to update or reformulate their fertilizer polices • Progress toward meeting most of the resolutions is inadequate Concrete policies/declarations/regulations on fertilizer promotion exist at the continent & regional levels
  • 7. 1) State-led fertilizer (marketing) policy • Place the state at the center of fertilizer procurement, pricing, distribution • Associated with (near-)universal subsidies on fertilizer price • Some evidence of increased fertilizer use, but came with high fiscal cost, market distortion, rent-seeking behavior 2) Market-led fertilizer policy • Followed from the structural adjustment programs that many African countries signed on to • The market-led policy vary across country both in terms of depth/breadth and level of implementation • As a result, the evidence base is mixed and sometimes controversial →Currently, the most important question is “why such policies are insufficient to achieve ag productivity” than “how to design and implement fertilizer polices” About ⅓ of countries in Africa have a coherent fertilizer policies…can be categorized into two broad typologies
  • 8. • Poor (inadequate) implementation (e.g., inefficient targeting of subsidies) • Absence of complementary polices/investments • Fertilizer policies alone are not sufficiently effective to increase productivity • Complementary policies related to investment in extension, breeding, road, irrigation, markets, and other rural infrastructure; private sector participation, etc. • Most policies overlooked basic scientific issues relating to soils and agronomy • E.g., Generic and “blanket” fertilizer recommendations are common in Africa, despite considerable spatial variability in soil properties (i.e., contribute to the low return and application rate) Commonly cited shortfalls of existing fertilizer policies in relation to increasing ag productivity
  • 9. • While most fertilizer polices focus on reducing farmgate fertilizer prices and increasing application rate, the evidence on its effectiveness is mixed • Call for further improvements in the modalities and targeting of these policies (e.g., smart/innovative subsidies) • Low and variable fertilizer application rate in Africa low and variable returns for fertilizer use • Investment in complementary inputs (e.g., improved seeds) & infrastructures (e.g., irrigation, road, market, etc.) could help make fertilizer more profitable and appealing to farmers • “Blanket” fertilizer recommendation in the presence of spatial variability in soil properties likely contributing to the low return and application rate • Call for site-specific recommendation to increase returns and ensure sustainable intensification • Revitalizing extension systems to promote the adoption of integrated soil fertility management practices In summary . . .

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. - Aggregate application of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium)
  2. Risks and uncertainties associated with agricultural production and prices (i.e. production and price risks coupled with uncertainty about climate patterns and trends)
  3. The Abuja Declaration specifically called for member states to increase their fertilizer consumption to 50 kilograms per hectare by 2015 from 8 kilograms per hectare in 2006 (AUC 2006). Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia
  4. Fertilizer policies and regulations mainly focus on the formulation of instruments that can reduce farmgate fertilizer prices and increase fertilizer application rates
  5. - Several studies show that heterogeneity in the returns to fertilizer use in the continent is partly explained by soil type
  6. - Fertilizer use sometime lead to the abandonment of other soil fertility management practices