The Eclipse M2M IWG and Standards for the Internet of Things
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The Eclipse M2M IWG and Standards for the Internet of Things

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This session highlights how the M2M IWG can play a role in the Internet of Things and Distributed Sensor Web as well as related technologies like Smart Home, Automotive or Transport/Logistics ...

This session highlights how the M2M IWG can play a role in the Internet of Things and Distributed Sensor Web as well as related technologies like Smart Home, Automotive or Transport/Logistics (allowing containers to automatically notify you if e.g. their temperature changes beyond a healthy range;-) We demonstrate how existing Java standards like JSR 256 (Mobile Sensor API) can be improved or replaced towards a new generation of Java Embedded and Mobile.
Taking technologies like the IEEE 1451 "Smart Sensor" standard into consideration, as well as OGC standards like SensorML or The Unified Code for Units of Measurement (UCUM) allowing type and context safe data transfer using various formats and protocols, whether it is XML, JSON or specific M2M protocols like MQTT or OMA-DM.

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  • Enabling new access to and uses of data

The Eclipse M2M IWG and Standards for the Internet of Things The Eclipse M2M IWG and Standards for the Internet of Things Presentation Transcript

  • The Eclipse M2M IWGand Standards forThe Internet ofThings Werner Keil Eclipse DemoCamp Copenhagen 21st November 2012
  • Overview• Introduction• Sensors • Historic IT Errors and Bugs • UOMo, Unit-API, UCUM • Sensor Web, SensorML• M2M • Use Cases• NFC • eNFC, Use Cases• Security • TPM, TEE, Secure Element, JavaCard• New Embedded Java Standards• Q&A2 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Who am I?Werner Keil • Consultant – Coach • Creative Cosmopolitan • Open Source Evangelist • Software Architect • Java Godfather • JCP Executive Committee Member • Eclipse UOMo Project Lead • Mærsk DevOps Build Manager • … Twitter @wernerkeil3 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Java Godfather?4 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Type-Safety• Java does not have strongly typed primitive types (like e.g. Ada or Smalltalk). • This is likely to change around Java 9 or 10 (based on Oracle Road Map and statements)• For performance reasons most developer prefer primitive types over objects in their interface.• Primitives type arguments can more easily lead to name clashes (methods with the same signature)5 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • What do these disasters have in common?• Patriot Missile The cause was an inaccurate calculation of the time since boot due to a computer arithmetic error.• Ariane 5 Explosion Floating point number which a value was converted from had a value greater than what would be represented by a 16 bit signed integer.• Gimli Glider (near disaster) Fuel loading was miscalculated through misunderstanding of the recently adopted Metric System, replacing the Imperial System6 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • What do these disasters have in common?• Mars Orbiter Preliminary findings indicate that one team used US/English units (e.g. inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for a key spacecraft operation. • NASA lost a $125 million Mars orbiter because a Lockheed Martin engineering team used English units of measurement while the agencys team used the more conventional metric system for a key spacecraft operation • A credible source disclosed, there was a manual step with an outsourced person to convert these calculations between the different teams, and NASA budget cuts caused them to fire him and have the wrong, unpatched data transmitted!!! • This also underlines the added risk when 3rd party contractors are involved or projects are developed Offshore8 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NASA “Star Wars” Initiative, 1983 23rd March 1983. Ronald Reagan announces SDI (or “Star Wars”): ground- based and space-based systems to protect the US from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.9 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • 1985 Mirror on underside of SDI Experiment: shuttle The Plan Big mountain in Hawaii10 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • 1985 SDI Experiment: What really happened11 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • 1985: What happened?12 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • What do these disasters have in common?• Patriot Missile The cause was an inaccurate calculation of the time since boot due to a computer arithmetic error.• Ariane 5 Explosion The floating point number which a value was converted from had a value greater than what would be represented by a 16 bit signed integer.13 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Unit Tests wouldn„t find these… Despite their name• All previous example illustrate three categories of errors difficult to find through Unit Testing: • Interface Errors (e.g. millisecond/second, radian/degree, meters/feet). • Arithmetic Errors (e.g. overflow). • Conversion Errors.14 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Causes of Conversion Errors• Ambiguity on the unit • Gallon Dry / Gallon Liquid • Gallon US / Gallon UK • Day Sidereal / Day Calendar • Degree Celsius / Degree Fahrenheit • Did you know that Gabriel Fahrenheit was born in Gdansk (Danzig) in northern Poland? • ...• Wrong conversion factors: static final double PIXEL_TO_INCH = 1 / 72; double pixels = inches * PIXEL_TO_INCH15 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • What else do they have in common? ALL OF THEM HAPPENED IN MOBILE, REAL TIME OR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS!16 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • OSGi Measurement Package • Namespace: org.osgi.util.measurement • SI only Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. • Measurement Represents a value with an error, a unit and a time-stamp. • State Groups a state name, value and timestamp. • Some usage, especially in Automotive ► no further development by OSGi17 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • JSR-256 Mobile Sensor API • Namespace: javax.microediton.sensor* • Focusing on Sensors, but it got a minimalistic Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. • ChannelInfo Holding name, accuracy, data type,measurement ranges, scale and unit • MeasurementRange Range of possible values from minimum to maximum ► Dead on Arrival (no actual handsets or vendors using it today, nor does Java ME Embedded)18 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • JSR-275 Units Specification • Namespace: javax.measure.* • Only one interface and one abstract class • Measurable<Q extends Quantity> (interface) • Measure<V, Q extends Quantity> (abstract class) • Three sub-packages • unit (holds the SI and NonSI units) • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length) • converter (holds unit converters)19 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • The King is Dead… Units of Measurement API • Namespace: org.unitsofmeasurement.* • Only interfaces (and exception classes) • public interface Quantity<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • public interface Unit<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length,...) • Unit (holds units) • service (OSGi services)20 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Eclipse UOMo One Small Step…
  • Eclipse UOMo One Unit Framework to Measure them All • Namespace: org.eclipse.uomo.* • Two main areas • Static Type Safe Units of Measure Support • Based on Units of Measurement API • On top of ICU4J, the Globalization standard at Eclipse and others (Android, GWT, Google Financial, etc.) • Prime UCUM Implementation • Successor to Eclipse OHF UCUM Bundle22 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • UOMo UCUM Unified Code for Units of Measure The Unified Code for Units of Measure is inspired by and heavily based on • ISO 2955-1983 • ANSI X3.50-1986 • HL7s extensions called ISO+23 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Sensor Web | What is it?Slide by NASA
  • Sensor Web | What is it?“A coordinated observation infrastructure composed of a distributed collection ofresources that can collectively behave as a single, autonomous, task-able,dynamically adaptive and reconfigurable observing system that provides raw andprocessed data, along with associated meta-data, via a set of standards-basedservice-oriented interfaces.” (Glenn, 2007) 25 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Sensor Web | OpenGIS Standards • SW Enablement working group at OGC have developed a number of standards governing different aspects of Sensor Web OGC O&M Observations & Measurements Approved SensorML Sensor Model Language Approved TransducerML Transducer Model Language Approved OGC SOS Sensor Observations Service Approved OGC SPS Sensor Planning Service Approved OGC SAS Sensor Alert Service In progress OGC WNS Web Notification Services In progress26 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Sensor Web | What is the OGC? • Not-for-profit • International industry consortium • Founded 1994, currently 340+ members • Open Standards development by consensus process OGC Mission To lead in the development, promotion and harmonization of open spatial standards …27 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies 27
  • Sensor Web | Mozambique floods• The task under study is floods in different parts of the world• Particular test case was flooding of Mozambique28 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Sensor Web | Weather Prediction data EARS-AVHRR EUMetCast NOMADS LAADS EARS-ATOVS MSG Data assimilation subsystem Internet DIS S Grid of SRI GF MO of NASU-NSAU Computational EUMetCast NOMADS LAADS clusters Receiving facility adapter adapter Access node Meteorology subsystem Processing subsystem P, U10, V10 WRFSI WRF SeaDAS Visualization subsystem UMN Users of OpenLayers MapServer monitoring system Internet29 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • SensorML • Sensor modeling language is the cornerstone of all SW services • It provides comprehensive description of sensor parameters and capabilities • It can be used for describing different kind of sensors: – Stationary or dynamic – Remote or in-situ – Physical measurements or simulations30 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • SensorML | Example .............. ............. <inputs> <outputs> <InputList> <OutputList> <input name="ambiantTemperature"> <output name="weatherMeasurements"> <swe:Quantity definition= <swe:DataGroup> "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature"/> <swe:component name="time"> </input> <swe:Time <input name="atmosphericPressure"> definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:time“ <swe:Quantity definition= uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:iso8601"/> "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure"/> </swe:component> </input> <swe:component name="temperature"> <input name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity <swe:Quantity definition= definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed"/> uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:celsius"/> </input> </InputList> </swe:component> </inputs> <swe:component name="barometricPressure"> .............. <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:bar" scale="1e-3"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:meterPerSecond"/> </swe:component> </swe:DataGroup> </output> </OutputList> </outputs>31 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies .............
  • Sensor Examples DEMO
  • M2M | Outlook Key Trends 1. New connected devices, Estimated Number of Active Cellular M2M Connected Devices applications and services 2010 to 2020 2. Lower system costs 3. Simplified development 4. Network operator focus and investment Source: Machina Research, July 201133 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • M2M | Integrated Processes Public/Private Cloud Deployment Infrastructures Transportation & Logistics Logistics Security & Surveillance Internet of Things Industrial & Communication Infrastructure EnergyMedical &Healthcare 34 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation
  • M2M | Vertical Market Scenarios Medical Services Gateway Smart Pill Boxes Near field Heartbeat Sensor Medical Smart ServicesWeight Gateway InternetScales of Things Communication Infrastructure Blood Pressure Blood Sugar35 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation
  • M2M | Vertical Market Scenarios Logistic Services Gateway Smart Container Medical Smart Services Gateway Internet of ThingsRFIDReaders Communication Infrastructure Handheld & Wearable Devices36 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation
  • M2M | Smart Container RFID e-Seal Example • Barrier-type bolt seal • RFID: ID-number + integrity • Bar code • Battery 1 year transmitting • 50 cycles • Range up to 50 meters • 915 MHz + 2.4 GHz • Data transmission rate 500 kbps • Storage 64 bytes37 © 2005-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Prof. Jens Froese – TU Hamburg-Harburg
  • M2M | Smart Container (2) Long Range Tamper Signal38 © 2005-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Prof. Jens Froese – TU Hamburg-Harburg
  • M2M | Smart Container (3) Technology39 © 2004-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Europe Container Terminals B.V.
  • M2M | Smart Container (4) Technology continued ECT Delta Terminal ~~~ ~~~ Admin 22 23 24 25 Pre-Gate 26 27 28 Area Gate DDN Rail Term Rail Term East West 64 65 71 DDW DDE Barge Term. 42 41 40 39 38 37 72 32 56 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 ~~~ 33 34 ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ The dark (green) locations are equipped with SAVI-readers to identify e-sealed containers. On the ECT premises BreezeCom operated Hand held Terminals can be used.40 © 2004-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Europe Container Terminals B.V.
  • M2M | Tools41 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation
  • M2M | Developer Portal m2m.eclipse.org collaborative development hub for m2m developers Technical Development Tools Examples, Developer Sandbox Tutorials documentation, kits Forum open m2m runtimes open m2m tools libraries & frameworks for m2m development consistent & extensible development tools Embedded frameworks Embedded development Device Management, ALM, … target management, emulation, … Communication libraries Communication protocols m2m and industrial protocols simulation, bandwidth estimation, … Server Server data brokers, API, … API discovery, deployment, …42 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation
  • M2M | Sierra Wireless at CPH AirportTo ensure maximum safety for all passengers, Copenhagen Airportcontinuously monitors local weather conditions. In addition, airportoperations regularly measures weather-related runway conditions, suchas temperature and moisture, in order to store and analyze data and relaystatus and safety information to incoming flights. 43 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • M2M | Benefits for CPH Airport • Reliable connectivity – ALEOS intelligence provides “always-on” and “always-aware” communications required for mobile data applications. • Rugged form factor – Meets US Military and SAE specifications for high performance in the harshest of environmental conditions. • Vehicle management – GPS tracking provides ability to acquire vehicle information, such as location and speed, without interruption. • Ease of use – Quick and easy configuration and automatic system connection every time.44 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • M2M | Benefits for CPH Airport (2) • Immediate access – 3G cellular solution with added Wi-Fi support offers immediacy provided by real-time, two-way data transmission available anytime, and accessed from anywhere in the world. • Device portability – Wireless AirLink MP 880W routers allow for re-deployment if runway vehicle is replaced or down for repair or upgrades.45 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC46 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC | Stats Registered Mobile devices worldwide (Millions)47 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC | What is eNFC? • eNFC (enhanced NFC): Fully compliant NFC technology enhanced by ISO 14443B and ISO 15693 standards on chip emulation side • eNFC is compatible with all existing and future application using contactless technology Reader or Device Chip emulation Communication Communication NFC ISO 14443-A ISO 14443-A (ECMA340) NFC-2 Sony (Type C) Sony (Type C) (ECMA 352) eNFC ISO 14443-B ISO 14443-B ISO 15693 ISO 1569348 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC | Use Cases Pass the gate NFC Read a map from NFC interactive billboard Pay without cash Redeem coupons Get your Receipt NFC Get your e-ticket Exchange photos49 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC | Where to use this technology Toronto Payment: ISO 14443-B & ISO 15693 Copenhagen Public Transport, SAS Smart Pass London Transport : ISO 14443A Shenzen Transport : ISO 14443B Hong Kong Transport: FelicaTM San Francisco Transport: ISO 14443B Paris Transport : ISO 14443B Seoul Transport : ISO 14443A Tokyo Transport: FelicaTMUS Access Control: ISO 15693 Japan ID Card: ISO 14443B Dubai RTAChiuaua Driving License: ISO 15693US Payment: ISO 14443-B & ISO 14443A New Delhi Transport:FelicaTM Pakistan Passport: ISO 14443B Singapore Transport : Felica, ISO 14443B Sao Paulo Transport: ISO 14443A 50 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • NFC | Open NFC™ Open NFC interfaces can be classified at different levels, from very high-level interfaces that greatly simplify the usual tasks of NFC applications, to very low-level interfaces that allow fine tuning of NFC hardware parameters for example. High Level Interfaces: • NDEF Messages • Bluetooth and Wi-Fi pairing • Read / Write to any tag • P2P • Virtual Tags Starting Open NFC 4.3.0, the support for Java porting for JSR-257 devices is discontinued. Older releases of the stack were fully compliant with the JSR-257 standard. ► Android Edition is currently the only one actively maintained with Java Binding!51 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Security | Possible Usage Scenarios• Keep close control of software on a system• Protect kiosk Computers (ATMs..) software from manipulations such as installing a key sniffer• Strongly identify a machine and its software configuration in online banking or Pizza delivery• Protect IP in the Cloud52 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, IAIK
  • Security | To Catch A Thief53 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Security | Trusted Platforms • Measure the software executed and feature • Store data securely  a hardware TPM • Report their status  an advanced BIOS or chipset  a set of Trusted Computing Software54 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, IAIK
  • Security | JSR - 32155 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, IAIK
  • Security | TEE What is a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)? Open to malware and Isolation of sensitive rooting / jailbreaking assets • TEE provides hardware-based isolation from rich operating systems (OS) such as Android, Windows Rich OS Application Environment Trusted Execution Environment Phone, Symbian, etc. Trusted Trusted Trusted Application DRM Application Payment Payment Application Corporate Corporate • TEE runs on the main device chipset Client Applications • TEE has privileged access to device API GlobalPlatformTEE Internal API resources (user interface, crypto GlobalPlatform TEE Client API accelerators, secure elements…). Trusted Core Trusted Environment Kernel TEE Functions Rich OS HW Secure Resources Hardware Platform56 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Global Platform
  • Security | Secure Element• EMV applications and their data shall be always stored in a secure area of a handset – in a secure element• Secure element is a smart card chip• Currently 3 approaches: • SIM-centric: Secure Element is (in) USIM – payment applications are stored on a USIM card • Embedded secure element – additional smart card chip integrated in a mobile phone (e.g. Samsung NEXUS S) • External secure element (e.g. smart card chip integrated in a Micro SD card) • Application management „over-the-air‟24.11.2012
  • Security | Java Card Technology Secure, Connected, Versatile  Interoperable platform for delivery of trusted personal services  High, industry-proven security  Designed for the smallest silicon hardware devices  Runs Java in as little as 4 KB RAM  Deployed on >5 billion devices  Growing at 1.4 bill. Devices p. year  SIM Cards, secure elements, eID, payment services58 © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • Security | Java Card Technology59 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Embedded Standards | JSR-360, 361• 2 new JSRs for Mobile and Embedded approved• JSR-360: CLDC 8 • CLDC 8 is an evolutionary update to CLDC 1.1.1 to bring the VM, Java Language, and libraries up to date with Java SE 8. • More: http://java.net/projects/jsr360/pages/Home• JSR-361: Java ME Embedded Profile • Update IMP(-NG) to align with state-of-the-art features and current embedded device market requirements. • More: http://java.net/projects/jsr361/pages/Home60 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  • Q&A
  • Links Eclipse – Project UOMo http://www.eclipse.org/uomo/ Units of Measurement API http://www.unitsofmeasurement.org UCUM http://www.unitsofmeasure.org
  • Links (2) Eclipse – M2M IWG http://m2m.eclipse.org Open Geospatial Consortium http://www.opengeospatial.org
  • Contact werner@catmedia.us or uomo@catmedia.us Twitter: @wernerkeil Hashtag #EclipseUOMo