3. • Kingdom: Animalia
• Phylum: Chordata
• Subphylum: Vertebrata
• Class: Osteichthyes
• osteon - "a bone" ichthys - "a fish"
• Skeleton made of bone
4. Devonian sarcopterygians
coelacanths (living fossils)
'rhipidistians', a paraphyletic ('incomplete')
lie on the line of ancestry to the tetrapods.
Early actinopterygians, heavy bony scales
over the whole body and large bony plates over
the head region.
Silurian ……. Fossils
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes).
45 orders and 435 families of bony fishes.
Lepidosireniformes (S. American lungfish)
Elopiformes (tarpon, tenpounder)
They are found in tropical, temperate, and polar seas.
In fresh water, seawater, and brackish environments.
Approximately 58% of all species of bony fishes live in marine
Freshwater fishes make up approximately 42% of fish species
10. General Characters
The desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) lives
in small hot springs of California. It can tolerate
temperatures greater than 52 0C (126F) (Nikolsky,
The arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) can survive
temperatures as low as -2 0C (28F) (Nikolsky, 1978).
Misgumus fossilis, a type of loach, can survive in as
little as 0.5 mg/l of dissolved oxygen.
dwarf pygmy goby (Pandaka
pygmaea), a freshwater fish of the
Philippines 8 mm (0.3 in.) at maturity
common mola (Mola mola), large mola
can reach 3.7 m (1 3 ft.) and 1,500 kg
• Most bony fish are
• Well developed teeth
used for capture and
• Roof of mouth, gill
rakers, and pharynx
may have teeth to help
• Grazers – fish that feed
primarily on seaweeds
and other plants
• Some develop beaks to
help scrape off algae or
pieces of coral
16. Mouth & Jaws
• Mouth of most bony
fish is terminal or
• Overall jaw movement
is more than that of
sharks with teeth that
are fused to jaw
17. Fins and Scales
• Swim Bladder – a gas-
filled sac above the
stomach allows for
• Gills share a common
• Mouth opens,
operculum closes, and
pharynx expands to
allow in water and the
A lungfish swallows air to fill up an air sac or
"lung." This lung is surrounded by veins that
bring blood to be oxygenated
• Better eyes than
• Fish eyes focus by
moving closer or farther
away from subject
• Many have color vision
• Presence of inner ears
• Located on either side of
the head just behind the
• Can resonate/amplify sound
through swim bladder
• no leaders
• Advantageous in feeding
• Anadromous fish – live mostly
at sea and migrate to
freshwater to breed (salmon)
• Catadromous fish – breed a
sea and live in rivers (eels)
29. Reproductive behavior
• Reproduction is generally cyclic in bony fishes.
• The duration of cycles may be as short as four weeks
or as long as many years.
• Pacific salmon (family Salmonidae) reproduce only
once during their five-year lifespan, then die soon
• Name means “fleshy finned fishes”
• First appeared 385 million years ago
• Ancestors of land vertebrates!
• Internal nostrils and cosmoid scales
31. Subclass Dipnoi
• Jaw fused to brain case
• Caudal, dorsal, and anal
• Pectoral fins long and
• Air breathing organ
attached to esophagus
• Order Mugiliformes
• Order Atheriniformes
• Order Beloniformes
• Order Cetomimiformes
• Order Cyprinodontiformes
• Order Stephanoberyciformes
• Order Bericiformes
• Order Zeiformes
• Order Gobiescociformes
• Order Gasterosteiformes
• Order Syngnathiformes
• Order Synbranchiformes
• Order Tetraodontiformes
• Order Pleuronectiformes
• Order Scorpaeniformes
• Order Perciformes
- 46% of fish
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Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1988.
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Francisco, CA. 2003
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