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ADVERTISINGINTRODUCTION: We see ads on door hangers, in the mail, behind the batter at a cricket or baseball game, on basketballbackboards in city parks, on billboards, on television. We hear ads on radio and even when we’re on hold onthe telephone. It wasn’t always like this, but advertising itself has been with us for a long time. Advertising is paid, non-personal communication that is designed to communicate in a creativemanner, through the use of mass or information-directed media, the nature of products, services, and ideas. Itis a form of persuasive communication that offers information about products, ideas, and services that servesthe objectives determined by the advertiser. The word “advertise” originates from the Latin word advertere, which means to turn toward or to takenote of. Certainly, the visual and verbal commercial messages that are a part of advertising are intended toattract attention and produce some response by the viewer. Advertising is pervasive and virtually impossibleto escape. Newspapers and magazines often have more advertisements than copy; radio and televisionprovide entertainment but are also laden with advertisements; advertisements pop up on Internet sites; andthe mail brings a variety of advertisements. Advertising also exists on billboards along the freeway, in subwayand train stations, on benches at bus stops, and on the frames around car license plates. In shopping malls,there are prominent logos on designer clothes, moviegoers regularly view advertisements for localrestaurants, hair salons, and so on, and live sporting and cultural events often include signage, logos, products,and related information about the event sponsors. The pervasiveness of advertising and its creative elementsare designed to cause viewers to take note.HISTORY: Advertising has a very long history. It existed in ancient times in the form of signs that advertised waresin markets. In Europe and colonial America, criers were often employed by shopkeepers to shout a messagethroughout a town. Advertising became especially important in the second half of the nineteenth century asretailers began to advertise products and prices that would bring customers to their stores. Advertising has been practiced for thousands of years and came to the colonies via England.Advertising, however, was a small business before the Civil War. The local newspaper was the majoradvertising medium. The Industrial Revolution and the Civil War altered the social and cultural landscape andbrought about expansion of advertising, led to more leisure, more discretionary income, and greaterurbanization and industrialization, all of which fueled the growth of advertising. What advertisers now neededwas a medium in which to tell people about the different brands. Magazines provided a national medium forads, and advertising agencies quickly developed to meet the needs of the industry’s growing scale. As theindustry matured during this time, it began to professionalize itself. Radio moved advertising closer to show business and also allowed the industry to survive theDepression, a period in which advertising came under additional scrutiny from dollar-conscious consumers.The wealth that the advertising industry accrued from radio permitted it to survive during the Depression.
World War II reduced the number of consumer products that could be advertised, but advertisingcontinued in the form of image advertising, another boon to the ad agency business. Then came television,which changed the nature of advertising content just as the commercials themselves changed the nature ofthe medium. Television commercials were different from the advertising of all other media. The ability todemonstrate the product led to unique selling proposition (USP) –highlighting the aspect of a product thatsets it apart from other brands in the same product category.Some good current example of product with a clear USP is: Head & Shoulders: "You get rid of dandruff"Some unique propositions that were pioneers when they were introduced: Dominos Pizza: "You get fresh, hot pizza delivered to your door in 30 minutes or less -- or its free." FedEx: "When your package absolutely, positively has to get there overnight" M&Ms: "Melts in your mouth, not in your hand" Metropolitan Life: "Get Met, It Pays" In the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass media channels became moreprominent. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television. As cable and satellitetelevision became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted toadvertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV Canada. With the advent of the marketingthrough the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers. Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasingly more popular with a lot of companies.Guerrillamarketing is an advertising strategy, in which low-cost unconventional means are utilized, often in a localizedfashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea. This type of advertisingis unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects anincreasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers votethrough text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as Facebook orTwitter.Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Omnicom, Publicis,and WPP.DEFENSES OF ADVERTISING: We confront so many ads every day that we overlook them, and they become invisible. As a result,many people become aware of advertising only when it somehow offends them. Advertising does sometimesoffend, and it is often the focus of criticism. But industry defenders argue that: o Advertising supports our economic system; without it new product could not be introduced and development in others could not be announced. Competitive advertising of new products and businesses powers the engine of our economy, fostering economic growth and creating jobs in many industries. o People use advertising to gather information before making buying-decisions.
o Ad revenues make possible the free mass media we use not only for entertainment but for maintenance of our democracy. o By showing us the bounty of our capitalistic, free enterprise society, advertising increases national productivity and improves the standard of living.CRITICISM OF ADVERTISING: Criticism about advertising is that it is often intrusive, deceptive, exploits children and demeans orcorrupts culture. o Advertising is Intrusive. Many critics fault advertising for its intrusiveness. Advertising is everywhere, and it interferes with and alters our experience. Many internet users complain about the commercialization of the new medium and fear advertising will alter its free, open, and freewheeling nature. o Advertising is Deceptive. Many critics say that much advertising is inherently deceptive in that it implicitly and sometimes explicitly promises to improve people’s lives through the consumption or purchase of sponsor’s product. Advertising promises health, long life, sexual success, financial success, companionship, popularity, and acceptance. Industry defenders argue that people understand and accept these as allowable exaggerations, not as deception. o Advertising Exploits Children. Critics contend that children are simply not intellectually capable of interpreting the intent of these ads, nor are they able to rationally judge the worth of the advertising claims. This makes children’s advertising inherently unethical. As such, advertising campaigns aimed directly at children amount to a pervasion of innocence. Thanks to advertising, children have become convinced that they are inferior if they dont have an endless array of new products. o Advertising Demeans and Corrupts Culture. In our culture we value beauty, kindness, prestige, family, love, and success. As human beings we need food, shelter, and the maintenance of the species. Advertising succeeds by appealing to these values and needs. Critics argue that advertising can also have a huge influence on society. It tells the consumers that only purchasing products makes you happy and therefore people compare each other on their belongings. Critics argue that our culture has become a consumer culture – a culture in which personal worth and identity reside not in us but in the products with which we surround ourselves. A common advertising strategyAIDAapproach (to persuade consumersadvertising must attract attention, create interest, stimulate desire, and promote action) imply that we are inadequate and should not be satisfied with ourselves as we are. Women also compare themselves with the beautiful and very skinny models they see on commercials and ads. We are too fat or too thin, our hair is in needof improvement and our clothes are all wrong. Personal improvement is only a purchase away. This sometimes results in eating disorders and a low self-esteem of women who don’t look like these models. The globalized economy uses the same commercials in a lot of different countries, which leads to a break down in the differences of these societies. o Too much. Many complain that there is too much advertising, but the defense says we will just have to put up with it, because the dominant economic system demands a high level of mass distribution of products. Advertising volume will stay high because mass distribution supports our free enterprise system. It is the price we have to pay for free television, freedom of the press and our high standard of living.
o Materialism. In response to the charge that advertising makes people too materialistic, advertising affects our value system by suggesting that the means to a happier life lie in the acquisition of goods, more materials things. But different consumers have different needs and desires. Advertising presents the possibilities; it is up to the consumers to determine which are among their more urgent needs. Some enjoy a simple lifestyle: others want to indulge in the material pleasures of a modern technological society. o Stereotypes. It must be admitted that advertising does perpetuate stereotypes, as many critics claim. However, great changes have occurred in this regard in recent years. Advertisers have become sensitive to stereotyping population groups, because these groups constitute business for them, just as much as other groups. Minority advertising has become niche-making, instead of the use of stereotypes. The image of women in ads also has changed significantly so that men and women are portrayed equally. This is duenot to feminist pressures, according to the defense, but more to changes in the marketplace which make the exploitative representation of women counterproductive.ADVERTISING AGENCY: An advertising agency or advert agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning, andhandling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. An ad agency is independentfrom the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the clients products or services.An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profitorganizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce television commercials and radiocommercials as part of an advertising campaign.Advertising Agency Departments: Ad agencies are usually divided into departments, the number determined by the size and services ofthe operation: o Administration is the agency’s management and accounting operations. o Account managementis typically handled by an account executive who serves as liaison between agency and client, keeping communication flowing between the two and heading the team of specialists assigned by the agency to the client. o The creative department is where the advertising is developed from idea to ad. It involves copywriting, graphic design, and often the actual production of the piece, for example radio, television, and Web spots. o The media department makes the decisions about where and when to place ads and then buys the appropriate time or space. o Without the production department, the ads created by the copywriter and art director would be nothing more than words and pictures on paper. The production department, in essence, ensures the TV commercial or print ad, etc., gets produced.Producers are involved in every aspect of a project, from the initial creative briefing through execution and delivery. o Market research tests product viability in the market, the best venues for commercial messages, the nature and characteristics of potential buyers, and sometimes the effectiveness of the ads.
o The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. Traffic increases an agencys efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job starts, inappropriate job initiation, incomplete information sharing, over- and under-cost estimation and the need for media extensions. They are responsible for managing workflow, gathering cost estimates and answering the phone. o Many larger agencies have public relations departments as well.TYPES OF ADVERTISING: The advertising produced and placed by ad agencies can be classified according to the purpose of theadvertising and the target market: o Institutional or corporate advertising. Advertising whose purpose is to promote the image of a corporation rather than the sale of a product or service. This advertising is also used to create public awareness of a corporation or to improve its reputation in the marketplace. o Trade or professional advertising. Consumer-product advertising intended not for the consumer but for the various entities that influence consumer availability, such as distributors, wholesalers, retailers, brokers. Also called business-to-business advertising. The primary objective of trade advertising is to promote greater distribution of the advertised product. This can be done by opening up new outlets for products or by increasing the volume among present outlets. o Retail advertising. Advertising that promotes local companies’ and merchandisers goods and services. This is also referred to as Local Advertising. Offers goods or services for sale direct at an address or addresses within a radius of 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the town in which the main edition of the publication is produced. o Promotional retail advertising. Typically placed by retailers, promotional advertising does not focus on a product but rather on a promotion, a special event held by a retailer.That is aimed at informing the prospects about special discounts, sale, or schemes. o Industrial advertising. A form of business-to-business advertising, this is advertising aimed at manufacturers. The advertised products are raw materials, components, or equipment needed in the production or distribution of other goods and services used in the manufacturing process. o National consumer advertising. Product advertising commissioned by the manufacturer and aimed at potential buyers.Most radio, television, newspaper, and magazine commercials and advertisements are consumer advertising. o Direct market advertising. A form of advertising in which physical marketing materials are provided to consumers in order to communicate information about a product or service. Direct marketing does not involve advertisements placed on television or over the radio. Types of direct marketing materials include mailers and fliers,Cell Phone Text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. o Public service advertising. Public-service advertising is generally sponsored by a nonprofit institution, civic group, religious organization, trade association, or political group. Public Service Advertisements (PSA) are primarily designed to inform and educate rather than sell a product or service. Typically, it is directed at some humanitarian cause, philosophical ideal, political concept, or religious viewpoint. They are usually carried free of charge by the medium that houses them. Groups such as the Red Cross,
United Way, and International Ladies Garment Workers Union have sponsored a great deal of public- service advertising. o Television advertising. It is a form of advertising via the medium of television. o Radio advertising. It is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. o Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. o Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. o Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base to more narrowly targeted media on very specialized topics. o Billboard advertising. Advertising through billboards that are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. o In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product. o Celebrity branding.This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products.REGULATION OF ADVERTISING: There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and theinfluence of advertising.Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which productscan be advertised in a particular region. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads areregulated the most. Sweden and Norway prohibit domestic advertising that targets children. Some Europeancountries don’t allow sponsorship of children’s programs, no advertisement can be aimed at children underthe age of twelve, and there can be no advertisements five minutes before or after a children’s program isaired.Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that theyattempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is legal, decent, honest andtruthful.Regulation of Advertising in PAKISTAN: (1) Advertisements aired or distributed by a broadcast or cable TV station shall be designed in such a mannerthat it conforms to the laws of the country and is not offensive to morality, decency and religious sects of thepeople of Pakistan.(2) No advertisement shall be permitted which-(a) promotes or supports sedition, anarchy or violence in country;
(b) is against any provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan or any other law for the time being in force;(c) tends to incite people to crime, cause disorder or violence or breach of law or glorifies violence orobscenity in any way;(d) glorifies adultery, lustful passions or alcoholic drinks or the non-Islamic values;(e) distorts historical facts, traditions of Pakistan or the person or personality of a national leader or a statedignitary;(f) fans racial, sectarian, parochial, regional or class hatred;(g) promotes social inequality, militates against concepts of human dignity and dignity of labor.(h) is directed against sanctity or home, family and marriage;(i) is wholly or mainly of a religious or political nature;(j) contains references that are likely to lead the public to infer that the product advertised or any of itsingredients has some special property or quality which is incapable of being established;(k) contains indecent, vulgar, or offensive themes or treatment; or(l) contains material which is repugnant to ideology of Pakistan or Islamic values.(3) The goods or services advertised shall not suffer from any defects which are harmful to human health.Misleading claims about the goods shall not be made.(4) No advertisement which is likely to be seen by children in large numbers should urge children directly topurchase goods of a particular brand or ask their parents to do so.(5) All advertisements must be clearly distinguishable as such and be separate from the programs and shouldnot in any manner take the form of news or documentary.MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING: The work is not complete if the effectiveness of advertise is not measured. This is the only way to knowhow the advertisement is performing, is it reaching the targets and is the goal achieved. It is not at all possible to measure advertisement effectiveness accurately as there are many factorslike making a brand image, increasing the sales, keeping people informed about the product, introducing newproduct, etc, which affect the effectiveness of an advertisement.We all know that there are some companies who advertise at very low level but still their products are a hitand some companies indulge in very heavy advertisements but they don’t get desirable results. But then,there are some traditional and modern tools to measure most of the effectiveness of an advertisementthrough which the advertiser can or may get more and more information about how their ads and product areperforming in the market. A number of techniques may be used before an ad or ad campaign is released:
Copy Testing – measuring the effectiveness of advertising messages by showing them to consumers.Forced Exposure–used primarily for television advertising, requires advertisers to bring consumers to atheater, where they see a television program, complete with the new commercials. People are asked theirbrand preferences before the show, and then after. In this way, the effectiveness of the commercials can begauged. Once the campaign or ad is before the public, a number of different tests can be employed to evaluatethe effectiveness of the ad:Recognition Testing – in this test people who have seen a given publication are asked, in person or by phone,whether they remember seeing specific ads.Recall Testing – in this test consumers are asked, again in person or by phone, to identify which print orbroadcast ads they most easily remember. In recall testing, the advertisers assume that an easily recalled ad isan effective advertisement.Awareness Testing–measure the cumulative effect of a campaign in terms of consumer consciousness of aproduct. These are the traditional ways. Now days, internet is the modern tool for measuring the effectivenessof an advertisement. There are some types such as:Integrated direct marketing - This is an internet based tool where they have a response corner designed onthe websites. Whenever the customers visit the sites, they fill up their contact details and give feedbacks. Thusthe company supplies more information and sends newsletters and also gets the idea for further action. Butthen it’s not that only online advertiser have this facility but then advertisers who don’t work online can usecoupons, discount vouchers, etc. to do this.Analysis tool - there is an analysis tool available on internet by using which the advertiser will know how manycustomers are visiting the site, who are shopping online, how many pages are viewed, etc. which in turn willhelp advertiser to measure the effectiveness Internet is the most easy, cheaper and cost effective way to measure the effectiveness because hereno money is wasted as the ad is only viewed when the customer want to view it where as in normal printmethod or using TV, the ad sometimes goes unwatched or unattended and viewed for the sake of viewing.What these research techniques lack is the ability to demonstrate the link that is of most interest to the client– did the ad move the consumer tobuy the product?CONCLUSION: Advertising has changed people into consumers. Some ads are clearly an insult to peoples intelligence.Fear at these tendencies and indignation about then still run high, and are even growing in some circles. The development of advertising is a "success" story whose end is not in sight. New media have beeninvented which will create new possibilities for advertising. It is doubtful that the "information superhighway"will be free of advertising for it is the perfect vehicle to reach millions of people. And good marketing sense
demands the use of culture and cultural values for efficiency in targeting audiences. The often-heardcomplaint that the mirror of advertising is a distorted one remains serious, but a true reflection of realitywould not sell many products; so some distortion seems inevitable. Most criticism is directed against thisfaulty mirror. In the end, even if it is hard to admit, were it not for advertising we might not have the marvelousopportunity to see the Olympics, or many other unforgettable moments in our lives and in our country.SOURCES: o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising#Marketing_mix o http://www.crvp.org/book/Series05/V-4/chapter_vi.htm o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDA_(marketing) o http://voices.yahoo.com/history-advertising-its-affect-popular-culture-785627.html?cat=37 o http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/public-service-advertising/4963763-1.html#axzz2GzflA3ng o http://advertising.about.com/od/advertisingglossary/g/Public-Service-Advertising-A-Complete- Definition-Of-Public-Service-Advertising.htm o http://www.thefreedictionary.com/direct+marketing