Human resource development of a
country depends upon the quality of
education imparted in country (Mohanthy,
Quality higher education is a source of
great potential for the socio economic and
of the country.
3. Meanings of Higher Education
The terms higher education, tertiary
education and post-secondary education are
used interchangeably (The World Bank,
Higher Educational Institutions include not
only Universities and Colleges, but also
various Professional Schools that provide
preparation in such fields as law, medicine,
business, art, music, and engineering
According to the modern concept of
education, a University is a city of the
universe. This meaning essentially
includes knowledge and information of all
disciplines. In this sense, the University is
primarily chartered for research and
information which each of its faculty
unearths and passes on to the younger
generations for the benefit of the
community and the society at large.
5. Need and Scope of Higher
Higher education improves an individual's
quality of life.
A person with higher education has better
dietary and health practices; greater
economic stability and security; more
prestigious employment and greater job
satisfaction; less dependency on government
assistance, greater community service and
leadership, more volunteer work, more self-
confidence, and less criminal activity.
6. Purpose of Higher Education
The Purpose of Higher Education is
a) Supporting and enhancing the process
of economic and social development
b) To enable individuals to achieve
c) To strengthen the micro-management
infra-structure of society,
and to train national 'Managers" of
d) To create specialized expertise like in
agriculture, medicine, nuclear, space,
chemical, and energy fields;
e) To inspire education at different levels;
f) To coordinate at the national level;
g) Human resource development.
8. The Need for Higher Education
Higher education serves as a means for
gaining the skills, training and knowledge
necessary to enter their desired profession.
Preparing oneself for a career isn’t the only
practical benefit of a college education
Not all skills are clearly connected to a career
or statistics, but they can be equally as
important to a well-rounded, fulfilling life.
9. (ii) Broader Practical Benefits
People who seek education beyond high
school are likely to be better off in terms
of economic well-being, physical health
and participation in political and
community affairs. Regardless of what
you study, devoting time to educating
yourself and training your brain beyond
high school comes with many potential
10. Better communication (written
Better communication (written and verbal):
Many higher education programs feature
advanced writing and speaking
assignments; this trains individuals to
express themselves clearly and
communicate more effectively with others.
11. Critical thinking skills:
The ability to think and to think well – to
ask questions, to analyze and to reflect, for
example – is crucial to all areas of life.
Critical thinking skills can be and must be
cultivated through every higher education
12. Greater sense of discipline:
While programs vary, in many higher
education settings, students are given
more responsibility than ever before. They
must take initiative, manage their time
well and remain organized. These skills
can transfer to all other areas of life.
13. Sense of accomplishment:
: The choice to enter and complete a
higher education program is based purely
on a person’s initiative, and the sense of
accomplishment that comes from going
“above and beyond” is something that can
instill you with the confidence to pursue
whatever you desire in life.
14. (iv) Pursuing a Passion
This is perhaps the least-accepted reason,
culturally, to pursue higher education.
However, pursuing our passions is an
extremely important component of a
healthy, well-lived life. We can figure out
ways to apply our passions as we pursue
15. Challenges in Higher Education
Higher education is faced with very severe
challenges in the shape of various
economic, social, political, and moral
changes, and its future depends on the
response made by its people to these
challenges (Rao, 2003).
16. (i) Quantity
Despite the constraints of resources, the
quantitative expansion has been highly
spectacular. The institutions have been
multiplied, the student enrolments
But still our higher education institutions
are for less as compared to demands.
A large number of people remain out of
17. (ii) Equity
Equal opportunities of higher education
are not available to all groups of society.
Many types of discriminations and
disparities exist in access to higher
18. (iii) Quality
Development of society not only depends
upon quantity of goods and services
produced, but also on their quality. “It
again leads to quality of life of the people
and the quality of the society in general”
19. Other Challanges
The condition of higher education in
universities and colleges is not
satisfactory in the eyes of students.
Lack of physical and educational facilities
is bringing much hindrance in the way of
Teachers are less motivated to do
20. Other challanges
The current size of present faculty is very
The courses and curricula are not
designed in accordance with the standard
of higher education of the present day.
Budgeting and Financing is a root to many
21. Challenges of HE in Pakistan
Ineffective governance and management
structures and practices.
Inefficient use of available resources.
Poor recruitment practices and inadequate
development of faculty and staff.
Inadequate attention to research and
support for it
22. Suggestions to meet the
i. Stress is laid on the need for improving
the quality of education at every stage
so that a proper foundation can be laid
for advanced study.
ii. To begin from the top without reforming
the lower stages is against the law of
A multidimensional, flexible, and dynamic
education system, which serves people
according to their ability and aptitude and is
responsive to their economic, social political
and cultural needs.
Higher education institutions must be
responsive to the challenges of the rapidly
changing and challenging new world:
expectation of society and growing demands
of the rising student population.
24. HE Reforms in Pakistan
Transformation of our institutions of
higher education into world class seats of
learning, equipped to foster high quality
education, scholarship and research, to
produce enlightened citizens with strong
moral and ethical values that build a
tolerant and pluralistic society rooted in
the culture of Pakistan.
(Vision of HE in Education Sector Reform
25. HE reforms in Pakistan
In response to recommendations Higher
Education Commission was established.
Access, Quality and Relevance are at the
heart of the efforts being made by HEC
for expansion and development of HE in