4. “ Whenever any educational programs comes into
operation there arise the need for some kind of
mechanism by which the progress of
implementation can be readily assessed. Such a
mechanism is generally referred to as the
monitoring mechanism. Within the education
system, monitoring covers activities of inspection
6. The first major difference between the two is
that monitoring is done against the identified
activities of a project. Whereas evaluation focuses
more on the objectives of a project.
The second difference is that monitoring is an
on-going and constant activity whereas evaluation
is periodic, to be done and completed within a
Thirdly, monitoring is generally considered and
practiced as an internal component of the project.
But this does not that monitoring cannot be done
externally. Whereas evaluation is both external
9. The Monitoring and evaluation of project is a
systematic procedure to collect and analyze
information about the implementation of the project.
The monitoring of the project measures the
effectiveness of the planning and management of the
The purpose of monitoring is to provide timely
information and give feed-back to the management on
vital stage in project implementation.
The periodic feed back on the progress of the project
helps project management to know the achievement of
the project’s targets.
Pragmatic planning involves the realistic
assessment of financial resources and required
inputs that can be expected on development
activities each year and during the project.
In over all sense, there are five main aspect of
(1) Technical security;
(2) the financial analysis:
(3) the economic analysis:
(4) the social analysis;
(5) the sensitivity analysis.
These elements are briefly explained below:
15. The economic aspect of project preparation and
analysis deals with determining whether a project
is likely to contribute significantly to the
development of the total economy.
The techniques of economic analysis help to
identify those projects that make the greatest
contribution to national income.
17. For the purposes analyzing the project from social
point of view.
Distributional weights are calculated and applied
to the steam of cost and benefit calculated at
efficiency prices (shadow prices).
The objectives underlying the social analysis are
the distributional impact I.e. equity.
20. The analysis for determining the technical
including the choice of appropriate technology,
for the development project is made by the
technical section(e.g. the location, supply of raw
process to be used, market demand, infrastructure,
supply of managerial, technical and other types of
22. This analysis studies the impact that changes in
the cost and benefits would have on the
profitability or present value of the project .e.g. a
10% increase in construction coast might reduce
the internal rate return from 15% to 9% for
project A, but only from 15% to 12% for project.
B.As such, at the time
Of appraisal of projects it is necessary that
sensitivity analysis be carried out to see whether
the project would be beneficial.
24. Both the benefit and cost streams and discount
at a rate considered to be closer to opportunity
cost of capital and the ratio between the present
worth of benefits divided present worth of the
coast is determined.
When the ratio is equal to one or above, the
project is treated as viable.
26. The most straightforward discounted cash flow
measure of project worth is the Net Present
Worth, often abbreviated as NPW.
The net present worth is calculated by
subtracting present worth of cost from present
worth of benefits discounted at opportunity cost
28. It is the discount rate, when just makes the
NWP of the cash-flow equal to zero.
The discount rate is termed as the internal rate
of return and is the weighted average earning
power of the resources used in the project over
30. All the three measures of project worth must be
related to the opportunity cost of the capital.
For private enterprise, the opportunity cost of
capital will be a weighted average of the
borrowing rate for funds.
The opportunity cost of capital, is return on the
last(e.g. marginal) investment,
which could made where all the available capital
is fully invested in the most remunerative
32. Periodic monitoring is linked to the PERT/CPM
analysis at the same time of plan formulation and
For chalking out the implementation phase of a
Network technique is quite useful and helps the
project managers to minimize the chances of
schedule slippages, cost over return contractual
Critical path method is a useful technique for
It is a technique concerned with finding the
minimum cost of carrying out task which consist
of a number of activities, at least some of which
have to be carried out consecutively.
The critical Path is thus, the path with the
longest completion time. It is critical in the sense
that its length determines the time required by
the whole task.
35. It is necessary to ensure linkage between targets
The targets are physically achievable within the
resources allocated on realistic basis.
The basic purpose of monitoring is to identify
the areas requiring corrective action in order to
ensure successful implementation as per the
The monitoring functions involves
Watching actual performance, comparing it with
the targets and identifying shortfalls;
Raising warnings signals in advance observing the
actual physical progress of critical milestones as
per the network in terms of the scheduled dates
as well as the latest dates of completion and
informing the decision makers;
Identifying the problems areas, analyzing the
problems, suggesting action areas.
38. Monitoring is required in terms of the following
parameters .e.g. project cost estimates (originally
latest approve/ revised and anticipated), commissioning
dates (originally envisaged, latest approved/ revised and
Monitoring of these parameters gives an idea of the
cost and time overruns in respect of the projects
This type of monitoring may be undertaken for all
projects, big and small at the federal and provincial.
The intensive monitoring requires to keep a close
watch on the project implementation schedule as
per PERT chart. It is critical to identify slippages.
The reason for the delay can be diagnosed to fix
Further updating of the PERT networks can also
become necessary in many cases, where the
annual plan allocations fall short of the proposed
outlays, on which the original PERT charts are
41. With advances in computers and information
technology, effective monitoring of the major on-
going projects; a monitoring system can be
It can be aimed at timely identification of the
warning signals for preventing time and cost over
runs and avoiding slippages in the course of
implementation of major projects.
The main features of the earlier monitoring set-
up comprised the submission of Report s to the
Monitoring Cells in various ministries quarterly
reports on different formats,
data banks , for monitoring the progress of the
public sector projects.
In the planning commission, a review of progress
was at the time of annual Plan discussions, and
publication of the Quarterly Status Report.
45. To facilitate and coordinate implementation of
projects-not merely evaluation or monitoring:
To resolve inter-ministerial knots and de-
To assist ministries departments in systems
development for preparation of Action Plan and
Control Report on targets.
To achieve these perception, three systems may
Project monitoring system to deal with
monitoring the implementation of all federal
Implementation of program and preparation of
Infrastructure monitoring system for monitoring
the performance of infrastructure.
48. The need for improvement of project formulation,
sanction, implementation and monitoring in education
planning is well emphasized. For proper project
implementation, emphasis has to be laid on correct:
Pre-planning for implementation
Use of consultants
During the implementation stage of the project,
there is need for continuous monitoring to ensure
project implementation as per time and cost
It is necessary to identify the scope for
monitoring for plan implementation. Broadly
speaking, monitoring would cover the following
Physical progress of the implementation of the
Quantitative and qualitative progress of
implementation of programs
Productivity and profitability performance for
established public sector, for which key indicators
specific to the units concerned may be identified.
In all these areas, it will be necessary to spell out
the responsibilities of the concerned ministries
and the planning commission.
52. Input Monthly reports received from the different
ministries/departments for different performance
Processing Analysis of the data in consultation
with ministries/departments wherever necessary.
Output Monthly Quarterly Capsule report for
Prime Minister. Performance Report with executive
summary for Deputy Chairman, planning
Follow-up Resolution of specific inter-sectorial
problems affecting the performance of different
sectors by regular contacts or by holding
meetings at different levels.