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THE GENERAL TYRE AND RUBBER COMPANY
OF
PAKISTAN LIMITED
INTERNSHIP PROGRAM REPORT
CONDUCTING IN COMPOUNDING DEPARTMENT
FOR...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of All, I would like to thank Almighty ALLAH, the most Gracious and most Merciful, who
educated Men b...
POURPOSE OF INTERNSHIP
In GENERAL TYRE & RUBBER COMPANY OF PAKISTAN,
 I had visited many different sections and areas acc...
INDEX
S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO
1. INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL TYRE 1
2. TYRE 2
3. TYPES OF TYRE 4
4. TYRE NOMENCLUATRE 5
5. MATER...
1. INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL TYRE
The General Tyre and Rubber Company of Pakistan Limited (Gentipak) is the
Pakistan’s premi...
2. TYRE
 A tire is a strong, flexible rubber casing attached to the rim of a wheel.
 Tyres provide a gripping surface fo...
2.1.1. INNER LINER
 Inner Liner is the extruded sheet with low air permeability.
 It is an extruded halo butyl rubber sh...
2.1.6. BELT PAKAGE
 Belts are calendared sheets consisting of a layer of rubber, a layer of closely spaced
steel cords, a...
4. TYRE NOMENCLUATURE
Nomenclature of tyre means marking on the tyre or traceability of the tyre.
The General Tyre making ...
4.2.2 LIGHT TRUCK TYRE
The G.T.R product name 195 R 14 C SS 91H
 195 > Section width of tyre in millimeter (mm)
 R > Sho...
7. MIXING (Banbury Blending)
 The mixing process is done in two stages.
 1st stage is called “Master Batch” and the 2nd ...
8. MILING
 The rubber sheet comes out from Banbury mixer is not that perfect, so In this
operation the shaping of rubber ...
9.2. TRIPLEX EXTRUDER
 It is also called “Cold Feed Extruder”.
 It is more efficient extruder as compared to Dual Extrud...
11. STOCK PREPARATION, BEAD & BAND BUILDING
 This building is also known as “Component Assembly Building”.
 In this stag...
13. RADIAL TYRE BUILDING
 The Radial Tyre construction is build up into two stages.
 In 1st Stage a carcass is built in ...
15.2. BLADDER
 The bladder is the flexible rubber which used in the curing press machine.
 It is attached to the inside ...
16.2. DOME TYPE PRESS
 It is also known as conventional type curing press.
 It is “Segmented Molding” press machine.
 I...
18. FINSIH GOOD WARE HOUSE
 Tyres that are qualified from all the tests are sent to Finish Good Ware House for the
shipme...
20. QUALITY CONTROL
 Quality control means check out the quality of product before the sale.
 In General tyre,
 Quality...
21. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT
 In General tyre,
 Quality Assurance Department ensures that ISO Standards are followed...
FIND/OBSERVED HAZARDROUS
I observed the following Hazards during the internship training program in General
Tyre:
 In the...
SUGESSTIONS
I would like to suggest the following points:
 Above hazards should be considered very seriously.
 A protect...
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Internship report for compounding department at general tyre & rubber company of pakistan

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My internship report for compounding at General Tyre & Rubber Company of Pakistan.

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Internship report for compounding department at general tyre & rubber company of pakistan

  1. 1. THE GENERAL TYRE AND RUBBER COMPANY OF PAKISTAN LIMITED INTERNSHIP PROGRAM REPORT CONDUCTING IN COMPOUNDING DEPARTMENT FOR THE GENERAL TYRE AND RUBBER COMPANY OF PAKISTAN DURATION From 1st JULY 2015 to 14th JULY, 2015 Submitted To: MR. MOIZ SARWAR (MANAGER OF COMPUNDING DEPARTMENT) Submitted By Internee: ZEESHAN ZAHID (D-13-CH-28) (3rd year Student of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT) DAWOOD UNIVERSITY OF ENINGEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KARACHI
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First of All, I would like to thank Almighty ALLAH, the most Gracious and most Merciful, who educated Men by Pen. By the Grace of ALLAH, who gave me the strength and will to overcome the surfaced during the completion of my Internship and Internship Report. In this report all basic and most necessary topics are clearly mentioned and made easy to understand about the Tyre Manufacturing Process and Operations as well as Tyre Engineering, Tyre Technology, Tyre components and Nomenclature of Tyre. I would specially like to thankful to Mr. S. KHUSRO IQBAL (Head of Human Resource Department), who were very cooperative and gave me the precious ISLAMIC book “SAHI E BUKHARI”. I am very thankful from the core of heart to honorable Mr. Moiz Sarwar (Manager of Compounding Department) in The General Tyre and Rubber Company of Pakistan for providing me the opportunity for internship training program. I wish to express my deep gratefulness to Mr. Aziz Ur Rehman, Mr. Muhammad Khalid, Mr. Ayub, Mr. Kaleem, Mr. Usman, and Mr. Faraz Muhammad Abbasi, for this consideration and supervision. It was a memorable time in The General Tyre and Rubber Company of Pakistan due to his kind concern. I also thankful to staff members of The General Tyre and Rubber Company of Pakistan for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields, for the great encouragement and cooperation, because of which I have successfully completed my internship training. ZEESHAN ZAHID
  3. 3. POURPOSE OF INTERNSHIP In GENERAL TYRE & RUBBER COMPANY OF PAKISTAN,  I had visited many different sections and areas according to the schedule provided by Compounding Department.  These visits were very helpful. All the personals, I referred were very cooperative.  I learned a lot by them and their experiences.  I learned so many ways of how to prepare a Tyre or mass production of the Tyres effectively and efficiently.  The main purpose of this internship is that know about the manufacturing process of Tyre in the GENERAL TYRE and also working principle, quality control, environment, quality policies, quality assurance and much more.  This internship is very useful for me for my upcoming educational and professional life.
  4. 4. INDEX S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO 1. INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL TYRE 1 2. TYRE 2 3. TYPES OF TYRE 4 4. TYRE NOMENCLUATRE 5 5. MATERIALS USED FOR TYRE MAKING 6 6. TYRE MANUFACTURING PROCESS 7 7. MIXING 7 8. MILLING 8 9. EXTRUDER 8 10. CALENDERING 10 11. STOCK PREPARATION AND BEAD/BAND BUILDING 10 12. BIAS TYRE BUILDING 11 13. RADIAL TYRE BUIDING 11 14. STEELASTIC AREA 12 15. TUBE DEPARTMENT 12 16. TYRE CURING 13 17. FINAL FINISH 14 18. FINISHED GOOD WARESHOUSE 14 19. PRODUCTION PLANING AND CONTROL 15 20. QUALITY CONTROL 16 21. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT 17 22. FIND/OBSERVED HAZARDROUS 18 23. SUGGESTIONS 19
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL TYRE The General Tyre and Rubber Company of Pakistan Limited (Gentipak) is the Pakistan’s premier Industry. It was established in 1963 by General Tyre USA and has been in production since 1964. Gentipak has a Technical Services Agreement (TSA) with Continental AG (Germany’s largest tyre manufacturer) which enables it to product tyres of “GENERAL” brand and provides the latest technology for production of tyres based Continental’s, Research and Development (R&D). The plant and the office are located in suburb of Karachi. Initial production capacity was only 120,000 tyres per annum but is now around 2,000,000 tyres per annum. General tyre plant is constantly upgraded and is equipped with the most modern technology in tyre manufacturing. 1.1. PRODUCTS OF GENERAL TYRE  Bike Front & Rear Tyres  Passenger Car Tyres  Truck & Light Truck (Bus) Tyres  Tractor Front & Rear Tyres  Tubes
  6. 6. 2. TYRE  A tire is a strong, flexible rubber casing attached to the rim of a wheel.  Tyres provide a gripping surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the wheels of a moving vehicle.  Tyres are the only point of contact of the vehicle with the road.  Tyre encases the rubber tube.  The rubber tube inflated with air supports the whole weight of the car, but the rubber tube cannot directly come in contact with the road as it cannot resist wear and it lacks strength.  Tyres must perform a certain number of functions for the smooth functioning of the vehicle namely- steering, carrying a load, cushioning, rolling, transmitting drive and long lasting life. 2.1. COMPONENTS OF THE TYRE Tyre is a composite structure consisting of many layers. They usually consist of following parts: 1. Inner liner 2. Body ply 3. Side wall 4. Beads 5. Filler 6. Belt Package 7. Tread 8. Cushion Gum . Fig 2.1 COMPONENTS OF TYRE
  7. 7. 2.1.1. INNER LINER  Inner Liner is the extruded sheet with low air permeability.  It is an extruded halo butyl rubber sheet compounded with additives that result in low air permeability.  The inner liner assures that the tire will hold high-pressure air inside, without the air gradually diffusing through the rubber structure. 2.1.2 BODY PLY  The Body Ply is the calendared sheet of rubber and reinforcement (fabric).  It gives the structural strength to the tyre.  The fabric cords are highly flexible but relatively inelastic.  The textile materials used are cotton in early years now replaced by Rayon, Nylon, and Polyester. 2.1.3. SIDE WALL  It is Non-reinforce extruded component.  It gives the tyre good abrasion resistance and environmental resistance.  In the Side wall compounds include anti-oxidants and anti-ozonants to protect the tyre from decomposition. 2.1.4. BEADS  Bead is the part of tyre which come contact with the rim.  Beads are bands of high tensile-strength steel wire, encased with rubber compound.  Beads wire is coated with special alloys of Brass.  Coatings protect the steel from corrosion, rusting and pitting.  Copper in the alloy and sulphur in the rubber cross-link to produce copper sulphide, which improves bonding of the bead to the rubber.  Beads are inflexible and inelastic, and provide the mechanical strength to fit the tyre to the wheel.  Beads rubber includes additives to maximize strength and toughness. 2.1.5. FILLER  Filler is a triangular extruded profile that mates against the bead.  The filler provides a cushion between the rigid bead and flexible Inner liner and Body Ply assembly.
  8. 8. 2.1.6. BELT PAKAGE  Belts are calendared sheets consisting of a layer of rubber, a layer of closely spaced steel cords, and a second layer of rubber.  Belts give the tyre strength and dent resistance while allowing it to remain flexible.  The steel cords are oriented radially in radial tire construction, and at opposing angles in bias tire construction. 2.1.7. TREAD  Tread is a thick extruded profile that comes directly in contact with the road.  Tread compounds include additives to impart wear resistance and traction in addition to environmental resistance and protect the inside tube of tyre from friction.  Hard tread compounds have long wear characteristics but poor traction, while in soft tread compounds have good traction but poor wear characteristics. 2.1.8. CUSHION GUM  It is the thin sheet of rubber.  It is applied in the inside of the tread.  Many higher-performing tyres include an extruded component between the belt package and the tread to isolate the tread from mechanical wear from the steel belts. 3. TYPES OF TYRE There are two types of tyres: 1. Bias Tyre 2. Radial Tyre 3.1. BIAS TYRE  It is also called Conventional Tube Tyre.  It is a tube tyre.  In this tyre, ply cords extending from bead to bead and lying at specific angle mostly at 280.  The construction of this tyre, assembled in single stage.  Assembling of this tyre, done in one machine 3.2. RADIAL TYRE  It is also called Tubeless Tyre.  Inner Liner used in this tyre instead of tube.  The piles of this tyre are mounted at Oo.  It is made in two stages:  In first stage, Inner Liner, Ply, Bead and Side Wall applied.  In second stage, Two Belt, Cap ply and Tread is applied.
  9. 9. 4. TYRE NOMENCLUATURE Nomenclature of tyre means marking on the tyre or traceability of the tyre. The General Tyre making Bias/Radial tyres and their nomenclature are as follows: 4.1. BIAS TYRE For the nomenclature of bias tyre, taking the motor cycle tyre. In motor cycle tyre two types of tyre used: 1. Front 2. Rear 4.1.1 FRONT The G.T.R motor cycle’s front tyre/product name 2.25-17 F Hyper sonic.  2.25 - Section width measured in Inches.  17 - Rim diameter in Inches  F - Shows Front tyre  HS - G.T.R Design name 4.1.2. REAR The G.T.R motor cycle’s rear tyre/product name 2.50-17 R Black Cobra.  2.50 - Section width measured in Inches  17 - Rim diameter in Inches  R - Shows Rear tyre  BC - G.T.R Design name 4.2 RADIAL TYRE Two types of vehicle radial tyre making in G.T.R: 1. Passenger Tyre 2. Light Truck Tyre 4.2.1 PASSENGER TYRE NOMENCLATURE The G.T.R product name 195/65 R15 Euro Star 93H  195 > Section width of tyre in millimeter (mm)  65 > Series of tyre comes out by the aspect ratio in (mm) Aspect Ratio = Section Height *100 Section Width  R > Shows the Radial tyre  15 > It is Rim diameter measured in Inches.  ES > It shows Design name of G.T.R  93 > Load Index (Check by the Standard Book)  H > Speed Rating (Check by the Standard Book)
  10. 10. 4.2.2 LIGHT TRUCK TYRE The G.T.R product name 195 R 14 C SS 91H  195 > Section width of tyre in millimeter (mm)  R > Shows the Radial tyre  14 > It is Rim diameter measured in Inches.  C > Means Commercial/Light Truck.  SS > G.T.R design name  91 > Load Index (Check by the Standard Book)  H > Speed Rating (Check by the Standard Book) 5. MATERIAL USED FOR TYRE MAKING Following material are using for making Tyre: 1. Rubber (Natural, Synthetic) 2. Filler (Carbon Black, Silica, Calcium Carbonate, carbon Chalk) 3. Reinforcing Material (Nylon, Polyester, Rayon) 4. Plasticizer (Oil, Resins) 5. Chemicals for Vulcanization (Sulphur, Zinc Oxide, Stearic Acid, Various Chemicals)  Chemicals as anti oxidants to counter ozone effect and material fatigue. 6. TYRE MANUFACTURING PROCESS Tyre manufacturing process and operations are technically complex so tyre is making procedure divided in different sections: 1. Mixing 2. Milling 3. Extruding 4. Calendering 5. Stock Preparation, Bead & Band Building 6. Tyre Building (Bias Tyre & Radial Tyre) 7. Tube Section 8. Curing
  11. 11. 7. MIXING (Banbury Blending)  The mixing process is done in two stages.  1st stage is called “Master Batch” and the 2nd stage called “Finish”.  In the 1st stage, the natural rubber, synthetic rubber, carbon black and other chemical ingredients are placed onto a conveyor system, and the Banbury mixer is charged to initiate the mixing process to create a homogeneous rubber material.  This homogeneous rubber blended is called “Master Batch”.  The chemical ingredients include compounds which act as accelerators, anti- oxidants, anti-ozonants, extenders, vulcanizers, pigments, plasticizers, reinforcing agents, tacki fires, processing oil and resins.  Time, Temperature, Pressure and raw materials are factors utilized to material composition.  The mixing temperature do not rise up to (135 to 160) 0C. If the temperature is exceed from this limit then the compound can be damage.  The pressure of the Ram is 120 Psi.  In the 2nd Stage, Curatives package is added in the mixing process.  The temperature for this stage is not exceed (95 to 110) 0C, here pressure of Ram is also 120 Psi.  After this the reaction is completed.  The complete compound called “Finish”.  The finish is sent to series of machines to form the specific sizes of sheets, coding on fabric and made slabs for bladder and flaps. MACHINES AVAILABLE IN GENERAL TYRE FOR MIXING PROCESS  F-270  It is a Banbury mixer.  Mostly used for Master Batch mixing.  F means Feral and 270 shows volume of this mixer.  It is PLC based mixer.  HF-270  It is also a Banbury mixer.  It is widely used for the finish mixing.  HF is the company name while 270 is volume of this mixer.  It is also a PLC based mixer.  KN-01  It is a Kneader mixer.  Mostly used to make the Master Batch.  The batch size for this machine is 80 kg only.  It is a manually based machine & Two KN-01 machines are available in G.T.R.
  12. 12. 8. MILING  The rubber sheet comes out from Banbury mixer is not that perfect, so In this operation the shaping of rubber takes place.  Milling machines shape the rubber into flat, long strips by forcing and some heating.  For this operation, two roll mils rotating in different directions at different speeds.  The 1st mil is called “Dump Mill” and the 2nd mill called “Shelter Mill”.  After the milling operation this will cold by the fans and then sent it to different section for different working. 9. EXTRUDING  Extruding is a very important operation.  It converts the thick and heavy rubber sheets into thin rubber sheets.  It is often referred to as a “Tuber”, because it creates tube like rubber sheets.  It consists of a screw, barrel, head and die.  A core or spider is used to form the hollow inside of tubing.  By this operation, many of the tyre components such as large, flat section of tyre are made like Tread, Inner Liner, Side wall etc.  There are two types of extruder: 1. Dual Extruder (Hot Feed Extruder) 2. Triplex Extruder (Cold Feed Extruder). IN THE GENERAL TYRE BOTH TYPES OF EXTRUDER ARE USING: 9.1. DUAL EXTRUDER  It is also called “Hot Feed Extruder”.  It is only used to form Bias tyre components making like Tread and Side Wall for Passengers, Truck and Tractor tyres.  It has four mills and two large screws. Mills name are follows: 1. Break down Mill 2. Feed Mill 3. Hopper 4. Screws and Die  Finish is transported to break down mill and it makes the slits into strips.  By the conveyor belt it carried to the feed mill then hopper mill.  Then the coming compound forward to screws and here screws push the material in the direction of the die here the line speed is maintain in FPM (Foot per Minute).  Die have the cavity of the size of either tread or side wall to be extruded.  If required, Cushion gum is applied after the extrusion of the die.  The extruded component is sent to the cooling purpose.  This extruder has spray water system for cooling.  After cooling, its goes to the cutting machines, there it can cut into different sizes.  The drawback of this extruder is:  It required valuable worker for milling.  Water is more required for cooling purpose.
  13. 13. 9.2. TRIPLEX EXTRUDER  It is also called “Cold Feed Extruder”.  It is more efficient extruder as compared to Dual Extruder.  It is only used to form Radial tyre components making like Tread and Side Wall.  It has three screws of different sizes of diameter.  1st Screw diameter is 50 mm.  2nd Screw diameter is 90 mm.  3rd Screw diameter is 120 mm.  These screws are sealed in the housing and having separately feed area.  In this extruder, small pins are fitted to blend the rubber properly.  In this extruder, different dies can be mounted at the same time.  If required, Cushion gum can be applied separately.  After extrusion, the material forward for cutting (Because It is cold feed extruder and here is no requirement for mill to warm up the feed) where, it can cut at the specific angle mostly cut at 280 degree.  It has one cutter (Fair wood/Barnat Shah) for cutting purpose.  The advantages of triplex extruder:  No need mill workers.  Cost efficient and high productive. 10. CALENDERING  The calendering is the operation which continues to shape rubber.  This machine consists of one or more rolls (often it have four rolls).  In this operation the rubber sheets are forced by rolls for shaping.  The main functions of calendering are:  To prepare compounded rubber as a uniform sheet of definite thickness and width.  To place a thin coat of rubber on a fabric (Coating).  To force rubber into the interstices of fabric by friction. IN THE GENERAL TYRE 4-ROLLS CALENDER IS USING FOR CALENDERING PURPOSE 10.1 FOUR-ROLLS CALENDER  It is set of large diameter rolls that squeeze the rubber compound into a thin sheet.  It produces an upper and lower rubber sheet with a layer of fabric in between rubber sheet.  Calender used is to produce the Body Plies and Belts.  For Calendering many types of fabrics can be used like nylon, polyester and rayon.
  14. 14. 11. STOCK PREPARATION, BEAD & BAND BUILDING  This building is also known as “Component Assembly Building”.  In this stage all the tyre components are assembled together with the help of assembling machine.  The components of a tyre include Beads, Chafer, Plies, Side Walls, Chipper and Treads.  After the components are assembled, the tyre is often referred to as a “Green Tyre” and also called “Uncured Tyre”.  In General Tyre: For the making of Beads, two different machines are using:  BD-2 > It making one bead at a time.  BD-3 > It making three beads at a time. For the making of Stock Preparation, five different machines are using:  FC-2 to FC-4  FS-1 to FS-2 For the making of Band, Five machines are using:  BB-1 to BB-5 (BB Means Band Building)  These machines consist of two rollers, which press multiple piles together by the pneumatic pressure.  Band is the set of plies.  Plies are cut according to the circumferential of size of the tyre.  These plies are build up at opposite angles forming the criss cross pattern. 12. BIAS TYRE BUILDING  The Bias Tyre construction is build up in one stage.  One machine is required for the assembly of Bias tyre.  The following components are assembled: 1. Inner Liner 2. Bands 3. Beads 4. Chaffer (If Required) 5. Breaker 6. Tread  After the tread applied, final product is the Bias’s green tyre and it is ready for curing.
  15. 15. 13. RADIAL TYRE BUILDING  The Radial Tyre construction is build up into two stages.  In 1st Stage a carcass is built in tyre building drum :  Inner Liner  Ply  Bead  Chafer (If required)  Side Wall  In the 2nd Stage reaming parts applied:  Belt-1  Belt-2  Cap Ply  Tread  After the 2nd stage the final product is the radial’s green tyre and it ready for curing. 14. STEELASTIC AREA DEPARTMENT  In this department, steel belts are building for Radial tyre.  In the construction of this belt used high tensile brass coated steel cords.  The brass coating is done to make the cross link with rubber (Copper + Sulphur = Coppersulfied)  The main function of brass coated steel cords is in a temperature and humidity controlled environment.  If it is not used so corrosion due to moisture may cause the steel belt to lose adhesion with rubber. 15. TUBE DEPARTMENT In General tyre, this department making: 1. Tubes 2. Bladder 3. Flaps 15.1 TUBES  Butyl rubber compound is used for making tubes.  A single extruder makes green tubes.  Then it spliced joint the edges.  A valve applicator fitted the valve to the tube for inflation purpose.  In the end it goes final inspection for checking any air leakage.  Different machine are using in G.T.R:  TP-1 to TP-10 makes passenger car tyre tubes.  TP-11 to TP-15 makes tractor and truck tyre tubes.
  16. 16. 15.2. BLADDER  The bladder is the flexible rubber which used in the curing press machine.  It is attached to the inside of the mold.  It is filled with steam or hot water when the tyre is cured.  It can done 200 cycles of curing.  Before using the bladder, determine the dimensions and geometry for the job. 15.3. FLAPS  It is used in the interface of the tyre.  It protects the tube from rim.  Two machines are using for making flaps  FL-2 makes flap for passenger car tyre rim.  FL-1 makes flap for tractor and truck tyre rim. 16. TYRE CURING  Curing machine commonly known as “Press Machine”.  In this process the “Green Tyre” is cured and gives the tyre final shape.  Curing is done by the applied heat through steam or hot Water with high pressure.  In this process vulcanization process takes place and all the components of the tyre are bonded with each other.  Pressing machines are used for curing process.  There are two type of pressing machines: 1. Platen Type Press 2. Dome Type Press IN GENERAL TYRE BOTH TYPE OF PRESSING MACHINES ARE USING. 16.1. PLATEN TYPE PRESS  It is also called Bag-o-Matic type curing press.  It is “Two Piece Molding” press machine.  This curing machine based on All Steam process.  This type of pressing machine used for light truck tyre and radial tyre.  Design Parameters for platen type curing machine based on All Steam:  240 psi steam in bladder, Orifice opens.  240 psi steam in bladder, Orifice closed.  140 psi steam circulating in hollow plate mold.  This steam pressure full fills the external temperature requirement.  Temperature of platen surface is about 165 0C.  Temperature of mold is about 158 to 160 0C due to resistance during heat transfer.  Dain valve open.  Apply vacuum at 144 psi.  Open the mold & removed tyre.
  17. 17. 16.2. DOME TYPE PRESS  It is also known as conventional type curing press.  It is “Segmented Molding” press machine.  It is based on All Steam and Steam, Hot Water and Cold Water curing process.  This type of pressing machine used for tractor and bus tyres.  Design Parameters of Dome type curing machine based on All Steam:  240 psi steam in bladder, Orifice opens.  240 psi steam in bladder, Orifice closed.  Apply steam in dome, 140 psi.  Drain valve open.  Apply vacuum in bladder.  Open the mold & removed tyre.  Design Parameters of Dome type curing machine based on Steam, Hot water & Cold Water:  200 psi steam in bladder, Orifice opens.  200 psi steam in bladder, Orifice closed.  Apply steam in dome, 100 psi.  Mold temperature 155 to 158 0C.  Non-circulating hot water in bladder at 280 to 300 psi.  Drain dome steam.  Circulating cold water in bladder at 280 psi.  Full blow down.  Apply vacuum in bladder.  Open mold & remove tyre. 17. FINAL FINISH  Final finish is the last operation in the tyre manufacturing process.  After the tyre has been cured, there are several additional operations.  It is remain to be performed before the tyre is stored or shipped.  In this operation, trims the flashes or excess rubber from the tyre.  In General Tyre:  Measurement the tyre uniformity where the tyre is automatically mounted on wheel halves, inflated, run against a simulated road surface, and measured for force variation.  Also measurement the tyre balance where the tyre is automatically placed on wheel halves rotated at a high speed and measured for imbalance.  Large commercial truck/bus Tyres, as well as some passenger and light truck tyres, are inspected by X-ray machines that can penetrate the rubber to analyze the steel cord structure.  In the final step, tyres are inspected by human eyes for numerous visual defects such as incomplete mold fill, exposed cords, blisters, blemishes, and
  18. 18. 18. FINSIH GOOD WARE HOUSE  Tyres that are qualified from all the tests are sent to Finish Good Ware House for the shipment to the dealers or OEM’s.  After the full filling the all tests then tyre is packed.  The storage and handling of tyres is done manually or by cranes which can handle the bunch of tyres.  The art of the handling the goods in the ware house is the great job.  Accommodating more and more goods in a proper manner in a small area requires skills of handling.  Easy withdrawal of goods at the time of shipment is made possible.  The delivery of tyres from F.G.W.H is done by the invoice which comes from the sales department. 19. PRODUCTION PLANING & CONTROL DEPARTMENT  Production planning is the planning of production and manufacturing processes in a company or industry. It utilizes there source allocation of activities of employees, materials and production capacity, in order to serve different customers.  In G.T.R:  The working of production planning and control starts with sales forecast by the sales department.  In this department the demand of tyres has been elaborated.  This department keeping in view of that forecast and production capability of the floor plans and the production, which is further transformed into daily schedules to sent to different sections and areas of the company. The Operation Flow Chat of Production Planning & Control DEMAND PLANNING MATERIAL & LABOR REPORTING CAPACITY & REQUIREMENT PLANNING PROCESS PRIORITY DAILY SCHEDULE PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL
  19. 19. 20. QUALITY CONTROL  Quality control means check out the quality of product before the sale.  In General tyre,  Quality control department beings with the delivery of raw materials.  In G.T.R, the chemists do random sampling or testing in the testing lab.  In the Black carbon as raw material, check the iodine number by the titration with sodium thio sulphate.  In Master Batch testing, check the viscosity of the master compound.  For the checking of viscosity two type of viscometers are using: 1. Moni Viscometer 2. Brookfield Viscometer  The finish compound checked by different testing equipments.  If the result is found OK so finish compound release & shifted to concerned area, and if is found NO so then compound hold at holding area.  After curing, physically checked the dispersion of chemicals by the strong machines.  Physically checking in static and dynamic conditions like: 1. Curing check 2. Tensile strength 3. Breaking strength 4. Hardness 5. Modulus 6. Adhesion between plies 7. Plunger testing 8. Uniformality 9. 9. X-Ray testing 10. Reliability o High speed test > Maximum speed with constant load. o Endurance test > Constant load with maximum speed.  After this all checking the material, compound or tyre passed to final inspection for physically check with hands and eyes.
  20. 20. 21. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT  In General tyre,  Quality Assurance Department ensures that ISO Standards are followed and is responsible for its certification.  Its main purpose is preventing the claims from customers.  In case of receiving such claims on quality of provided products and services, this department starts searching the reasons about that claim.  If a tyre on examination is found to be having some manufacturing faults then the G.T.R Company will either repair it free of cost or may be change.  It is also responsible for taking market surveys to check, If the product is meeting its requirement or not.  The G.T.R quality policy SOLAGAN is given below: “We are a Company of dedicated people who enjoy working as a team and with our customers in an enterprise committed to quality. We will continually strive to bring improvements in our products, services & quality management system to meet or exceed our customer needs and expectations. We will work within the framework of legal and regulatory requirements”.
  21. 21. FIND/OBSERVED HAZARDROUS I observed the following Hazards during the internship training program in General Tyre:  In the mixing area, the filling of Black Carbon in the mixer is dangerous for mixer operator because there is poor ventilation system and the Black Carbon is Carcinogenic and danger for operator health.  The workers who are working in the field are not working according to given safety parameters.  I think more safety environment required at LPG plant side.  Workers should cover the maintenance area while changing or repairing of machine or the component but they don’t.  The house keeping is also very important but in some areas there is no proper housekeeping system.  Workers should not allow eating harmful things like pan, tobacco and other types of food etc but they not only eat those things also spit over there.  Mill operators are generally concerned with safety hazards associated with the open operation of the turning rolls due to this, mill operators are exposed to heat as well as noise.  Some operators do not put the used apparatus on their right place and also don’t wear safety protective equipments.
  22. 22. SUGESSTIONS I would like to suggest the following points:  Above hazards should be considered very seriously.  A protective mask should be given to the workers and the students to protect them for the dangerous gasses and poisons smell.  A student guide should be available who guide the students about the given plan and also help them to visit the plant.  Pick and drop facility should be given to male students also.  Seminars should be arranged for workers to guide them about safety measures.

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