1. Verbto be
2. There is/ there are
4. Past simple
2. Be goingto
4. Past continuous
2. Past perfect
3. Presentperfect continuous
2. Definingrelative clauses
3. Passive voice
1. VERB TO BE
1. COMPLETE THE TEXT WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF VERB TO BE.
Peter Baker______from Manchester, but Paul and John______from London. Manchester and
London______cities in England. Hamburg ______a city in Germany. Sandra______at school today.
Jack and Peter______her friends. They______in the same class. Mr and Mrs Baker ______on a trip
to the USA to visit their cousin Anne. She______a nice girl. Peter says: "My grandfather______in
hospital. I______at home with my grandmother." What time______it? It______8 o'clock. ______you
tired? No, I______not.
2. Fill in the blanks with the right subject / personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we,
1. Angelina Joli is American. ______isn't French.
2. Brad Pitt is American, too. ______isn't German.
3. Brad and Angelina aren't French. ______are American.
4. My friend and I are high school students_____aren't primary school students.
5. The Statue of Liberty is in New York. ______isn't in Washington.
3. Fill in the blanks with the right form of to be ( am, are or is):
1. ______ you the new student?
2. Yes, I______.
3. Leila and Nancy______students.
4. Nancy______Australian .
5. My sister and I______students.
6. The girls______tired.
7. These women______beautiful.
8. The tea______delicious.
9. Nadia and Leila______friends.
10. The newspaper______cheap.
4. Choose the correct answer (negative or affirmative form of to be):
1. Is Julia Robert French? No, she______French.
2. What about Robert de Nero? Is he an American actor? Yes, he______.
3. Are New York and Los Angeles Spanish Cities? No, they______Spanish cities.
4. Is Big Ben in Paris? No, it______in Paris.
5. Is Mount Everest in Africa? No, it______in Africa. It is in Asia.
2. THERE IS / THERE ARE
1. Complete the gaps:
1._________________ carpets on the floor.
2. _________________window on the right.
3. _________________ chairs around the table.
4. _________________inthe classroom.
5_________________bike near the play corner.
6. _________________easel next to the sand tray.
7. _________________books on the shelf.
8. _________________ water in the water tray.
9. _________________ crayons near the window.
10__________ 5 red cushions on the floor.
11_________________ painting on the easel.
12. _______________ big window in the play corner.
13_________________ toys on the table.
2. . Correct the errors. Write the
correct sentence in the long
box below each sentence:
1. There isn't some water in the
2. There are a 3 children talking with the
3. Are there some cars in the car park?
4. Is there any windows in this classroom?
5. There aren't some pencils in the pencilcase.
6. There is some people in the backyard.
7. There are any stickers in the album?
8. There is any parsley? (Question)
5. There is_______ bar called Moe's.
6. There are_______ mountains in the horizon.
7. There are_______ parks.
2. Write some/any/a/an in the following
gaps. Look at Springfield's map and
1. There are_______ people in the street.
2. There is______ cinema on the right.
3. There isn't_______ internet café on the left.
4. There aren't_______ rivers running through the
3. PRESENT SIMPLE
1. Choose the correct form.
1. We sometimes__________books.
2. Emily__________to the disco.
3. It often__________on Sundays.
4. Pete and his sister__________the family car.
5. I always__________to the bus stop.
2. Put the verbs into the correct form.
1. I (to like) __________lemonade very much.
2. The girls always (to listen) __________to pop music.
3. Janet never (to wear) __________jeans.
4. Mr Smith (to teach) __________Spanish and French.
5. You (to do) __________your homework after school.
3. Fill in the correct form of the verbs.
1. We (to have) __________a nice garden.
2. She (to be) __________six years old.
3. Simon (to have) __________two rabbits and five goldfish.
4. I (to be) __________from Vienna, Austria.
5. They (to be) __________Sandy's parents.
4. Make negative sentences.
1. My father makes breakfast. →_______________________________________
2. They are eleven. →_______________________________________
3. She writes a letter. →_______________________________________
4. I speak Italian. →_______________________________________
5. Danny phones his father on Sundays. →_______________________________________
5. Make questions.
1. you / to speak / English →_______________________________________
2. when / he / to go / home →_______________________________________
3. they / to clean / the bathroom →_______________________________________
4. where / she / to ride / her bike →_______________________________________
5. Billy / to work / in the supermarket →_______________________________________
4. PAST SIMPLE
1. Put the verbs into the simple past:
1. Last year I (go)___________to England on holiday.
2. It (be) ___________fantastic.
3. I (visit) ___________lots of interesting places. I (be) ___________with two friends of
4. In the mornings we (walk) ___________in the streets of London.
5. In the evenings we (go) ___________to pubs.
6. The weather (be) ___________strangely fine.
7. It (not / rain) ___________a lot.
8. But we (see) ___________some beautiful rainbows.
9. Where (spend / you) ___________your last holiday?
1. Write the past forms of the irregular verbs.
Infinitive Simple Past
1. meet .
2. drive .
3. speak .
4. put .
5. write .
6. sing .
7. do .
8. sit .
9. stand .
10. run .
2. Complete the table in simple past.
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
He wrote a book.
He did not sing
Was she pretty?
3. Put the sentences into simple past.
1. We move to a new house. →_______________________________________
2. They bring a sandwich. →_______________________________________
3. He doesn't do the homework. →_______________________________________
4. They sell cars. →_______________________________________
5. Does he visit his friends? →_______________________________________
4. Write sentences in simple past.
1. Janet / miss / the bus →_______________________________________
2. she / tidy / her room →_______________________________________
3. Nancy / watch / not / television→_______________________________________
4. she / read / a book →_______________________________________
5. Choose "Was“ or "Were“:
1. The teacher___________nice.
2. The students___________very clever.
3. But one student___________in trouble.
4. We___________sorry for him.
5. He___________nice though.
A) Write positive sentences in the future I (will).
1. (I/do/this/later) _______________________________________
2. (we/go shopping) _______________________________________
3. (the sun/shine) _______________________________________
4. (Peter/call/you) _______________________________________
5. (they/be/there) _______________________________________
B) Complete the sentences in the future I (will).
1. It (rain/not)___________ tomorrow.
2. I promise I (be/not) ___________ late.
3. We (start/not) ___________ to watch the film without you.
4. The bus (wait/not) ___________ for us.
5. He (believe/not) ___________ us.
C) Write questions in the future I (will).
1. (what/learn/they) _______________________________________?
2. (it/snow) _______________________________________?
3. (when/you/get/home) _______________________________________?
4. (she/forgive/me) _______________________________________?
5. (what/say/he) _______________________________________?
6. BE GOING TO
1. Type in the verbs in the future I (going to).
1. Mr Potts (sell) ___________ his house.
2. Our neighbours (spend) ___________ their next holidays in the Caribbean.
3. I (move) ___________ to another town.
4. My husband (build) ___________ a tree house for the kids.
5. His friends (learn) ___________ English.
2. Type in the verbs in the future I (going to).
1. I (tell/not)_________________________ you the secret.
2. She (ring/not) _________________________ me.
3. We (invite/not) _________________________ him to our party.
4. Greg (work/not) _________________________ abroad.
5. Her parents (lend/not) _________________________ her any more money.
3. Write questions in the future I (going to).
1. (you/help/me) _________________________?
2. (she/study/in Glasgow) _________________________?
3. (they/paint/the room) _________________________?
4. (he/apply/for that job) _________________________?
5. (what/you/do) _________________________ about this?
7. PRESENT CONTINUOUS
1. Choose the correct present progressive form.
1. Look! Andy________________in the garden.
2. I________________TV at the moment.
3. We________________a book.
4. She________________the piano.
5. Listen! Sue and John________________.
2. Put the verbs into present progressive.
1. My sister (to clean) ________________the bathroom.
2. Look! They (to go) ________________inside.
3. I (to wait) ________________in the car now.
4. Mrs Miller (to listen) ________________to CDs.
5. We (to speak) ________________English at the moment.
3. Choose the correct form. Note that there are exceptions in spelling when adding 'ing.'
1. His brother (write) ________________a test at the moment.
2. They (to swim) ________________in the pool.
3. Look! David and Max (to come) ________________home.
4. My dog Charlie (run) ________________to the park.
5. I (to make) ________________breakfast now.
4. Rewrite the sentences using the negative forms.
1. We are playing a game. _____________________________________
2. I'm drawing a picture. _____________________________________
3. He is making pizza right now. _____________________________________
4. Susan and her brother are taking photos. _____________________________________
5. Dad is working in the kitchen. _____________________________________
5.Write questions in present progressive.
1. Robin / to ride / his bike -_____________________________________
2. where / she / to go -_____________________________________
3. what / your mother / to do / now -_____________________________________
4. Which is a signal word for the present progressive?
often now sometimes
5. Which is not a signal word for the present progressive?
always Look! at the moment
1. Write the ing form of the verbs.
1. live →_______________
2. stay →_______________
3. run →_______________
4. win →_______________
5. cycle →_______________
2. Complete the table in past progressive.
positive negative question
It was raining.
They were not playing.
Was I listening?
Caron was not eating.
You were singing.
3. Was or Were?
2. The dog_______________barking.
3. The printer_______________printing out a photograph.
4. The pupils_______________writing a test.
5. Sue and Gareth_______________walking up the hill.
4. Write sentences in past progressive.
1. he / the car / wash →_____________________________________
2. she / home / go →_____________________________________
3. they / not / the match / watch →_____________________________________
4. you / in the shop / work →_____________________________________
5. I / not / a magazine / read →_____________________________________
5. Write questions in past progressive.
1. she / on a chair / sit →_____________________________________
2. you / your bag / pack →_____________________________________
3. his head / ache →_____________________________________
4. we / tea / drink →_____________________________________
5. you / the bike / repair →_____________________________________
6. Ask for the information in the bold part of the sentence.
1. Jamie was doing a language course in London. →__________________________________
2. Andrew was carrying a heavy box. →_____________________________________
3. The teacher was testing our English. →_____________________________________
4. At six o'clock, we were having dinner. →_____________________________________
5. Sally was hurrying to school because she was late. →_______________________________
9. PRESENT PERFECT
1. Write the participle form of the following verbs.
1. go →______________
2. sing →______________
3. be →______________
4. buy →______________
5. do →______________
2. Complete the table in present perfect simple.
positive negative question
He has written a letter.
They have not stopped.
Have we danced?
She has worked.
Andy has not slept.
3. Write sentences in present perfect simple.
1. they / ask / a question -__________________________________
2. he / speak / English -__________________________________
3. I / be / in my room -__________________________________
4. we / not / wash / the car -__________________________________
5. Annie / not / forget / her homework -__________________________________
4. Write questions in present perfect simple.
1. they / finish / their homework -__________________________________
2. Sue / kiss / Ben -__________________________________
3. the waiter / bring / the tea -__________________________________
4. Marilyn / pay / the bill -__________________________________
5. you / ever / write / a poem -__________________________________
5. Ask for the information in the bold part of the sentence.
1. They have talked about art at school. -__________________________________
2. Jane has got a letter. -__________________________________
3. Oliver has cooked dinner. -__________________________________
4. Caron has read seven pages. -__________________________________
5. You have heard the song 100 times. -__________________________________
1. Write down the correct form (pronoun + verb).
Simple Past Past Perfect
they / work
I / see
she / tidy
he / run
you / buy
2. When do we use which tense?
1. If we give past events in the order in which they occured, we use ...
2. If from a certain time in the past we look back to what had happened before, we use
3. Choose the correct tense (simple past or past perfect simple).
1. When I (arrive)__________at school, the lesson(already start) __________. .
2. I (go) __________to New York last month. I (never be) __________to the USA before.
3. Bob(not let) __________us into his room because he(not clean) __________it for weeks.
4. I (fell)__________very hungry because I(not eat) __________anything yet.
5. As Vanessa(see) __________the film before, she( not want) __________to go to the cinema
4. Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or past perfect simple).
1. William (live) __________in Boston for six years before he (move) __________to New York.
2. The blue car (cross) __________the street after the lights (turn) __________red.
3. When James (try) __________to ring us, we (leave / already) __________the house.
4. After Joanna (finish) __________her presentation, we (ask) __________our questions.
5. On her first day at the driving school, we (be) __________very nervous because we (drive /
not) __________ a car before
11. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOS
1) Write the ing-form of the following verbs.
1. cry →_______________
2. prepare →_______________
3. lie →_______________
4. win →_______________
5. dial →_______________
2) Choose the correct form: have or has and since or for.
1. Emma_________been learning English_________five years.
2. My friends_________been living here_________2003.
3. I_________been waiting for Danny_________20 minutes.
4. Ross and Gavin_________been travelling around Australia_________six weeks.
5. Carol_________been exercising in the gym_________2 o'clock.
3) Write sentences in present perfect progressive.
1. Kevin / read →__________________________________________
2. you / TV / watch / all day →__________________________________________
3. Paul / to the radio / listen / not →__________________________________________
4. the men / cards / play →__________________________________________
5. the girls / cycle / not →__________________________________________
4) Write questions in present perfect progressive.
1. Carol / shout →__________________________________________
2. you / dance →__________________________________________
3. Kevin / run →__________________________________________
4. they / on the phone / talk / how long →__________________________________________
5. these books / lie / on the floor / how long →________________________________________
12. FIRST CONDITIONAL
1) If Clauses Type I - Form
1. In the if clause of a Conditional Sentence Type I, we use___________________________.
2. In the main clause of a Conditional Sentence Type I, we use___________________________.
2) Choose the correct form.
1. If we (go) ____________to London, we (visit) ____________the Tower.
2. If the shop (be) ____________open, I (buy) ____________a souvenir.
3. If she (miss) ____________the bus, she (not get) ____________here on time.
4. He(help) ____________me if he(know) ____________the answer.
5. Jane (let) ____________you in if I (be) ____________here.
3) Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1. If you (eat) ____________an ice-cream, I (have) ____________a hot chocolate.
2. If she (need) ____________a computer, her brother (give) ____________her his computer.
3. If we (have / not) ____________time this afternoon, we (meet) ____________tomorrow.
4. He (talk) ____________to her if you (want / not) ____________to do it.
5. You (win / not) ____________the game if you (know / not) ____________the rules.
13. SECOND CONDITIONAL
1) Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type II) by putting the verbs into the correct form.
Use conditional I with would in the main clause.
1. If we (have)___________a yacht, we (sail)_____________the seven seas.
2. If he (have)____________more time, he (learn)___________karate.
3. If they (tell) ____________their father, he (be) ____________very angry.
4. She (spend) ____________a year in the USA if it (be) ____________easier to get a green
5. If I (live) ____________on a lonely island, I (run) ____________around naked all day.
6. We (help) ____________you if we (know) ____________how.
7. My brother (buy) ____________a sports car if he (have) ____________the money.
8. If I (feel) ____________better, I (go) ____________to the cinema with you.
9. If you (go) ____________by bike more often, you (be / not) ____________so flabby.
10.She (not / talk) ____________to you if she (be) ____________mad at you.
2) Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1. If you (wash)___________the dishes, I (cook) ___________dinner tonight.
2. If my dad (have) ___________time next week, we (paint) ___________my room.
3. You (learn) ___________a lot about American history if you (visit) ___________the exhibition.
4. If the weather (be / not) ___________too bad tomorrow, we (play) ___________golf.
5. We (get / not) ___________there on time if we (catch / not) ___________the bus.
3) Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
1. If I (have) ___________more time, I (learn) ___________to play the guitar.
2. If she (study) ___________harder, she (get) ___________better marks.
3. If we (know) ___________more about history, we (be / not) ___________afraid of the test.
4. I (go) ___________jogging with Tom and Sue if they (be) ___________here this week.
5. It (surprise) ___________me if she (help / not) ___________you.
14. RELATIVE CLAUSES
1) Complete the definitions.
1. A banana________________________________________________
2. A hat________________________________________________
3. A pony________________________________________________
4. A dentist________________________________________________
5. A bus________________________________________________
2) Decide whether the relative pronoun is correct or not.
1. The postman which works in this village is very old.
2. The egg which is in the nest is brown.
3. Where is the bed who was in the attic?
4. The bottles that are lying on the floor are green.
5. The cowboy who is wearing the red shirt is very funny.
3) Complete the sentences with relative clauses in simple present. Use who or which.
1. This is the man (work at the station) ____________________________________________.
2. The tree (grow in the garden) ______________________________ an apple tree.
3. The man (go jogging) _________________________________every Friday is my neighbour.
4. The elephants (live in Africa) _______________________________have big ears.
5. Turn left at the yellow house (be opposite) _____________________________the petrol
15. PASSIVE VOICE
1) Rewrite the sentences in Passive voice.
1. John cleaned the bathroom. ________________________________________________.
2. Our dog did not bite the cat. ________________________________________________.
3. Levi Strauss invented the blue jeans. ____________________________________________
4. Frank takes photos. ________________________________________________.
5. My friend bought a new car. ________________________________________________.
6. The girls can play handball. ________________________________________________
2 ) Are the sentences written in Active or Passive voice?
1. Bingo is played in Britain.
2. He lost his keys yesterday.
3. A letter was written.
4. Lots of houses were destroyed.
5. They often read e-mails.
6. Steven likes to play baseball.
3) Make correct passive phrases. Mind the tenses in brackets.
1. films / to watch (Simple Present)
2. a prize / to win (Simple Past)
3. posters / to make (Simple Present)
4. stories / to tell (Simple Present)
5. volleyball / to play (Simple Past)
6. songs / to sing (Simple Past)
4) Rewrite the sentences in Active voice.
1. The exercise is completed by the teacher.
2. Coffee is sold by Marie.
3. The club was founded by Ron and Peggy.
4. Football is played by the children.
5. This book was written by an Irishman.
6. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
16. REPORTED SPEECH
1) REPORT THE SENTENCES ACCORDING WITH THE TIME.
1. John: "Mandy is at home."
John said that________________________________________________.
2. Max: "Frank often reads a book."
Max told me that________________________________________________..
3. Susan: "I'm watching TV."
Susan said to me that________________________________________________..
4. Simon: "David was ill."
Simon said that________________________________________________..
5. Peggy: "The girls helped in the house."
Peggy told me that________________________________________________..
6. Richard: "I am going to ride a skateboard."
Richard said to me that________________________________________________..
7. Stephen and Claire: "We have cleaned the windows."
Stephen and Claire told me that________________________________________________..
8. Charles: "I didn't have time to do my homework."
Charles remarked that________________________________________________..
9. Mrs Jones: "My mother will be 50 years old."
Mrs Jones told me that________________________________________________..
10.Jean: "The boss must sign the letter."
Jean said that________________________________________________.
2) REPORT THE SENTENCES THEYHAVE TIME EXPRESSIONS.
1. Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow."
Emily said that_______________________________________________.
2. Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."
Helen told me that_______________________________________________.
3. Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year."
Robert told me that_______________________________________________.
4. Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago."
Lisa said that_______________________________________________.
5. Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."
Patricia said that_______________________________________________.
6. Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."
Michael said to me that_______________________________________________.
7. Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow."
Jason and Victoria told me that_______________________________________________.
8. Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago."
Andrew remarked that_______________________________________________.
9. Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."
Alice complained that_______________________________________________.
10.David: "John had already gone at six."
David said that_______________________________________________.
Word Meanings From Context 1
Use the context to help you determine the meaning of each highlighted word.
1.No matter where you go, the Internet is following you. Almost every portable device is being
made with an Internet connection. Most new TVs and many other appliances come with Internet
connections as well. The Internet is truly ubiquitous.
If something is ubiquitous, __________.
a. it is fuzzy and will bite you
b. it is everywhere
c. it costs too much money
d. it causes rashes
2. Speaking rudely to the judges was rash behavior. You really hurt your chances of winning!
In the above context, what does “rash” mean?
a. an itchy skin condition
c. trying to hide or disguise a piece of cheese
d. with little thought or consideration
3. Some people are always bashing the president just like others bashed the one before him.
Wouldn't you think that everyone could find something to praise him for, at least once in a
What does “bashing” mean in the above selection?
a. hitting hard with a heavy tool
b. going to too many expensive parties
c. speaking or writing harshly about
d. voting for a different candidate
4. Wherever he goes, the esteemed Dr. Sanchez is applauded for his life saving research.
What does “esteemed” mean?
a. held over boiling water
b. very old
c. unable to chew gum
d. greatly admired
All That Glitters
Kim wants to drive her three kids and their two friends to the soccer game. The problem is that her
shiny new SUV only has room for five passengers including the driver.
Kim misses her old eight passenger SUV but she’s still thankful that the new one gets much better gas
1. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Kim’s new vehicle is not meant to carry six people.
b. Kim’s old SUV had seating for more passengers than the new one.
c. Kim won’t be able to take her kids to the soccer game.
Karim had $500 dollars to invest. He was considering a number of options.
“I’d really like to buy gold bars with the money and hide them in a big hole in our yard,” he said.
“Five hundred dollars won’t buy much gold,” his father pointed out. “You could put all the gold in your
shoe and never notice that it’s there.”
“That takes all the fun out of it!” Karim groaned. “I just won’t buy any gold at all!”
When Karim’s father suggested that he deposit the money in his new savings account at the local
bank, Karim quietly stated, “That could work.”
2. What did karim want to buy?
a. new shoes
b. a small gold coin
c. gold bars
d. a used hamburger
3. From the selection we can tell that Karim _______.
a. will save his $500 at the local bank
b. might decide to put his money into his bank account
c. will put the cash under his pillow and wish for a tooth
d. does not trust banks
Scientists in Australia have discovered a planet that seems to be a solid diamond. They estimate it to
be about five times the size of Earth. The diamond planet is 4,000 light years away, so don’t plan on
traveling there any time soon.
4. Which one of the following do you think scientists needed in order to make this discovery?
a. a microscope b. a Smartphone
c. a jewelery store d. a radio telescope
BPA is a chemical that is put into plastics that are used as food containers. Unfortunately, some
of the BPA passes from the containers into the foods that they are meant to protect. When
people and animals eat those foods, BPA goes into their bodies.
There are studies that have found that BPA can increase our chances of getting a number of
serious diseases. Many food companies are concerned about that risk and are starting to use
containers that contain no BPA.
That’s good right? Not necessarily. Some scientists caution that the substitute chemicals being
used might turn out to be dangerous as well. They could possibly be even worse!
1. According to this article, BPA _______.
a. is used to make food taste better
b. leaks into food
c. means Better Plastic Articles
d. makes us strong
2. Food companies are starting to _______.
a. tell people not to worry about BPA
b. pretend that they don’t use BPA in their containers
c. charge more for BPA
d. use containers that do not contain BPA
3. Some of the new food containers _______.
a. might have chemicals that are dangerous
b. look more colorful
c. leak all over shelves
d. have extra BPA at no additional charge
4. The final paragraph of the article makes the point that _______.
a. it’s best to just stop eating
b. BPA might really be good for us
c. change does not always mean improvement
d. there is no such thing as a safe food container
From Outer Space
FoxNews.com reports that Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist at NASA, believes that he
has found the fossils of bacteria in meteorites. In other words, he claims to have found traces
of life from outer space.
Not surprisingly, his claim is controversial; many scientists do not accept that Dr. Hoover has
come to the correct conclusion from what he has observed. Therefore, he has invited over
5,000 scientists to review his work and to publish their comments.
1. Bacteria are a _______.
a. group of scientists
b. place where meteors come from
c. kind of restaurant
d. form of life
2. When something is controversial, people _______.
a. get sick from it
b. believe it is ancient and extremely rare
c. have strong disagreements about it
d. brush their teeth with it
3. Dr. Hoover seems confident that his research will be proven correct because _______.
a. he is named after a vacuum cleaner
b. he has invited many scientists to look closely at his work
c. he works for NASA
d. he gets a rash when he touches meteorites
4. Based on the reading selection, which statement is true?
a. No one believes that Dr. Hoover has made an important discovery.
b. Astrobiologists are smarter than other scientists.
c. Dr. Hoover believes he has found fossils of bacteria.
d. Dr. Hoover did his work without using a microscope.
Scientists have known for a long time that vitamin D is essential for humans. If children have a vitamin D
or calcium deficiency, they can develop rickets, a softening of the bones. New studies are showing that
people of all ages need vitamin D to help them fight off diseases by keeping their immune systems
1. The main idea of this paragraph is that vitamin D _______.
a. is found in milk
b. has been studied by scientists
c. is no secret
d. is important for good health
2. If something is essential, it is _______.
3. When you have a deficiency of something, you _______.
a. have all you need
b. do not have enough
c. look like an onion
d. are rich
Our bodies can make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to sunlight. However, it’s best to eat a diet that
is rich in the vitamin.
4. The remainder of the above incomplete paragraph probably goes on to _______. (Remember that
every paragraph should have a single main idea.)
a. say why vitamin C is also important
b. explain why you should brush your teeth after eating beetles
c. give some examples of foods that are rich in vitamin D
d. say which diseases might be prevented by vitamin D
5. Which statement is false?
a. Some foods contain vitamin D. b. Our bodies can use sunlight to make vitamin D.
c. Some people don’t have to get vitamin D from food.
d. If you’re a child, you will definitely get rickets if you don’t play in the sun.
Madison and Carson
Carson’s older sister, Madison, is a very good student. She isn’t satisfied to just get by in
school. She’s involved in extra activities including band and the Good Citizens Club.
1. Which statement is not supported by the paragraph. (It may or may not be factual.)
a. Music is part of Madison’s school experience.
b. Madison is a straight A student.
c. Carson is younger than Madison.
d. Madison is a member of at least one club.
2. What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
a. Madison was born before Carson.
b. Madison likes music.
c. Madison is a very good student.
d. Madison is cruel and unusual.
Almost every day after school, Madison and Carson have fun at the local winter sports facility.
Carson glides down the mountainside without ever losing his balance. Madison has a different
style. She often soars into the air, lands in various twisted positions, and waits for her
snowboard to join her on the ground.
3. From this paragraph, we can conclude that _______
a. Carson prefers skiing to snowboarding.
b. Madison and Carson do not live in Florida.
c. Madison is as graceful as a swan.
d. It never snows in Vermont.
4. The selection informs us that _______
a. Madison doesn’t like winter sports because she always falls.
b. Carson owns a plane.
c. Madison loves tennis.
d. Both Carson and Madison enjoy their time on the snowy slopes.
Luke is very competitive and loves to win when he plays sports. Kyler doesn’t take sports all that
seriously. So when their tennis singles match was over, it was no surprise that both boys were in a good
mood, especially Luke.
1. Which statement is most likely true?
a. Luke won the match.
b. Kyler won the match.
c. The game was rained out.
d. Kyler was given a new truck.
Leslie’s main playlist has forty rock songs, fifteen rap songs, and one country song. It also contains
twelve classical instrumentals.
2. Which statement is probably NOT true.
a. Leslie likes music.
b. Leslie’s favorite music is country.
c. Leslie likes rock better than rap.
d. Leslie listens to a wide range of music.
I think you’ll like your present, Scott. You’ll still be able to use it for at least the next couple of months
before the weather gets too warm. It can be a lot of fun, especially if you take a lesson or two first.
Remember, people are often injured by using these things if they don’t know what they’re doing.
3. Scott’s new present is a _______.
b. tennis racquet
c. snow shovel
Brad put a load of clothes into the washing machine. An hour later, he unloaded the damp clothes and put
them into the dryer. Later, he unloaded the clothes and carried them upstairs in a basket. To his dismay,
Brad noticed that the load of laundry just didn’t smell nearly as fresh as usual.
4. One of the following is the reason why. Which one is it?
a. Brad forgot to turn on the washing machine.
b. Brad wasn’t paid to do the laundry.
c. Brad had forgotten to put detergent into the machine.
d. The radio didn’t work.
Vocabulary 1- Meanings From Context
Use the context to help you determine the meaning of each highlighted word.
1.I believe that if you lower taxes so that people can keep more of the money they earn, it will
be an incentive for them to work harder.
What is the meaning of “incentive”? __________.
a. a reason to do something
b. a small amount of money
c. a tax
d. a good job
2. Most of America's Founding Fathers did not believe in women's suffrage. Only men could
vote in the United states until 1920.
What is “suffrage” ?
a. something that causes physical pain
b. an early flag
c. skirts that did not cover ankles
d. the right to vote
3. Some people are sure that the new health care law will mean better care for everyone.
Others argue that the law will mean less care and longer waiting lines for those who need to see
doctors. It's a controversy that will not go away soon.
A controversy is something that people _______.
a. have strong disagreements over
b. blow their noses into
c. need to pay for a visit to a doctor
d. eat with sweet candy
4. Removing seeds from cotton plants was a slow job until Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.
What is a cotton gin?
a. a drink
b. a book
c. a machine
d. a cloth
Vocabulary 2- Meanings From Context
Use the context to help you determine the meaning of each highlighted word.
1. In the early 1600s, a dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean was a daunting idea. The
Europeans, who would someday be known as the Pilgrims, must have been a very determined and
brave group of settlers.
A daunting task is one that would _______ someone.
c. lose or misplace
d. frighten or intimidate
2. The original Pilgrims called themselves the “Saints” and referred to others who joined with
them for the voyage as the “Strangers.”
In this context, “original” means _______.
a. one of a kind
3. The Saints and Strangers argued about how they would live in the New World. After much
discussion, they came together and signed the Mayflower Compact.
The Compact was _______.
a. a container for makeup
b. a small item
c. a machine used for mashing corn
d. an agreement
4. When the Pilgrims landed in what is now Massachusetts, they were fearful that the Native
Americans would attack them. However, the people that they encountered, the Wampanoag
Indians, were a peaceful and generous tribe.
To encounter, is to _______.a. meet
b. note how many
d. exchange text messages
Vocabulary 3 - Meanings From Context
Use the context to help you determine the meaning of each highlighted word.
As the summer sun sent scattered rays through the maple and oak leaves overhead, the young
deer stood frozen, making it almost impossible for the hikers to see her.
1. In the above passage, the word “frozen” means _______.
a. very cold
c. not moving
d. not melted
Christmas is a time when Dad reverts to his childhood. I really think he looks forward to
Santa’s visit more than any other member of the family. Mom says that he’ll always be a child
during this season.
2. What does “reverts” mean in the above passage?
a. stands up straight
b. peeks at presents
c. drinks too much egg nog
d. goes back to being what he was
Fortunately, the explosion diverted the asteroid from a course that would have sent it hurdling
into our planet.
3. To divert is to _______.
a. change the direction of
b. look for really high waves
c. jump into a dry river
d. look through a telescope
A wonderful 98 year old woman is working day and night to knit scarves to send as gifts for the
troops. What a selfless person she is!
4. A selfless woman _______.
a. is selfish
b. has no name
c. likes to wear scarves
d. cares more about others than herself
Feathers and Gas
Your choices will show how well you understood the reading selections. You may reread all
or part of the selections to help you answer correctly.
The BBC is reporting that Harry Potter is responsible for the dwindling number of wild owls in India. One
of the reasons that owls are being trapped and sold as pets is that parents are buying them as gifts for
their kids who are fans of the fictional wizard. As you may already know, Harry has his own pet owl,
1. What does “dwindling” mean?
a. having feathers
b. becoming less
d. appearing in movies
2. Many children in India want owls _______.
a. as pets
b. to become extinct
c. as a special food item
d. to use their feathers in hats
3. From the above selection, we can see that _______.
a. Everyone loves Harry Potter movies
b. Owls don’t taste as good as chickens
c. People want to wipe out owls
d. being popular can be harmful
Volvo is building a car that will use gasoline without burning it. CNet Car Tech reports that Volvo will use
a fuel cell thatconverts the hydrogen in gasoline into electricity to run the vehicle’s electric motor when
the battery is low. The plug-in hybrid will go farther on the same amount of fuel because regular gasoline
engines waste much of the fuel’s energy as heat.
4. To fill this car with fuel, _______.
a. you’ll have to find a station that sells hydrogen
b. you’ll be able to go to any regular gas station
c. you must plug it in overnight
d. you only need to add water
5. What does “converts” mean?
A Lucky Coin
Read the article first without stopping to find the missing words. Then read it again and
choose the correct missing word from the numbered choices below the article.
When does one penny equal 170 million pennies? In Time for Kids, Suzanne Zimbler __1__ that a
1943 U.S. penny that was made at the Denver Mint has sold for $ 1.7 million. That single coin is
thought to be the __2__ copper coin made in Denver that year. Only a handful of copper
pennies were made at the other mints that same year.
Pennies were made of steel in 1943 because copper was in short supply for use in equipment to
help wage World War ii. That was the only year that Lincoln pennies were not made of __3__.
A wealthy coin collector was eager to pay the huge sum for the coin because it was one of a kind
and that collector already had a 1943 copper penny from each of the other two U.S. Mints in
Philadelphia and San Francisco.
You might be surprised to learn what some of your own coins are worth. The more scarce any
collectible item is, the higher the __4__ tends to be. It's not likely, but it is possible that you
might have a small __5__ sitting in your pocket right now!
Well, it happened once again. Tremor Troll had another crush. This time it was the new girl in class,
Tremor was very shy and reluctant to actually talk to a girl. “How can I introduce myself to her?” he
asked his close friend, Trogmire Troll.
“Send her a nice text message,” Trogmire suggested. “I can get her number from her friend, Tammy
Tremor had gotten his first cell phone just two days earlier so this would be the perfect time to
enter the world of texting. “Great idea!” Tremor said, “I can think all day in school about what I’ll say.”
The boys got together after school and Tremor was ready. “I’ll say, ‘Hi, I’m Tremor,’” he told his
Trogmire entered Tina’s number for Tremor and quickly typed and sent the message for him. It
seemed like forever to Tremor, but in less than a minute a response triggered a musical tone from his
“She sent me an answer!” Tremor gasped, shaking all over.
Trogmire, who considered himself to be a cell phone expert, said, “No, she sent you a reply!”
Tremor stared at the screen with a confused look. “This is hard to read,” he groaned.
“That’s because we texters use all kinds of shortcuts to make typing go faster,” Trogmire explained.
“Here, let me translate for you. It says, ‘Tremor, you are ugly and you smell bad too.’”
“Did she really say that?” Tremor asked.
“Yes, she really did,” Trogmire replied.
Tremor jumped up and shouted, “This is the happiest day of my life!”
And so, Tremor Troll and Tina Troll became good friends. But as things often go, true romance did
not blossom. Tremor’s crushes were always fleeting and Tina Troll was more interested in her hobby,
collecting rare bed bugs, than in having a serious relationship.
However, Tremor Troll’s love of texting had been born and went on and on and on.
1. If you are reluctant to do something, you are
a. in a rush to do it
b. not very willing to do it
c. very pushy
2. For how long had Tremor owned a cell phone?
a. about a year
c. less than a week
d. about two months
3. How much time did Tremor plan to spend on
creating a message?
a. about the length of one school day
b. thirteen years
c. less time than it takes to blink
d. a little more than two days
4. Trogmire was proud of his _______.
a. athletic ability
b. lack of interest in texting
c. buttermilk pancakes
d. knowledge about cell phones