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Plant layouts(presentation)

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Plant layouts(presentation)

  1. 1. Plant Layout WORK STUDY METHODOLOGY Presented by, Zaghum chahal Page 1
  2. 2. Lay-out Layout refers to the configuration of departments, work centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the system. Layout decisions are important for three basic reasons: 1. require substantial investments of money and effort; 2. involve long-term commitments, which makes mistakes difficult to overcome; and 3. have a significant impact on the cost and efficiency of operations Page 2
  3. 3. The basic objective of layout design is to facilitate a smooth flow of work, material, and information through the system. Supporting objectives generally involve the following: To facilitate attainment of product or service quality. To use workers and space efficiently. To avoid bottlenecks. To minimize material handling costs. To eliminate unnecessary movements of workers or materials. To minimize production time or customer service time. To design for safety. Page 3
  4. 4. Factors affecting Layout 1. Plant location and building 2. Nature of Product 3. Type of Industry 4. Plant Environment 5. Repairs and Maintenance 6. Management Policy 7. Human Needs 8. Types of machinery and equipment Page 4
  5. 5. General Criteria • Inherent safety. Dangerous processes should not be accessible without authorization. Fire exits should be clearly marked with uninhibited access. Pathways should be clearly defined and not cluttered. • Length of flow. The flow of materials and information should be channeled by the layout to fit best the objectives of the operation. This generally means minimizing the distance travelled by materials. • Clarity of flow. All flow of materials should be clearly signposted, for example using clearly marked routes. • Staff comfort. The layout should provide for a well ventilated, well lit and, where possible, pleasant working environment Page 5
  6. 6. General Criteria • Accessibility. All machines, plant and equipment should be easily accessible for cleaning and maintenance. • Use of space. All layouts should make best use of the total space available (including height as well as floor space). This usually means minimizing the space for a particular process Page 6
  7. 7. Plant Layout • A plant layout study is an engineering study used to analyze different physical configurations for an manufacturing plant. It is also known as Facilities or industrial Layout. Page 7
  8. 8. Plant Lay-out: Types The production process normally determines the type of plant layout to be applied to the facility: • Fixed position plant layout Product stays and resources move to it. • Product oriented plant layout Machinery and Materials are placed following the product path. • Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout). Machinery is placed according to what they do and materials go to them. • Combined Layout Combine aspects of both process and product layouts Page 8
  9. 9. Product oriented plant layout It involves the arrangements of machines in one line, depending upon sequence of operations. This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in a continuous or repetitive way.  Continuous flow : The correct operations flow is reached through the layout design and the equipment and machinery specifications.  Repetitive flow (assembly line): The correct operations flow will be based in a line balancing exercise, in order to avoid problems generated by bottle necks. Page 9
  10. 10. Product Layouts • Product layouts are used to achieve a smooth and rapid flow of large volumes of goods or customers through a system. Page 10
  11. 11. Product Layouts Page 11
  12. 12. Product Layout at Just Born, Inc. • Page 12
  13. 13. Advantages      A high rate of output Low unit cost due to high volume Labor specialization Low material-handling cost per unit A high utilization of labor and equipment Disadvantages      Morale problems and to repetitive stress injuries. Lack of maintaining equipment or quality of output. Inflexible for output or design Highly susceptible to shutdowns A high utilization of labor and equipment Page 13
  14. 14. product oriented plant layout Page 14
  15. 15. • Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout) This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in batches. – Personnel and equipment to perform the same function are allocated in the same area. – The different items have to move from one area to another one, according to the sequence of operations previously established. – The variety of products to produce will lead to a diversity of flows through the facility. Page 15
  16. 16. Process Layouts • Process layouts are designed to process items or provide services that involve a variety of processing requirements. Page 16
  17. 17. Process Layout at Vermont Teddy Bear Company Page 17
  18. 18. Process oriented layout for an hospital • Page 18
  19. 19. Advantages Disadvantages        Handle a variety of processing requirements Not vulnerable to equipment failures General-purpose equipment is less costly and is easier and less costly to maintain Possible to use individual incentive systems   In-process inventory costs can be high Equipment utilization rates are low Material handling is slow and inefficient, and more costly per unit Job complexities reduce the span of supervision and result higher supervisory costs Special attention necessary for each product or customer and low volumes result in higher unit costs Page 19
  20. 20. Fixed-Position Layouts • In fixed-position layouts, the item being worked on remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved about as needed. • Fixed-position layouts are widely used in farming, firefighting, road building, home building, remodeling and repair, and drilling for oil. In each case, compelling reasons bring workers, materials, and equipment to the “product’s” location instead of the other way around. • E.g Ship building, Dam & flyover construction.Aircrafts manufacturing Page 20
  21. 21. Fixed-Position Layouts Page 21
  22. 22. Fixed-Position Layouts • Page 22
  23. 23. Fixed position layout • Page 23
  24. 24. Advantages Disadvantages   •   Saves time and cost in movement Flexible as changes in job design can be easily incorporated More economical when several orders in different stages are executed Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers. • • Production period being very long, capital investment is quite heavy Very large space is required for storage of materials and equipment As several operations are carried simultaneously, possibility of confusion and conflicts are high Page 24
  25. 25. Combination Layouts • In many manufacturing units, several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout is followed. • E.g. Soap industry, all inputs are almost manufactured in separate units vise glycerin, water treatment, fragrance etc. Page 25
  26. 26. Combination Layouts e.g. soaps Page 26
  27. 27. Combination Layouts • Ssupermarket Layouts are essentially process layouts, most use fixedpath material-handling devices such as roller-type conveyors in the stockroom and belt-type conveyors at the cash registers. • Hospitals also use the basic process arrangement, although frequently patient care involves more of a fixed-position approach, in which nurses, doctors, medicines, and special equipment are brought to the patient. Cellular manufacturing - Group technology • Cellular manufacturing is a type of layout where machines are grouped according to the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. These groups are called cells. • Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as group technology (GT) Page 27
  28. 28. Cellular Layout Page 28
  29. 29. Advantages • Reduced materials handling cost. • Shorter flow times in production. • Simplified production planning (meterials&labour) • Increased operators responsibilities. • Improved visual control & fewer tooling changes, therefore facilitating quicker set ups. • .Quality also tends to improve Page 29
  30. 30. Dis-advantage Reduced manufacturing flexibility &potentially increased machine- down time Page 30
  31. 31. Benefits • A well designed plant layout is one that can be beneficial in achieving the following objectives: • Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space • ·Transportation of work from one point to another point without any delay • ·Proper utilization of production capacity. • Reduce material handling costs • ·Utilize labour efficiently • · Reduce accidents Page 31
  32. 32. Benefits • Provide for volume and product flexibility • Provide ease of supervision and control • Provide for employee safety and health • Allow easy maintenance of machines and plant. • Improve productivity Page 32
  33. 33. Page 33