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  1. 1. The contrast of the Garden City and the Radiant City (Final world: 2995) Student ID: H00163447 Name: ZHAOYUE XUE
  2. 2. Introduction The question of how to create sustainable cities and communities was raised recently. It is clear that the housing crisis is having a desperate impact on British people's lives. It is also clear that the next government will have to face an acute economic and environmental crisis. So how do we offer both hope and practical solutions to build the kind of sustainable places we need for the future? Social sustainability is a way of thinking about what people need to live and work together. 'It takes on meaning within different political ideologies and programmers underpinned by different kinds of knowledge, values and philosophy' (Huckle, 1996). Basically, there are two views. Ebenezer Howard's Garden City concept is often referred to as Utopian; the underlying principles have proven to be both practical and widely applicable. Another one is Le Corbusier's perspective which is thinking about the modernist ideal city. This essay will emphasize on comparison of Brasilia and Canberra cities. Despite analyzing the concrete differences of these two cities, the essay attached great importance to the differences of them in the issue of social sustainable from the aspect of liability, social support and place marketing. Lastly, the prospects of the two types of cities will be put forward in the essay. Based on the principle of collective sustainable, the prospects also conformed to the traits of two types of cities. The analysis of the socially sustainable Raised by the international human environment seminar in1972, the socially sustainable was a significant and radical concept that once seemed as the principle of the mod of the development all over the world. Not only did it cover a wide scope of both the region and global, but also it involved in many fields, such as the economy, society and resource usage (Leask, 2011). Defined as a radical principle of a mode of developmental mode, the social sustainable could be analyzed from three concrete aspects. The livability, social support and place making were included. First of all, the livability was a vital
  3. 3. evaluation criterion of social sustainable. Livability was a product of the late industrialization that used to describe the cities that have favorable space environment as well as the humanity social environment. Aimed at protecting the real rights for the human, livability attached importance to the living environment and the sustainable development of both the ontology and the society. Spontaneously, the livability was a significant part of the social sustainable development of a city for the reason that what it emphasized on was the principle of human rights first, which was the radical process of the social sustainable. Moreover, the social support was an essential and indispensable portion of the social sustainable of the cities. This issue was divided into two aspects, and there were the personal level and the public level. As for the personal level, certain social insurances as well as the sustainability of people were included. As was widely acknowledged, the authentic aim of the society was the man’s all-round development. Correspondingly, it isn’t until the realization of individual sustainable development that the social sustainable development will be achieved for the reason that individual development was the ultimate goal as well as indispensable portion of the social sustainable development. As for the social infrastructure, the supporting social infrastructure made contributions to the social sustainable for the reason that it could provided services and conveniences for the citizens. What is more, the place making was also a key part of the social sustainable. On one hand, the urban planning aimed at researching the future development of urban and organizing the layout and developmental process of the cities. The reasonable and organized place making of a city was beneficial to the current development and future involution of the cities, which resulted in the social sustainable of a city directly. On the other hand, by dividing the regional function reasonably and systematically, the place making of urban assisted urban to realize its impact for a long time. According to a famous city planning Professor Ford, reasonable and scientific place making could be considered as an arrangement of the long-range of the city, making immeasurable impacts on the social sustainable. The analysis of the concept of the radiant city
  4. 4. Put forwarded by Le Corbusier primitively in 1931, the radiant city was a classical scheme of the mode of city development. As analyzed by the theory from a prestigious city expert Noble, R, the “radiant” so called surpassed the traditional connotation of the actual functions of cities with the remarkable trait of awareness (Le, 1923). Instead of following the original developmental mode that emphasized on the industrialization simply, the radiant city raised by Le Corbusier attempted to overcome the malady brought by the industrialization. Furthermore, not only did the radiant city claimed the significance of mutual tolerance of modern buildings and the nature with certain harmonic way, but also the radiant city emphasized on the artistic charm of the city and its buildings (Douglas, 2010). To attain this purpose, there were five principles. To begin with, it was the specific functional partition. It was the basis point of the theory for the reason that it provided the approach for the implement of the later points. Then, to lower the density of the cities, the theory also suggested that certain high-rise buildings should be build in the central part of the cities and more greenbelts should be reserved so as to improve the ecology of the cities. Furthermore, the underlying should be empty and the ground should be open to various functions, enlarging the transparency of sight. Differed from the previous design concepts, it enhanced the practical areas of certain ground (Thomas, 2011). Later, instead of building traditional roads, it advocated constructing board roads, realizing the separation of pedestrian and vehicles. Lastly, a residential unit of small-town was advocated for the reason that it assisted the residents to enlarge their living space and improve their psychological development. In general, the radiant city was a classical mode of city that could improve the development of the city as well as improving the livability. The analysis of the garden city The idea of the garden city that put forward by Ebenezer Howard aimed at mixing the countryside and the urban (Ebenezer, 1902). According to the concrete planning from the theory of Ebenezer Howard, the garden city should be surrounded by the forest
  5. 5. land and farming forest (Bush, 1999). Wholly, the garden city was designed to be a city for living, comprehensive development of the city. Most importantly, the scale of such cities should be capable to support the normal operation of the cities with the limited range. To ensure the equality and the principle of human-oriented, the construction of these cities were conducted by the citizens collectively while the ownership and appreciation should belong to the residents collectively. In general, the garden city enabled the countryside to integrate into the city center. In the meantime, the city could also improve the development of countryside in an ecological way. Comparison of two theories To analyze the garden city from Ebenezer Howard and radiant city from Le Corbusier, the comparison of these two theories will be made. From the side of livability, both of them attached importance to the peace and sanitation of the environment, making painstaking efforts to guaranteeing the cozy living environment. However, compared with the radiant city, the garden city was more livable and comfortable for the following reasons. The form of buildings and the city layout of the garden city were livable and cozy with the comparison of the radiant city. The garden city aimed at breaking the boundaries of countryside and city, integrating the pastoral scenery into the urban while the radiant city aimed at improving the rate of accommodation by building modern facilities. When it comes to social support, with reasonable and predictable project, the garden city was succeeded in both the social aspect and resource aspect. Socially, the garden city provided enough economic security for its citizens by giving the usufruct to its citizens, which also involved into comprehensive guarantee of their rights (Harris, 2000). Naturally, as the design of garden city was the mixture of peripheral countryside and the central city, the resource of the city was sufficient and the countryside also has enough motivation to its development. On the contrary, although the radiant city was capable to provide enough living space for the citizens, it lacked enough humanity as well as ignoring the sustainability of social facilities for the reason that this mode of design would encounter challenges brought
  6. 6. by the developed society in later times. Lastly, the issue of place making could be taken into specialized consideration. From the dimension of the garden city, obviously, the urban land was surrounded by the countryside land. Not only could it provide sufficient food supply and gave a cozy living environment for the citizens, but also the economic development of the countryside should be also attributed to it largely. Inversely, as for the Radiant city, although the place making of it was divided systemically and reasonably, it lacked tight relationship with surrounding regions, which resulted in the independence of the city. Furthermore, the gather of buildings would also destroy the integrity and harmony of the city (Green, 2012). Comparative cases To analyze this topic further practically and authentically, the Brasilia and Canberra will be analyzed as cases of the radiant city and the garden city respectively. Widely acknowledged as the typical case of the radiant city, the Brasilia was divided into three main functional areas. There were the new urban, old area and the working- class residential zone (Adams, 2010). With the overall shape of a plane roughly, the Brasilia was planned regularly and neatly. The functional areas of it were obvious and evident. Not only did the buildings and iconic constructions were designed in the center of the city, but also the artificial green construction was designed in the round of the new constructions. When it comes to the connecting passages of the central part and the neighboring regions, the Brasilia build modern convenient highways to connect the above regions. Especially, the Brasilia of the radiant city should be analyzed from the perspective of social sustainable. Wholly, the Brasilia made certain efforts to create the social sustainable development of the city, however, it ignored the ecological harmony and everlasting development of the city largely. To begin with, from the view of livability, the Brasilia attached sufficient and considerable importance to the urban environmental protection and the basic infrastructure for individual all-round development of citizens with stable economic development. As
  7. 7. indicated by the remarkable city analysts Thomas, E, “As shown by the authentic fact, the greening coverage of Brasilia reached up to more than 40% and its economic development served as a powerful motivation to the comprehensive strength of it. It was obvious that the Brasilia devoted to the construction of environmental protection and balance of development.” Consequently, the Brasilia made efforts to the livability of the city to some extent undoubtedly. However, the isolation and mechanized layout may cut down the livability. In spite of lowering the density and enhancing the environmental protection, the Brasilia aimed more at the economic development instead of the livability from the side of human-oriented (Rubin, 2013). Moreover, when it comes to the aspect of social support, the Brasilia made certain efforts while having some deficiency. By dividing the city reasonably with functional areas, the Brasilia provided enough social support for its residents. On one hand, various infrastructures were given. To satisfy various demands of the residents from different fields, the Brasilia arranged various basic installations, such as the activity space and cultural sites to complete the social support from the side of hardware. On the other hand, as a typical case of the radiant city, the Brasilia also improved the social guarantee of the citizens. Because the radiant city emphasized on the comprehensive management of the city and humanity concern, the social support was also improved from the spiritual level. Last but not least, from the perspective of place making, the Brasilia was arranged with the guidance of the principle of the Radiant city. As a result, the design of the Brasilia demonstrated the reasonable combination mode of it, which showed the social sustainable development as well as enlarging the ultimate accommodation of the city (Dickens, 2011). Here is a panoramic view of the Brasilia from The theory of the Radiant city, which showed the whole actual effect of the radiant city. Evidently, the Brasilia was designed to be neat and regular. In the central part of the urban, it was a huge green infrastructure. Later, several modern buildings were arranged on the two sides of the city. Indicated by the picture, the Brasilia showed the concept of zoning plan obviously and also emphasized on the ecological system of the city to some extent.
  8. 8. Sources: http://www.thepolisblog.org/2013/02/brasilia.html Otherwise, the Canberra will be analyzed as the representative case of the garden city. Highly referred as the natural capital, the Canberra was designed with the shape of the mixture of cyclic annular and radial organically. Instead of building artificial green landscape without coordination, the Canberra fused the countryside into the central urban, creating a harmonious and promising environment (William, 2012). Most importantly, the Canberra abandoned the old concept that considered the park as ornament of the city and integrating the living places as well as the urban public facilities into the natural vegetation directly, which made effective and immeasurable
  9. 9. contributions to enhancing the social sustainable of this city (Smith, 2012). Furthermore, from the view of livability, the Canberra received remarkable achievement. With the essential spirit of garden city, the Canberra was succeeded in breaking down the obvious boundaries of the countryside and central urban, which resulted in the ecology of urban landscape. Take the site selection of the parliament of Australia and the economic center of the Canberra as persuading examples, the parliament of Australia was sited in the edge of countryside where owned a wide hills and charming lakes. In the meantime, the economic center of it also located beside the sea, enabling it to be full of marine of breath. Generally, in spite of accomplishing remarkable green construction, the Canberra also infused the significant functional areas into the countryside, creating an effect of garden city (Curie, 2005). What’ more, as for the social support, as the characteristics of the city layout, it was quite possible for the farms and breeding sites to be close to the urban. It was this trait that made considerable contributions to guarantee the material supply for the city. At the same time, the mixture of countryside and urban also promote the development of the countryside ecologically with the precondition of safeguarding the natural of this areas. Obviously, the land allocation was also aimed at protecting the social support of the citizens. Not only did it enable nearly equal opportunities for the development of its residents, but also it pioneered the principle of offering the land usufruct to the citizens. Both of the measures were capable to ensure the social support of this city with the principle of comprehensive social sustainable. In final, the place making of the Canberra could also be considered as a radical issue. It was easy to discover the fact that the city layout of Canberra emphasized on the harmony and naturalness. With an entire allocation of striation and flexible mixture, the place making of the Canberra demonstrates the core principle of natural and ecology. Here were certain typical instances, instead of dividing the city landscape with level, the Canberra arranged the various urban functional areas closely with the countryside or the city gardens in phase. In general, the Canberra manifested the essential principle of social sustainable as well as enjoying the high reputation of international garden city (Byron, 2003).
  10. 10. Here is certain a pictures of the Canberra that showed the charming effect of this representative garden city. Source of: http://image.baidu.com/i?word=Canberra&tn=baiduimage&ct=201326592&cl The picture on the left was the authentic scenery of the Griffin Lake. Differed from the artificial Lake of the radiant cities and other cities, the Griffin Lake in Canberra was embedded into the central urban of Canberra. As it is near to the residential, it is convenient for the citizens to relax and enjoy leisure lives. Moreover, because the Griffin Lake in the Canberra combined the tourism industry wit the breeding industry, it makes direct contributions to the comprehensive economy of the urban and the supply of necessities of the urban. As for the picture on the right, it demonstrates the overall place making if the Canberra. Wholly, the Canberra showed the mixture of countryside of urban. By creating the ecological and natural scenes in the urban, the Canberra is capable to manifest the inner concept of garden city. Conclusion The essay made analysis of the social sustainable of the radiant city and the garden city with the practical cases of the Brasilia and Canberra respectively. The issues of social sustainable, radiant city and the garden city were analyzed with certain citations firstly. Later, the comparison of these two types of cities was made. Not only were
  11. 11. their characteristics analyzed with certain instances, but also they also analyzed under the topic of social sustainable with comparison. Last but not least, the Brasilia and the Canberra were taken as cases of this issue. Generally, the garden city was more social sustainable than the radiant city for the reason that it was able to demonstrate the principle of nature and humanity. However, the types of cities not only decided by the concrete situation of the city, but also it should be largely attributed to the developmental stages of the city. It was undoubted and evident that the garden city was more social sustainable than the radiant city, which has promising prosperity than another one. And the design of garden city could also be set as model for the cities that encountered developmental bottleneck with other modes of city.
  12. 12. Reference Adams, O.P. (2010). The study of sustainable, social and cultural press, Heidelberg. Byron, T. (2003). The explanation of garden city, new research publisher, London. Bush, G. (1999). Basic theory of cities,classical academic press, Lisbon. Bronte, R. (2013). Sustainable development challenges in United national journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 13-15. Curie, W. (2005). The theory of the Radiant city, new era academic press, Edinburgh. Douglas, D. (2001). The research of city, city press, New York. Dickens, W. (2011). Which is better? Garden city or Radiant city, public and citizens press, Stockholm. Ebenezer, Q. (1902). The future garden city, Britain press, London. Le, B. (1923). The theory of radiant city, academic and scientific publisher, Paris. Leask, S. (2011). Creating Gardens and suburbs today in city counsel, vol. 12, no.3, pp.13-32. Harris, J. M. (2000). Basic principles of sustainable development in Global development and environment institute, vol.2, no.13, pp.23-45. Green, U. (2012). Reinterpreting the garden city concept in Theories of the society, vol.13, no.5, pp.13-21. Rubin, E. (2013). The situation of Radiant city in city research, vol.12,no.2, pp.23-31. Smith, R. (2012). Measuring sustainable development in city study and social view, vol.13, no.4, pp.14-40. Thomas, U. (2001). What is sustainable development? In global, indicators, values, and practice, vol.13, no.23, pp.23-30. William, S. W. (2012). Climate trends and global crop production since 1980 in Science, vol.3, no.5, pp. 13-102. Huckle, John (1996) 'Realizing sustainability in changing times' in John Huckle and Stephen Sterling (eds.) Education for Sustainability .