• The Internet is known as “Interconnection
of computer networks”. The Internet is a
massive network of networks. It connects
millions of computers together globally,
forming a network in which any computer
can communicate with any other computer
as long as they are both connected to the
FIBER OPTIC CABLE (ALSO REFERRED TO AS
OPTICAL FIBER CABLE) TRANSMITS DATA AS
PULSES OF LIGHT THROUGH FLEXIBLE,
OPTICALLY PURE FIBERS OF GLASS OR PLASTIC.
IT HAS BECOME A POPULAR CHOICE FOR
ETHERNET NETWORKING AND
TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS. ITS
TRANSFER FAST DATA TRANSMISSION SPEEDS
OVER LONG DISTANCES.
OPTIC FIBRE CABLE
Tier 1 company
Tier 2 company
Tier 3 company
Tier 1 Internet providers are the networks that are the
backbone of the Internet. They are sometimes referred to as
backbone Internet providers. ... Key Tier 1 ISPs include AT&T,
Verizon, Sprint, NTT, Singtel, PCCW, Telstra, Deutsche Telekom
and British Telecom.
A Tier 2 ISP is a service provider that utilizes a combination
of paid transit via Tier 1 ISPs and peering with other Tier 2
ISPs to deliver Internet traffic to end customers through Tier 3
ISPs. Tier 2 ISPs are typically regional or national providers.
A Tier 3 ISP is a provider that strictly purchases
Internet transit. A Tier 3 provider is by definition primarily
engaged in delivering Internet access to end customers.
Tier 3 ISPs focus on local business and consumer market
Cyrus West Field (November 30,
1819 – July 12, 1892) was an
American businessman and
financier who, along with other
entrepreneurs, created the Atlantic
Telegraph Company and laid the
first telegraph cable across the
Atlantic Ocean in 1858.
The National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) is a non-profit company, its
primary purpose is to facilitate exchange of domestic internet traffic between the
peering ISPs, Content players and any other organizations with their own AS
number. This enables more efficient use of international bandwidth, saving
foreign exchange and also improves the Quality of Services (QoS) for internet
users by avoiding multiple international hops and thus reducing latency.
Utilizing servers routed through and administered by India, it also reduces the
chances of Indian data being intercepted unlawfully by NSA and GCHQ. NIXI is
managed and operated on a neutral basis and currently has eight
operational NOCs locatedin Delhi (Noida), Mumbai (Vashi), Chennai, Kolkata, Be
ngaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Guwahati.
• Internet is one of the best things ever invented
in humanity.... Internet can expose these young
minds to harmful uncensored videos or images
that can cause various psychological influences;
and over usage of computer can also lead to
different kinds of physical and cognitive health